Shanka, Śaṅkā, Saṅkā, Sanka, Samka: 23 definitions


Shanka means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Śaṅkā can be transliterated into English as Sanka or Shanka, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

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In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Śaṅkā (शङ्का, “apprehension”).—One of the thirty-three ‘transitory states’ (vyabhicāribhāva), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 7. These ‘transitory states’ accompany the ‘permanent state’ in co-operation. The term is used throughout nāṭyaśāstra literature. (Also see the Daśarūpa 4.8-9)

Source: Natya Shastra

Śaṅkā (शङ्का, “apprehension”) has doubt as its basis, and it relates to women and persons of the inferior type. It is caused by determinants (vibhāva) such as theft, giving offence to the king and the like. It is to be represented on the stage by consequents (anubhāva) such as constantly looking on, hesitating movement (avakuṇṭhana), dryness of the mouth, licking the lips, change of facial colour, tremor, dry lips, loss of voice and the like.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: ISKCON Press: Glossary

Śaṅkā (शङ्क, “doubt”).—A vyabhicāri-bhāva.

Vaishnavism book cover
context information

Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (shaktism)

Śaṅkā (शङ्का) refers to “having suspected”, according to the King Vatsarāja’s Pūjāstuti called the Kāmasiddhistuti (also Vāmakeśvarīstuti), guiding one through the worship of the Goddess Nityā.—Accordingly, “[...] Sages address you as the destroyer of darkness, the bestower of delight, yielding the immortal nectar to all those who remember you. They address you as the ever-risen one with no possibility of rising and setting, as the underlying digit of the moon never suspected to have a stain (akalaṅka-śaṅkā)”.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Shodhganga: Kasyapa Samhita—Text on Visha Chikitsa

Śaṅkā (शङ्का, “suspected ”) refers to one of the six kinds of Viṣa (venom or poison), according to the Kāśyapa Saṃhitā: an ancient Sanskrit text from the Pāñcarātra tradition dealing with both Tantra and Viṣacikitsā—an important topic from Āyurveda which deals with the study of Toxicology (Viṣavidyā or Sarpavidyā).—Kāśyapa, praising the efficacy and potency of the Garuḍa-mantra states that it annihilates poison even as the sun destroys darkness.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi

Śaṅkā (शङ्का) refers to “fear”, according to the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi [i.e., Cakrasamvara Meditation] ritual often performed in combination with the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi, which refers to the primary pūjā and sādhanā practice of Newah Mahāyāna-Vajrayāna Buddhists in Nepal.—Accordingly, “In the Mandala, an obscured Himalaya, abiding seated in lotus posture, [..] making many triple-dark demons, world protectors, destroying all fear (sarva-śaṅkā-hara), with a tiger skin garment, doing wrong, overcoming wrong, firm, deep, the letters Hūṃ, Phaṭ, or the letters Hāṃ Hāṃ, filling up the entire sky, [...] a helper for crossing over together, the dreadful wilderness of saṃsāra, routing Māra, Śrī Vajrasattva, homage”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Jaina Yoga

Śaṅka (शङ्क, “doubt”) refers to an aspect of samyaktva (right belief) classified under the aticāra heading, according to various Jain authors. Siddhasena Gaṇin and Haribhadra (Yogaśāstra 2.17) consider śaṅka to be doubt in respect of the padārthas of the Jaina creed; this may be either partial when, for example, one padārtha is called in question, or total when the whole structure of Jaina belief is challenged. Total doubt (sarva-viṣaya-śaṅka) is virtually the same as mithyātva. This interpretation of śaṅka as ‘doubt’ is given by all writers, Śvetāmbara and Digambara.

The aticāras of samyaktva (e.g., Śaṅka) may virtually, if the fourth and fifth of them which are closely related are merged together, be equated with the first four doṣas. Both aticāras and doṣas represent the negation of the aṅgas. Pūjyapāda holds that it is in any event unnecessary to have eight aticāras corresponding to the eight aṅgas as the fourth and fifth—para-pāṣaṇḍi-praśaṃsā and para-pāṣaṇḍi-saṃstava—are elastic and comprehensive.

