Vaitarani, aka: Vaitaraṇī, Vaitaraṇi; 9 Definition(s)
Vaitarani means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)
Vaitaraṇī (वैतरणी).—Name of a river originating from Vindhya, a holy mountain (kulaparvata) in Bhārata, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 85. There are settlements (janapada) where Āryas and Mlecchas dwell who drink water from these rivers.
Bhārata is a region south of Hemādri, once ruled over by Bharata (son of Ṛṣabha), whose ancestral lineage can be traced back to Svāyambhuva Manu, who was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being.
The Varāhapurāṇa is categorised as a Mahāpurāṇa, and was originally composed of 24,000 metrical verses, possibly originating from before the 10th century. It is composed of two parts and Sūta is the main narrator.Source: Wisdom Library: Varāha-purāṇa
1) Vaitaraṇī (वैतरणी).—A hell. (See under Kāla, the Section Naraka).
2) Vaitaraṇī (वैतरणी).—The name of river Ganges when it flows through the world of the Manes. (Mahābhārata Ādi Parva, Chapter 169, Stanza 22).
3) Vaitaraṇī (वैतरणी).—A river. The prominence of this river is given below:
(i) This river stays in the court of Varuṇa and glorifies him. (Mahābhārata, Sabhā Parva, Chapter 9, Stanza 20).
(ii) This river gives remission of sins. There is a spot called Virajatīrtha, in this river. He who bathes in this holy place would shine like the moon. (Mahābhārata Vana Parva, Chapter 85, Stanza 6).Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia
1a) Vaitaraṇī (वैतरणी).—(Vaitaraṇam) one of twenty-eight hells. Intended for the mad, and for those fallen from character and conduct, those that spoil makha or devastate villages.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 26. 7; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 28. 83; IV. 2. 149-171; Matsya-purāṇa 141. 69; Vāyu-purāṇa 56. 78; 101. 148, 169; Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 6. 3 and 24.
1b) A river in hell. For transgressing law and convention one gets drowned in this river of refuse and urine, etc.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa II. 2. 7; V. 26. 22; VII. 9. 43.
- 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 16. 33; III. 13. 103; Matsya-purāṇa 114. 27; Vāyu-purāṇa 45. 102; 77. 95.
- 2) Vāyu-purāṇa 105. 44; 108. 80; 109. 17; 112. 26.
Vaitaraṇī (वैतरणी) refers to the name of a River or Tīrtha (pilgrim’s destination) mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. III.81.70, III.83.6, III.114.4, III.114.13, VI.10.33). Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Vaitaraṇī) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)
Vaitaraṇī (वैतरणी) refers to one of the thirty hells (naraka) mentioned in the Devī-bhāgavata-purāṇa 8.21 (on the narrative of hells). The hells are destinations where dead beings brought by messengers of Yama (the God of the Pitṛs), and get punished by him according to their karmas and faults.
The Devī-bhāgavata-purāṇa or Śrīmad-devī-bhāgavatam (mentioning Vaitaraṇī), is categorised as a Mahāpurāṇa, a type of Sanskrit literature containing cultural information on ancient India, religious/spiritual prescriptions and a range of topics concerning the various arts and sciences. The whole text is composed of 18,000 metrical verses, possibly originating from before the 6th century.Source: Wisdom Library: Śrīmad Devī Bhāgavatam
Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.
Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)
1) Vaitaraṇī (वैतरणी) or Khārodakā refers to the “salt river” and represents one of the four utsadas of the Avīci hell according to the “world of transmigration” section in the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XXVII).—Accordingly, “the damned enter the salt river [Khārodakā-nadī or Vaitaraṇī], which they enter and are swept downstream. When they emerge, they tread on a ground of burning iron. Walking on iron spines (ayaḥkhaṇṭaka) and sitting on iron spikes (ayaḥstambha) that enter them from behind. The guardians open their mouths with pliers and pour in molten copper; they make them swallow flaming balls of iron; these balls enter and burn their mouth (mukha), penetrate into and burn the throat (kaṇṭha); they penetrate into and burn the belly; the five viscera (read tsang, 130 and 18) having been burned, they fall to the ground”.
