Vivaha, Vivāha: 21 definitions

Introduction

Vivaha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Shodhganga: Facts of society in the Manusamhita

Vivāha (विवाह) or “marriage” is the most important of all saṃskāras  Through this saṃskāra, one, who has completed the sacrificial bath (samāvartanasnāna), or brahmacaryāśrama, enters into the gārthasthāśrama. This is the most important saṃskāra for men of the twice born classes (dvija). This is the only Vedic sacrament meant for women. It is to be noted that this sacrament is also performed by śūdras without using Vedic mantras.

From the Vedic period marriage is familiar in the s ociety. According to the Ṛgveda, the purpose of marriage, is to enable a man, by b ecoming householder, to perform sacrifices to the gods and procreate sons. The husband accepts a woman as a wife for gārhapatya.

The Manusaṃhitā recognizes eight types of marriage. These are

  1. Brāhma,
  2. Daiva,
  3. Ārṣa,
  4. Prājāpatya,
  5. Āsura,
  6. Gāndharva,
  7. Rākṣasa
  8. and Paiśāca.
Dharmashastra book cover
context information

Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Vivāha (विवाह) refers to “marriage” which was proclaimed as a “great bondage” (parabandhana) by Śiva as he was “engaged in Yoga” (yogalagna), according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.16. Accordingly as Brahmā narrated to Nārada:—“[...] On hearing these words of mine—of Brahmā—in the presence of Viṣṇu, Śiva, the lord of worlds spoke to me with his face beaming with a smile: [...] Even as I am engaged in Yoga, I experience the mystic bliss. Only a man devoid of perfect knowledge will make much of marriage (vivāha) and desire it. Actually it is a great bondage (parabandhana). Hence I am not interested in it. This is truth. I am telling you the truth”.

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Vivaha (विवह).—An air (wind) which blows very speedily. This wind will be transformed to a fierce storm which will cause havoc everywhere. At the time of the great flood this Vivaha will blow away the cloud called Valāhaka in consequence of which destruction and devastation will become rampant on earth. (M.B, Śānti Parva, Chapter 328).

2) Vivāha (विवाह).—(marriage) General information. In ancient India marriage was considered to be a sacrifice performed in accordance with social customs. Marriage was allowed to those who had completed education at the age of sixteen. (Samāvartana). Father or teacher teaches the pupil the Vedas and Vedāṅgas. When the education is completed the teacher or father makes him sit on a seat decorated with flowers, sandalwood etc. and do Godānavrata. Then he is offered Pañcāmṛta (milk, curd, butter, honey and water). This is called Samāvartana. With this his brahmacarya ends, and he is allowed to marry and lead the life of a house-holder.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1) Vivaha (विवह).—The chief of the fifth Vātaskandha, situated between the Nakṣatras (Ṛkṣa, Vāyu-purāṇa) and the planets;1 one of the seven Maruts.2

  • 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 5. 86; Vāyu-purāṇa 67. 118.
  • 2) Matsya-purāṇa 163. 32.

2a) Vivāha (विवाह).—One of the four sons in the 30th Kalpa of Śarva, red in colour, attire, etc.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 22. 30.

2b) Eight-fold: Brāhma, Daiva, Ārṣa, Prājāpatya, Āsura, Saindhava, Rākṣasa, and Paiśāca;1 Kṛṣṇa married Rukmiṇī by the Rākṣasa form;2 the marriage day fit for merudāna: gṛhabali recommended in.3

  • 1) Viṣṇu-purāṇa III. 10. 24;
  • 2) Ib. V. 26. 11.
  • 3) Matsya-purāṇa 83. 8; 93. 83.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: JSTOR: Tāntric Dīkṣā by Surya Kanta

Vivāha (विवाह) refers to one of the eleven saṃskāras (purificatory rites of fire) forming part of preliminary rites before Dīkṣā: an important ritual of Śāktism described in the Śāradātilaka-tantra, chapters III-V.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva (shilpa)

Vivāha (विवाह) or Vivāhamūrti refers to one of the eighteen forms (mūrti) of Śiva mentioned in the Kāraṇāgama (pratimālakṣaṇavidhi-paṭala): the fourth among the Siddhāntaśaivāgamas. The forms of Śiva (eg., Vivāha) are established through a process known as Sādākhya, described as a five-fold process of creation.

Shilpashastra book cover
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Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Arthashastra (politics and welfare)

Source: Knowledge Traditions & Practices of India: Society State and Polity: A Survey

Vivaha (विवह, “marriage”) refers to one of the sixteen saṃskāras, or “ceremonies” accompanying the individual during the Gṛhastha (householder) stage of the Āśrama way of life. These ceremonies (eg., vivaha-saṃskāra) are community affairs and at each ceremony relations and friends gather for community eating.

