Agra: 18 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Agra means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Agra (अग्र).—The original Samhita text as opposed to pratṛṇna (प्रतृण्ण (pratṛṇṇa)) or padapāṭha, (पदपाठ (padapāṭha)) which is the recital of separate words.

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wikibooks (hi): Sanskrit Technical Terms

Agrā (अग्रा).—Amplitude at rising i.e., the arc of the celestial horizon lying between the east point where the heavenly body concerned rises; or the R sine thereof (sometimes called agrājyā), which is equal to the distance between the east-west line and the rising-setting of the heavenly body concerned. Note: Agrā is a Sanskrit technical term used in ancient Indian sciences such as Astronomy, Mathematics and Geometry.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India

Agra (अग्र) refers to “tips” (part of a plant) and represents a type of vegetable (śāka) according to the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana), and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—Śāka-prakaraṇa deals with all types of vegetables. Here vegetables are classified into different plant parts [like tips (agra), etc.]. Each of these classification have so many varieties. This prakaraṇa is devoted to explain these varieties and their properties in detail.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Agra (अग्र) is the name of a Nāga-king (nāgarāja) according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XVI). Accordingly, “there were two Nāga-kings (nāgarāja) at Mo k’ie t’o (Magadha): the first was called Ki li (Giri) and the second A k’ie lo (Agra). They brought the rain at the proper time and the country did not experience the years of famine. The people were grateful to them and regularly, in the second month of spring (caitra), they went in a crowd to the nāgas to hold a great festival (mahāsamāja): they played music (vādya) and palavered the whole day. From early times up until today, this assembly was never missed and to this reunion was given the same name as that of the Nāgas [namely, giryagrasamāja]”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Buddhism

Agra refers to one of the places visited by Dharmapāla during his tour of North India. Anāgārika Dharmapāla (born 1864) was a Ceylonese Buddhist who travelled across India and beyond, spreading Buddhism. According to Bhikkhu Sangharakshita in his Biographical Sketc, “he travelled as a pilgrim, not caring at all for comforts, mixing with the sanyasins, ascetics, Hindu pilgrims, and with passengers of the third and intermediate classes, eating at times the poorest food, sleeping at times in places where the poor sleep and gaining an insight into the characteristics of the poor classes, who are suffering from intense ignorance, superstition and poverty”.

India history and geogprahy

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Agra.—(EI 24), same as agra-bhāga; the king's share. (CII 1), cf. anyatra agreṇa parākrameṇa, ‘without a great effort’. Note: agra is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

agra (अग्र).—n (S) The point, tip, nib, extreme end: also the top, summit, peak. 2 The fore part or front. 3 In astronomy. The sun's amplitude. 4 In comp. Fore, front, anterior: also chief, principal, prior.

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agrā (अग्रा).—f S Amplitude (of a heavenly body).

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

agra (अग्र).—n The top. The point. The front. (in comp.) Fore; chief.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Agra (अग्र).—a. [aṅg-ran nalopaḥ Uṇ.2.28]

1) First, foremost, chief, best, prominent, principal, pre-eminent; °महिषी (mahiṣī) chief queen; °वातमासेवमाना (vātamāsevamānā) M.1. front (and hence, fresh) breeze; °आसनम् (āsanam) chief seat, seat of honour; माम- ग्रासनतोऽवकृष्टमवशं ये दृष्टवन्तः पुरा (māma- grāsanato'vakṛṣṭamavaśaṃ ye dṛṣṭavantaḥ purā) Mu.1.12.

2) Excessive, over and above, surplus; supernumerary, projecting (adhika).

-graḥ Setting mountain; अग्रसानुषु नितान्तपिशङ्गैः (agrasānuṣu nitāntapiśaṅgaiḥ) Ki.9.7.

