Viraj, Virāj, Vi-raj: 11 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Viraj means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Virāj (विराज्).—(Virāṭ-Puruṣa)—the form of the Lord during the period of creation, just emerged from Aṇḍa.1 To rouse him to activity gods were created; but he was not roused until the Kṣetrajña along with citta entered the heart and roused the Puruṣa from waters;2 is Hari who is described as MahāPuruṣa;3 son of Nara;4 Antarikṣa so called.5

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa II. 1. 25; III. 6. 6-34; 7. 22-25; 26. 51.
  • 2) Ib. III. 36. 54-70; X. 3. 15; XI. 3. 11-12; 17. 13.
  • 3) Ib. XII. 11. 5-26.
  • 4) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 14. 68.
  • 5) Ib. II. 16. 17; III. 43. 9.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Google Books: The Hidden Lives of Brahman

Both the term “Virāj” (“Forth-Shining”) and the cosmic egg are referenced in other vedic creation stories, though neither is mentioned in BU 1.2. Virāj appears originally in another key ṛg-vedic hymn (RV 10.90), used to describe the secondary emanation from the divine person whose dismemberment resulted in the creation of the world. Thus the “Forth-Shining” of Virāj designates the division of primordial unity into parts, including a divine body with organs such as the prāṇas enumerated in BU 1.3. The division of the egg formed by the primordial golden-wombed being into earth and sky is mentioned in RV 10.121 and its parallels.

Source: Google Books: Goddessess in Ancient India

In VS XIII. 43, Aditi is called Virāj, the cow which should not be injured. It occurs throughout the Vedic texts as the name of a dominant spirit, often playing the role of a great goddess, and occasionally also as a male or sexless entity. The later part of the Ṛgveda (X. 90. 5) knows Virāj as the ‘ruling principle’, next only to the cosmic Puruṣa. This aspect was further elaborated and Virāj at places has been identified with Prajāpati, with Agnim Yajña, or called Prajāpati’s creation, or the ‘father of Brahman’.

But the identity of Virāj with the principle of motherhood is largely expressed in the Atharvaveda and connected texts. Her glorification forms the subject of several passages in this Veda. Regarding her real character, a number of questions are asked to be answered in a purposeful discussion. In oprigin, the name appears to be a mere abstraction, at first speculatively evolved as the counterpart of Puruṣa; presumably personifying his ‘ruling authority’, and also ‘universal extension’.

In the capacity of a goddess, she is regarded as the daughter of Prajāpati, or Agni, or Puruṣa, and coeval in status with Aditi and even identified with her. She is lauded as the great mother cow; elsewhere the Cow of Plenty, who from the description appears none other than the universal nature herself:

‘Indra was her calf, Gāyatrī her rope, and clouds her udder; her four teats were Rathantara, Bṛhat, Yajñāyajñīya and Vāmadevya. The gods milked from her the Plants, all the wide expanses, the Waters and the Sacrifice.’

It is said that she is killed and has her birth again at the end of a year, a month, a fortnight and every day, as she approaches the Plants, the Fathers, the Gods and Men respectively. She herself is the breathless existence but moves by the breath of living creatures. That Virāj who touches, takes form of all existence—some see her, some see her not. So it is proclaimed:

‘who has perceived Virāj’s duplication (or pairing), who her seasons and who her ordering? (And who knows) her steps, how many times milked out, who her abode and number of her dawnings?’

As if answering to these enigmas, the identity of Virāj is revealed celebrating her as the infinite nature and the mighty creatrix:

‘This same is she that first shone forth; having entered other beings she moves about; exalted powers are within her; the lady, the generatrix, who comes anew has prevailed.’

Source: Oxford Reference: A Dictionary of Hinduism

In the Veda, the first offspring of Brahmā, variously characterized as either male or female. Virāj often has a creative function; in the Puruṣasūkta, puruṣa is born from her, and she is born from puruṣa. She is also identified with Prajāpati, and in Puraṇic times with Viṣṇu or Kṛṣṇa.

Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Virāj (विराज्).—1 U.

1) To shine, glitter; शाखिनोऽन्ये विराजन्ते खण्ड्यन्ते चन्दनद्रुमाः (śākhino'nye virājante khaṇḍyante candanadrumāḥ) Bv.1.88.

2) To appear or look like; तदन्तरे सा विरराज धेनुः (tadantare sā virarāja dhenuḥ) R 2.2.

3) To be eminent or illustrious. -Caus. To brighten, illuminate, irradiate.

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Virāj (विराज्).—a.

1) Splendid, excellent; मृत्युर्भोजपतेर्विराडविदुषां तत्त्वं परं योगिनाम् (mṛtyurbhojapatervirāḍaviduṣāṃ tattvaṃ paraṃ yoginām) Bhāg.1.43.17.

2) A ruler, chief. -m.

1) Beauty, splendour.

2) A man of the Kṣatriya or warrior tribe; विराडायुषोऽर्घमथात्यगात् (virāḍāyuṣo'rghamathātyagāt) Bhāg.4.27.6.

3) The first progeny of Brahman; cf. Ms.1.32; तस्मात् विराडजायत (tasmāt virāḍajāyata) Ṛv.1.9.5 (where virāj is represented as born from Puruṣa.)

4) The body.

5) (In Vedānta phil.) Name of 'intellect' considered as ruling over the aggregate of bodies.

