Upamana, aka: Upamāna; 9 Definition(s)

Introduction

Upamana means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Vāstuśāstra (architecture)

Upamāna (उपमान):—One of the “six iconographic measurements”, according to the Mānasāra (sanskrit literary treatise on vāstu-śāstra, or, ‘architectural science’). The measurement unit is used in the process of procuring/securing the height of the principal image and secondary images. Breadth, circumference, and other dimensions are derived from the height using rules of proportion.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra
Vāstuśāstra book cover
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Vāstuśāstra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vastu-shastra) refers to the knowledge of architecture. It is a branch of ancient Indian science dealing with topics such architecture, construction, sculpture and their relation with the cosmic universe.

Śilpaśāstra (iconography)

Upamāna (one of the six types of measurement (māna)) is the meassurement of the inter-spaces, that is the width of the navel, the interval between the two thighs or the two big toes.

(Source): Google Books: The Theory of Citrasutras in Indian Painting
Śilpaśāstra book cover
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Śilpaśāstra (शिल्पशास्त्र, shilpa-shastra) represents the ancient Indian science of creative arts such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vāstuśāstra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

Arthaśāstra (politics and welfare)

Upamāna (उपमान) refers to “simile” and is the name of a yukti, or ‘technical division’, according to which the contents of the Arthaśāstra by Cāṇakya are grouped. Cāṇakya (4th-century BCE), aka Kauṭilya, was the chief minister of Chandragupta Maurya, the founder of the famous Maurya Empire.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Arthaśāstra
Arthaśāstra book cover
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Arthaśāstra (अर्थशास्त्र, artha-shastra) literature concers itself with subjects such as statecraft, economics politics and military tactics. The term arthaśāstra refers to both the name of these scientific teachings, as well as the name of a Sanskrit work included in such literature. This book was written (3rd century BCE) by by Kauṭilya, who flourished in the 4th century BCE.

General definition (in Hinduism)

Upamāna (उपमान, “comparison”), which can be roughly translated as comparison is the knowledge of the relationship between a word and the object denoted by the word. It is produced by the knowledge of resemblance or similarity, given some pre-description of the new object beforehand.

(Source): WikiPedia: Hinduism

In Buddhism

Pali

upamāna : (nt.) simile; parable; comparison.

(Source): BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

Upamāna, (nt.) (fr. upa + ) comparison, the 2nd part of the comparison J. V, 341; VvA. 13. (Page 145)

(Source): Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Upamāna (उपमान, “metamorphosis”) represents a set of ten observances that form part of the 19th quality of the Bodhisattvas accompanying the Buddha at Rājagṛha on the Gṛdhrakūṭaparvata. They accepted the non-existence of dharmas according to the Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter 11.

Accordingly, these Bodhisattvas accept that dharmas are like:

  1. A magic show (māyā)
  2. A a mirage (marīci)
  3. The moon reflected in water (udakacandra)
  4. Space (ākāśa)
  5. An echo (pratiśrutkā)
  6. A city of the Gandharvas
  7. A dream (svapna)
  8. A shadow (chāyā)
  9. A reflection (bimba) in a mirror (ādarśa)
  10. A metamorphosis (nirmāṇa)
(Source): Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

upamāna (उपमान).—n (S) An illustration; an object or a matter adduced in illustration. 2 One of the four kinds of evidence;--that of analogy.

(Source): DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

upamāna (उपमान).—n An illustration. An object advanced in illustration.

(Source): DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
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Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

Relevant definitions

Search found 17 related definition(s) that might help you understand this better. Below you will find the 15 most relevant articles:

Upamanakhanda
Upamānakhaṇḍa (book on comparison), is the second book (khaṇḍa) of the Tattvacintāmaṇi (by G...
Pramana
Pramāṇa (प्रमाण, “approved knowledge”).—What is valid /comprehensive or approved knowledge (pra...
Maya
Māyā (माया, “magic show”) refers to one of the ten comparisons (upamāna) according to the Mahāp...
Akasha
Ākāśa (आकाश, “space”) refers to one of the ten comparisons (upamāna) according to the Mahāprajñ...
Mana
Māna (मान, “pride”) refers to a subclass of the interal (abhyantara) division of parigraha (att...
Marici
Marīci (मरीचि, “mirage”) refers to one of the ten comparisons (upamāna) according to the Mahāpr...
Yukti
yukti (युक्ति).—f Contrivance. Art. Junction. The secret or trick.
Bimba
Bimba (बिम्ब, “reflection”) refers to one of the ten comparisons (upamāna) according to the Mah...
Svapna
Svapna (स्वप्न, “dream”) refers to one of the ten comparisons (upamāna) according to the Mahāpr...
Chaya
Chāyā (छाया, “shadow”) refers to one of the ten comparisons (upamāna) according to the Mahāpraj...
Arthapatti
arthāpatti (अर्थापत्ति).—f Inference not expressed but tacitly indicated. Involved mean- ing, i...
Parisesa
pariśēṣa (परिशेष).—m A form of pari or Evidence of truth.
Nirmana
Nirmāṇa (निर्माण, “metamorphosis”) refers to one of the ten comparisons (upamāna) according to ...
Gandharvanagara
Gandharvanagara (गन्धर्वनगर) refers to a “city of the Gandharvas” and represents one of the ten...
Pratishrutka
Pratiśrutkā (प्रतिश्रुत्का, “echo”).—This phenomenon had already received a name as early as th...

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