-gram 1 (a) The foremost or topmost point, tip, point (opp. mūlam, madhyam); (fig.) sharpness, keenness; धर्मस्य ब्राह्मणो मूलम् मग्रं राजन्य उच्यते (dharmasya brāhmaṇo mūlam magraṃ rājanya ucyate) Ms.11.83; दर्व्याम् अग्रं मूलम् मध्यम् (darvyām agraṃ mūlam madhyam) &c.; नासिका° (nāsikā°) tip of the nose; सूचि° (sūci°) &c.; समस्ता एव विद्या जिह्वाग्रेऽभवन् (samastā eva vidyā jihvāgre'bhavan) K.346 stood on the tip of the tongue; अमुष्य विद्या रसनाग्रनर्तकी (amuṣya vidyā rasanāgranartakī) N.1.5. (b) Top, summit, surface; कैलास°, पर्वत° (kailāsa°, parvata°), &c.

2) Front, van; अग्रे कृ (agre kṛ) put in the front or at the head; तामग्रे कृत्वा (tāmagre kṛtvā) Pt.4. See अग्रे (agre).

3) The best of any kind; स्यन्दनाग्रेण (syandanāgreṇa) with the best of chariots; प्रासादाग्रैः (prāsādāgraiḥ) Rām.

4) Superiority, excellence (utkarṣa); अग्रादग्रं रोहति (agrādagraṃ rohati) Tāṇḍya.

5) Goal, aim, resting place (ālambanam); मनुमेकाग्रमासीनम् (manumekāgramāsīnam) Ms.1.1, See °भूमि (bhūmi) also.

6) Beginning, See अग्रे (agre).

7) A multitude, assemblage.

8) Overplus, excess, surplus; साग्रं स्त्रीसहस्रम् (sāgraṃ strīsahasram) Rām. 1 women and more; so साग्रकोटी च रक्षसाम् (sāgrakoṭī ca rakṣasām).

9) A weight = पल (pala) q. v.

1) A measure of food given as alms (brāhmaṇabhojanam occurring in agrahāra); प्रयतो ब्राह्मणाग्रे यः श्रद्धया परया युतः (prayato brāhmaṇāgre yaḥ śraddhayā parayā yutaḥ) | Mb.13.65.13.

11) (Astr.) Amplitude of the sun (°grā, agrakā also). cf. ...अग्रमालम्बनेऽधिके । पुरोपरिप्रान्ताद्येषु न पुंसि प्रमिताशने (agramālambane'dhike | puropariprāntādyeṣu na puṃsi pramitāśane) | Nm.

12) Forepart of time; नैवेह किंचनाग्र आसीत् (naiveha kiṃcanāgra āsīt) Bṛ. Up.1.2.1. In compounds as first member meaning 'the forepart', 'front', 'tip' &c.; e. g. °अक्चयः (akcayaḥ) First procurement (cf. Daṇḍaviveka G. O. S.52, p.43). °पादः -चरणः (pādaḥ -caraṇaḥ) the forepart of the foot, toe; so °हस्तः, °करः, °पाणिः (hastaḥ, °karaḥ, °pāṇiḥ) &c.; °सरोरूहम् (sarorūham) the topmost lotus. पद्मानि यस्याग्रसरोरुहाणि (padmāni yasyāgrasaroruhāṇi) Ku.1.16. °कर्णम् (karṇam) Tip-ear; top of the ear; Mātaṅga L.5.7. °कायः (kāyaḥ) forepart of the body; so °नखम्, °नासिका (nakham, °nāsikā) tip of the nail, nose &c., -adv. In front, before, ahead.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Agra (अग्र).—(1) adj. (in Sanskrit only Lex.; replaces Sanskrit agrya; = Pali agga), first, chief, prime, foremost, best: Mahāvyutpatti 2521; ye brāhmavimāna agrās Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 190.16 (verse); sūtram agram 385.2 (verse); lokasyāgro Lalitavistara 162.2, best of the world; dhyāyina agrā 169.5 (verse); jñānaṃ cāgraṃ 371.14; agraṃ ca… ojaḥ 387.1; bhavān ihāgras tribhave 398.21; agro prajñāye Mahāvastu i.44.9, first in wisdom; 113.6 (food); 248.17, 18; ii.208.13; 259.9; iii.63.17—18; Divyāvadāna 61.29; 349.14; 385.8; Śikṣāsamuccaya 129.4; 311.14 f.; Bodhisattvabhūmi 94.17; etc., common. As prior member of cpds.: agra-gaṇikā, leading harlot Mahāvastu iii.35.17 ff.; agra- pudgala, foremost person, a Buddha, Mahāvastu i.47.2 (mss. mostly °puṅgala); agrapura, leading city, Mahāvastu i.4.6; agrabala, having prime powers Divyāvadāna 99.20; agrabalin, Mūla-Sarvāstivāda-Vinaya ii.78.4; agraśrāvakā, leading disciples, Mahāvastu i.307.4; others, see the following entries; also (like vara) at the end of cpds. in same sense, see rasāgra; (2) nt. of the preceding used as substantive: (a) the best of its class, used particularly as predicate to ākhyāyate (°ti), with a personal subject (so in Pali, tathāgato tesam aggaṃ akkhāyati, Critical Pali Dictionary s.v. akkhāyati): (sā…) agram ākhyāyati Mahāvastu iii.390.6; samyaksaṃbuddhas teṣām agram ākhyātaḥ Avadāna-śataka i.50.1 (so ms.; Speyer em. agra(ḥ); to be sure agra(ḥ) is printed in the text of the same phrase, without report of v.l., in Avadāna-śataka i.329.16, but Mahāvastu and Pali support agram of ms. in [Page005-a+ 71] i.50.1); (b) first-class gift, as if for agra-dāna (compare Pali agga-dāna and Critical Pali Dictionary s.v. agga 2, c), agraṃ abhiharāmi te Mahāvastu iii.211.10; the same verse in Pali Dīghanikāya (Pali) ii.240.17 has aggha twice in text but v.l. once agga, and compare Jātaka (Pali) v. 377.19 aggaṃ in same sense.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Agra (अग्र).—mfn.