6) The universe (brahmāṇḍa); नानावीर्याः पृथग्भूता विराजं जनयन्ति हि (nānāvīryāḥ pṛthagbhūtā virājaṃ janayanti hi) Bhāg.1.3.15. f.

1) Name of a Vedic metre.

2) Excellence, dignity.

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Virāj (विराज्).—king of birds, eagle; अथ तार्क्ष्यसुतो ज्ञात्वा विराट्प्रभुचिकीर्षितम् (atha tārkṣyasuto jñātvā virāṭprabhucikīrṣitam) Bhāg.8.21.26.

Virāj is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms vi and rāj (राज्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Virāj (विराज्).—[vi-rāj], m. 1. Splendour. 2. A man of the military class. 3. The name of the first progeny of Brahman, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 1, 32; 3, 195. 4. The consciousness which perceives collections or aggregates, [Vedāntasāra, (in my Chrestomathy.)] in Chr. 209, 11.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Virāj (विराज्).—[adjective] shining, radiant, ruling; [masculine] [feminine] ruler, sovereign; [feminine] high rank, distinction, (also [masculine]) [Name] of a myth. being, the first progeny of Brahman, (ph.) the Intellect ruling over the collective aggregate of bodies, (only f) [Name] of [several] metres.

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Viraj (विरज्).—lose colour, become cold or indifferent towards ([ablative] or [locative]).

Viraj is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms vi and raj (रज्).

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Virāj (विराज्).—= [Simple] +excel, surpass ([ablative]).

Virāj is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms vi and rāj (राज्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Virāj (विराज्):—[=vi-rāj] [from vi] 1. vi-rāj m. (for 2. See sub voce) king of birds, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

2) [=vi-√rāj] a [Parasmaipada] [Ātmanepada] -rājati, te, to reign, rule, govern, master ([genitive case] or [accusative]), excel ([ablative]), [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda; Brāhmaṇa];

2) —to be illustrious or eminent, shine forth, shine out ([ablative]), glitter, [Chāndogya-upaniṣad; Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.;

2) —to appear as ([nominative case]), [Mahābhārata] :—[Causal] -rājayati, (rarely te) cause to shine forth, give radiance or lustre, brighten, illuminate, [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa etc.]

3) [v.s. ...] 2. vi-rāj mfn. (for 1. See p. 949, col. 3) ruling far and wide, sovereign, excellent, splendid, [Ṛg-veda]

4) [v.s. ...] mfn. a ruler, chief. king or queen (applied to Agni, Sarasvatī, the Sun etc.), [ib.; Atharva-veda; Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā; Brāhmaṇa; Mahābhārata]

5) [v.s. ...] f. excellence, pre-eminence, high rank, dignity, majesty, [Taittirīya-saṃhitā; Brāhmaṇa; ???]

6) [v.s. ...] mf. the first progeny of Brahmā (according to, [Manu-smṛti i, 32 etc.], Brahmā having divided his own substance into male and female, produced from the female the male power Virāj, who then produced the first Manu or Manu Svāyambhuva, who then created the ten Prajā-patis; the [Bhāgavata-purāṇa] states that the male half of Brahmā was Manu, and the other half Śata-rūpā, and does not allude to the intervention of Virāj; other Purāṇas describe the union of Śata-rūpā with Virāj or Puruṣa in the first instance, and with Manu in the second; Virāj as a sort of secondary creator, is sometimes identified with Prajā-pati, Brahmā, Agni, Puruṣa, and later with Viṣṇu or Kṛṣṇa, while in [Ṛg-veda x, 90], he is represented as born from Puruṣa, and Puruṣa from him; in the [Atharva-veda viii, 10, 24; xi, 8, 30], Virāj is spoken of as a female, and regarded as a cow; being elsewhere, however, identified with Prāṇa), [Indian Wisdom, by Sir M. Monier-Williams 22 etc.]

7) [v.s. ...] m. (in Vedānta) Name of the Supreme Intellect located in a supposed aggregate of gross bodies (= vaiśvānara, q. v.), Vedāntas.

8) [v.s. ...] a warrior (= kṣatriya), [Mahābhārata; Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

9) [v.s. ...] the body, [Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary]

10) [v.s. ...] a [particular] Ekāha, [Pañcaviṃśa-brāhmaṇa; Vaitāna-sūtra]

11) [v.s. ...] Name of a son of Priya-vrata and Kāmyā, [Harivaṃśa]

12) [v.s. ...] of a son of Nara, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

13) [v.s. ...] of Buddha, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

14) [v.s. ...] of a son of Rādhā, [Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary]

15) [v.s. ...] of a district, [ib.]

16) [v.s. ...] f. a particular Vedic metre consisting of four Pādas of ten syllables each (and therefore also a symbolical Name of the number ‘ten’; in [Ṛg-veda x, 130, 5] this metre is represented as attaching itself to Mitra and Varuṇa, and in [Aitareya-brāhmaṇa i, 4] Virāj is mystically regarded as ‘food’, and invocations are directed to be made in this metre when food is the especial object of prayer; in prosody Virāj is applied to any metre defective by two syllables, [Ṛgveda-prātiśākhya])

17) [v.s. ...] f. [plural] Name of [particular] bricks (40 in number), [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Virāj (विराज्):—[vi-rāj] (ṭ) 1. m. Splendour; beauty; progeny of Brahmā; a man of the regal or military class.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Virāj (विराज्) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Virāya.

[Sanskrit to German]

Viraj in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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