Source: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Śaṅkā (शङ्का) refers to “(the faults of) doubt”, according to chapter 1.1 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.—Accordingly, “[...] Vajranābha acquired strong Tirthakṛt-body-making and family-karma by the twenty sthānakas as follows:—[...] The ninth [sthānaka] is right-belief, free from the faults of doubt, etc. [viz., śaṅkā], adorned with the qualities of firmness, etc., characterized by tranquillity, etc. [...]”.

Note: The faults of right belief in addition to doubt (śaṅkā) are: acceptance of other doctrines (kāṅkṣā); hate of the Tīrthaṅkaras’ speech (vicikitsā); praise of false doctrine (mithyadṛṣtipraśaṃsana); acquaintance with false doctrine (°saṃstava). Yogaśāstra 2.17.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

Sanka in India is the name of a plant defined with Clitoria ternatea in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Lathyrus spectabilis Forssk. (among others).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Moscosoa (1990)
· Hort. Calcuttensis (1845)
· Bot. Commelins (1983)
· The Gardeners Dictionary (1754)
· Species Plantarum (1753)
· Encyclopédie Méthodique. Botanique (1811)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Sanka, for example side effects, extract dosage, diet and recipes, health benefits, chemical composition, pregnancy safety, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
context information

This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Saṅkā, (f.) (fr. śaṅk: see saṅkati) doubt, uncertainty, fear (cp. visaṅka) J. VI, 158; DhA. III, 485. (Page 662)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

śaṅkā (शंका).—f (S) Fear or apprehension; diffidence or doubt; a misgiving or scruple; want or absence of assurance, conviction, or satisfaction. 2 An objection started or a question proposed (esp. in disputations). v ghē, kara. śaṅkā ghēṇēṃ To take shame on account of. śaṅkā dharaṇēṃ g. of o. To hold or to conceive apprehension, fear, or awe of. Ex. lajjāvatī phāra tathāpi tyācī śaṅkā na sītā dharī hō pityācī.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

śaṅkā (शंका).—f Doubt. Fear. An objection started. śaṅkā ghēṇēṃ Take shame on account of. śaṅkā dharaṇēṃ Hold or conceive apprehension, fear of.

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sāṅkā (सांका).—m A mixture of copper and inferior gold.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Śaṅkā (शङ्का).—[śaṅk-a]

1) Doubt, uncertainty.

2) Hesitation, scruple.

3) Suspicion, distrust, misgiving; अपाय- शङ्का (apāya- śaṅkā); अरिष्टशङ्का (ariṣṭaśaṅkā) &c.

4) Fear, apprehension, dread, alarm; जातशङ्कैर्देवैर्मेनका नामाप्सराः प्रेषिता (jātaśaṅkairdevairmenakā nāmāpsarāḥ preṣitā) Ś.1; कैकेयीशङ्कये- वाह (kaikeyīśaṅkaye- vāha) R.12.2;13.42; Meghadūta 71.

5) Hope, expectation.

6) (Mistaken) belief, suspicion, (wrong) impression; स्रजमपि शिरस्यन्धः क्षिप्तां धुनोत्यहिशङ्कया (srajamapi śirasyandhaḥ kṣiptāṃ dhunotyahiśaṅkayā) Ś.7.24; कुर्वन् वधू- जनमनःसु शशाङ्कशङ्काम् (kurvan vadhū- janamanaḥsu śaśāṅkaśaṅkām) Kirātārjunīya 5.42; हरिततृणोद्गमशङ्कया (haritatṛṇodgamaśaṅkayā) 5.38.

7) An objection started in disputation.

8) Presumption.

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Śaṅka (शङ्क).—A draught-ox.

Derivable forms: śaṅkaḥ (शङ्कः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śaṅka (शङ्क).—m.

(-ṅkaḥ) A draft-ox. f.