(-graḥ-grā-graṃ) 1. Chief, principal. E. Prior, first. 2. Excessive, more, much. 4. Excellent, best. n.

(-graṃ) 1. Front, fore part. 2. Top, summit, upper part. 3. End, point. 4. Goal, resting place. 5. Assemblage, multitude. 6. A weight equal to one Pala. 7. Limited alms, (four mouthfuls.) 8. (In astronomy) the sun’s amplitude. E. agi to go, and the Unadi aff. ran, the nasal of the derivative is dropped.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Agra (अग्र).—. I. adj. First, [Meghadūta, (ed. Gildemeister.)] 4. Ii. n. 1. Point, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 167. 2. Summit, top. 3. Forepart, front. 4. Beginning, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 161. 5. The first, or best. Iii. acc. sing. agram, adv. Before, diṣṭyāsi me Rāghava cakṣuṣo 'graṃ prāptaḥ, ‘fortunately, O descendant of Raghu, are you come before my eyes.’ [Rāmāyaṇa] 6, 36, 72. Iv. loc. sing. agre. 1. Before. 2. First; with abl. Sooner, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 3, 114. 3. Forward, [Pañcatantra] 245. 13.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Agra (अग्र).—[neuter] front, top, summit, tip, point, upper part, surface; outbreak, beginning; the highest or best of anything.

agram in front or in presence of, ([genetive] or —°); agre the same + from (to = ā), before ([ablative]); [absolutely] at first, in the beginning; [with] bhū precede.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Agra (अग्र):—mfn. ([from] √aṅg, [Uṇādi-sūtra]), foremost, anterior, first, prominent, projecting, chief, best, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

2) supernumerary, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

3) Agrā (अग्रा):—[from agra] f. ([scilicet] rekhā) measure of amplitude (id est. the distance from the extremity of the gnomon-shadow to the line of the equinoctial shadow), [Sūryasiddhānta]

4) Agra (अग्र):—n. foremost point or part

5) tip

6) front

7) uppermost part, top, summit, surface

8) point

9) and hence, figuratively, sharpness

10) the nearest end, the beginning

11) the climax or best part

12) goal, aim

13) multitude, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

14) a weight, equal to a pala, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

15) a measure of food given as alms, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

16) (in [astronomy]) the sun’s amplitude

17) n. (also) rest, remainder, [Līlāvatī of bhāskara]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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