Arthashastra book cover
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Arthashastra (अर्थशास्त्र, arthaśāstra) literature concerns itself with the teachings (shastra) of economic prosperity (artha) statecraft, politics and military tactics. The term arthashastra refers to both the name of these scientific teachings, as well as the name of a Sanskrit work included in such literature. This book was written (3rd century BCE) by by Kautilya, who flourished in the 4th century BCE.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: archive.org: Sardhatrisatikalottaragama

Vivāha (विवाह) refers to the “marriage ceremony”, which is mentioned as one of the fire-rituals related to the kuṇḍa (“fire-pit”), according to the various Āgamas and related literature. Vivāha is mentioned in the Vīra-āgama (chapter 41) and the Makuṭa-āgama (chapter 6).

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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In Buddhism

General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Buddhism

Vivāha (विवाह) is the twenty-second of sixty digits (decimal place) in an special enumeration system mentioned by Vasubandhu in his Abhidharmakośa (“treasury of knowledge”). The explanations of the measure of years, eons, and so forth must be comprehended through calculation based on a numerical system. Enumeration begins from one and increases by a factor of ten for each shift in decimal place. The sixtieth number in this series is called “countless”.

Among these decimal positions (eg., vivāha), the first nine positions from one to one hundred million are called ‘single set enumeration’. From a billion up to, but not including countless is “the enumeration of the great companion” and is called the ‘recurring enumeration’.

India history and geogprahy

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Vivāha.—(EI 12), ‘one whose vehicle is the bird’; i. e. Viṣṇu. Note: vivāha is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

--- OR ---

Vivāha.—(CII 1), marriage of a daughter; cf. āvāha which means the marriage of a son. Note: vivāha is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

vivāha : (m.) marriage.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Vivāha, (fr. vi+vah) “carrying or sending away, ” i.e. marriage, wedding D. I, 99; Sn. p. 105; PvA. 144; SnA 448 (where distinction āvāha=kaññā-gahaṇaṃ, vivāha= kaññā-dānaṃ).—As nt. at Vin. III, 135. Cp. āvāha & vevāhika. (Page 638)

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

vivāha (विवाह).—m (S) Matrimony or wedlock. Eight forms or modes are reckoned. See under aṣṭauvivāha.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

vivāha (विवाह).—m Marriage, matrimony or wedlock.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Vivaha (विवह).—Name of one of the seven tongues of fire.

Derivable forms: vivahaḥ (विवहः).

--- OR ---

Vivāha (विवाह).—Marriage; (Hindu lawgivers enumerate eight forms of marriage; brāhmo daivastathaivārṣaḥ prājāpatyastathā''suraḥ | gāṃdharvo rākṣasaścaiva paiśācaścāṣṭamo'dhamaḥ || Ms.3.21; see Y.1. 58-61 also; for explanation of these forms see s. v.).

Derivable forms: vivāhaḥ (विवाहः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Vivāha (विवाह).—(1) m. (= Pali id., see PTSD s.v.), giving in marriage, see s.v. āvāha; (2) m. or nt., a moderately high number, commonly about 100 akṣobhya (so LV): m., always in Mvy, 7722; 7848 (cited from Gv); 7960 (cited from LV); 8010; Sukh 31.1; Mmk 343.17 (read vi-vāhas); nt., LV 148.1; Gv 133.6 (105.24 gen. °hasya); Mmk 262.14.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vivaha (विवह).—m.

(-haḥ) One of the seven tongues of fire.

--- OR ---

Vivāha (विवाह).—m.

(-haḥ) Marriage; eight recognized forms of marriage are enumerated by Hindu law-givers, viz:— “brāhmo daivastathaivārṣaḥ prājāpatyastathāsuraḥ . gāndharvo rākṣasaścaiva paiśācaścāṣṭamo'dhamaḥ ..” E. vi mutually, vah to take, aff. ghañ .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Vivaha (विवह):—[=vi-vaha] [from vi-vah] m. ‘carrying away’, Name of one of the seven winds, [Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa]

2) [v.s. ...] of one of the seven tongues of fire, [Colebrooke]

3) Vivāha (विवाह):—[=vi-vāha] [from vi-vah] m. leading away (of the bride from her father’s house), taking a wife, marriage with ([instrumental case] with or without saha), [Atharva-veda]; etc. (eight kinds of marriage are enumerated in [Manu-smṛti iii, 21], viz. Brāhma, Daiva, Ārṣa, Prājāpatya, Āsura, Gāndharva, Rākṣasa, and Paiśāca; cf. [Yājñavalkya i, 58-61] and, [Indian Wisdom, by Sir M. Monier-Williams 190 etc.])

4) [v.s. ...] a [particular] wind, [Śakuntalā [Scholiast or Commentator]] ([probably] [wrong reading] for vi-vaha)

5) [v.s. ...] a vehicle (and ‘marriage’), [Aitareya-brāhmaṇa vii, 13]

6) [v.s. ...] n. a [particular] high number, [Buddhist literature]

7) Vīvāha (वीवाह):—[=vī-vāha] m. = vi-vāha, taking a wife, marriage (‘with’, saha), [Hemacandra’s Pariśiṣṭaparvan; Pañcadaṇḍacchattra-prabandha]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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