(-ṅkā) 1. Fear, terror, apprehension. 2. Doubt, uncertainty. 3. An objection started in disputation. 4. Suspicion, expectation. 5. Belief, understanding, impression. 6. A species of the Dandaka metre. E. śaki to fear, affs. aṅ and ṭāp .

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Śāṅka (शाङ्क).—n.

(-ṅkaṃ) The sound of the conch-shell. E. śaṅkaṃ the shell, aṇ aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śaṅkā (शङ्का).—[śaṅk + ā], f. 1. Doubt, uncertainty, [Vedāntasāra, (in my Chrestomathy.)] in Chr. 217, 13; [Kirātārjunīya] 5, 42 (at the end of a comp. adj., f. ); error, 5, 38. 2. Presumption, [Nala] 24, 3. 3. Hope, [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 3, 5. 4. Fear, [Pañcatantra] 238, 21; apprehension, [Hitopadeśa] i. [distich] 23, M. M.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śaṅkā (शङ्का).—[feminine] hesitation, doubt, suspicion, fear of ([ablative], [locative], prati, or —°); supposition, conjecture, the taking for (—°).

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Saṅkā (सङ्का).—[feminine] combat, fight.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Śaṅka (शङ्क):—[from śaṅk] 1. śaṅka m. (for 2. See below) fear, doubt (See [compound])

2) [v.s. ...] Name of a king, [Buddhist literature] (cf. śaṅkana)

3) Śaṅkā (शङ्का):—[from śaṅka > śaṅk] a f. See below.

4) [from śaṅk] b f. (ifc. f(ā). ) apprehension, care, alarm, fear, distrust, suspicion of ([ablative] [locative case], or prati with [accusative], or [compound]; brahma-hatyā-kṛtā śaṅkā, ‘the fear of having committed the murder of a Brāhman’ [Rāmāyaṇa]; pāpa-śaṅkā na katavyā, ‘no evil is to be suspected’ [Kathāsaritsāgara]), [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa] etc. etc.

5) [v.s. ...] doubt, uncertainty, hesitation, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

6) [v.s. ...] (ifc.) belief. supposition, presumption (of or that any person or thing is-), [ib.]

7) [v.s. ...] a subject started in disputation, [Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary]

8) [v.s. ...] a species of the Daṇḍaka metre, [Horace H. Wilson]

9) Śaṅka (शङ्क):—2. śaṅka m. a bull, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śaṅka (शङ्क):—(ṅkaḥ) 1. m. A draft ox. 1. f. Fear, terror; doubt; a metre.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Śaṅkā (शङ्का) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Saṃkā.

[Sanskrit to German]

Shanka in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Shanka in Hindi refers in English to:—(nf) doubt; suspicion; mistrust; ~[kula] perturbed by doubt/mistrust, suspicious, mistrustful; ~[janaka] creating or raising suspicion/doubt/mistrust; suspicious; -[nivarana/nivritti] allaying: of suspicion, clearing or removing a doubt; ~[nvita/maya] filled with doubt/mistrust/suspicion; ~[shila] suspicious (by nature), of suspicious disposition; ~[shilata] suspiciousness, suspicious disposition; -[samadhana] setting a doubt at rest, allaying suspicion/mistrust; ~[spada] doubtful, questionable, fit to be doubted/spected/distrusted..—shanka (शंका) is alternatively transliterated as Śaṃkā.

context information


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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

1) Saṃka (संक) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Śaṅk.

2) Saṃkā (संका) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Śaṅkā.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Saṃka (ಸಂಕ):—[noun] the large, spiral, univalve shell of any of various marine mollusks, used as a trumpet; a conch.

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Saṃka (ಸಂಕ):—

1) [noun] a structure built over an abyss, river, etc. for crossing over from one side to another; a bridge.

2) [noun] ಸಂಕ ಮುರಿದಲ್ಲೇ ಸ್ನಾನ, ಗ್ರಹಚಾರ ಹಿಡಿದಲ್ಲೇ ದಾನ [samka muridalle snana, grahacara hididalle dana] sanka muridallē snāna, grahacāra hiḍidallē dāna (prov.) the goat browses where he is tied.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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