2) Vaitaraṇī (वैतरणी) refers to the “forest of iron spines” and is one of the “eight hells of fire and flame” forming part of the sixteen utsadas (secondary hells) sitauted outside of the eight great hells, according to the “world of transmigration” section in the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XXVII).—Accordingly, “in their previous lives, these unfortunates had wounded and killed water animals, fish or turtles; they had pushed people to fall into the water; they had thrown them into boiling water or into ice-water. They suffer this punishment for all these evil acts”.Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.
India history and geogprahy
Vaitaraṇī (वैतरणी) is the name of a river mentioned in the Nīlamatapurāṇa.—Gaṅgodbheda Māhātmya, the Vitastā Māhātmya and the Kedāra Māhātmya mention one Vaitaraṇī but do not help in its identification. The name seems to have been used for one of the streams which join the Vitastā above Vijayeśvara. The only river near Śūrapura is the Rembyāra and the Purohitas of Vijayeśvara actually give the name Vaitaraṇī to the Rembyāra in its course near and below Śupiyan.Source: archive.org: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study (history)
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
vaitaraṇī (वैतरणी).—f S The river of the inframundane regions. Hence applied to the cow which is presented to the Brahman performing the obsequies of a defunct that his passage over the river may be secured.Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Vaitaraṇi (वैतरणि) or Vaitaraṇī (वैतरणी).—f.
1) Name of the river of hell; पश्यञ्जनं पतितं वैतरण्याम् (paśyañjanaṃ patitaṃ vaitaraṇyām) Bhāg.2.2.7.
2) Name of a river in the country of the Kaliṅgas.
Derivable forms: vaitaraṇiḥ (वैतरणिः).Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
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Kaliṅga (कलिङ्ग) or Kaliṅgaraṭṭha is the name of a locality situated in Dakkhiṇāpatha (Deccan) ...
Avīci (अवीचि).—m. or f. (in Sanskrit only m.; rarely also f. in Pali, see CPD s.v.), n. of a he...
Alakanandā (अलकनन्दा).—River Gaṅgā of devaloka. The river gaṅgā of the earth when it flows thro...
Vetaraṇī (वेतरणी) (or in Sanskrit Vaitaraṇa) is the name of a river situated in Majjhimadesa (M...
Candrabhāgā (चन्द्रभागा) (or Candabhāgā in Pali) is the name of a river situated in Uttarāpatha...
1) Utkala (उत्कल).—A place in India where people lived in safety. Karṇa conquered this place. (...
1) Khārodakā (खारोदका) or Khārodakānadī or Vaitaraṇī refers to the “salt river” and represents ...
Rājapura (राजपुर) is the name of an ancient capital city of Kaliṅga: a locality situated in Dak...
Kaliṅganagara (कलिङ्गनगर) is the name of an ancient capital city of Kaliṅga: a locality situate...
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1) Khārodakānadī (खारोदकानदी) or simply Khārodakā or Vaitaraṇī refers to the “salt river” and r...
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Search found 25 books and stories containing Vaitarani, Vaitaraṇī or Vaitaraṇi. You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Caritra (by Helen M. Johnson)
Part 7: The two physicians < [Chapter X - The recovery of draupadī]
Part 11: Sermon on the four gatis: hell-inhabitants < [Chapter IV - Padmaprabhacaritra]
Part 5: Further exploits of Rāvaṇa < [Chapter II - Rāvaṇa’s expedition of Conquest]
The Garuda Purana (by Manmatha Nath Dutt)
Chapter LVII - Cosmogeny of Hell and the nether regions < [Agastya Samhita]
Chapter V - Creation of the Prajapatis < [Agastya Samhita]
The Garuda Purana (abridged) (by Ernest Wood)
Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra (by Gelongma Karma Migme Chödrön)
The sixteen utsadas annexed to the eight great hells < [The world of transmigration]
Various utsada annexed to the Avīci < [The world of transmigration]
The eight hot hells < [The world of transmigration]
Brihad Bhagavatamrita (by Śrīla Sanātana Gosvāmī)
The Mahabharata - Third Book (by Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa)