Upamana, Upamāna: 21 definitions
Upamana means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Shilpashastra (iconography)Source: Google Books: The Theory of Citrasutras in Indian Painting
Upamāna (one of the six types of measurement (māna)) is the meassurement of the inter-spaces, that is the width of the navel, the interval between the two thighs or the two big toes.Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (śilpa)
Upamāna (उपमान) refers to the “space between the limbs” and represents a type of measurement, as defined in the texts dealing with śilpa (arts and crafs), known as śilpaśāstras.—The measurements described in Sanskrit authorities are altogether of six kinds: māna (the proper height of the icon), pramāna (the breadth), unmāna (thickness), parimāṇa (the circumference), upamāna (the space between the limbs) and lambamāna (surface of the image).
Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.
Vastushastra (architecture)Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra
Upamāna (उपमान):—One of the “six iconographic measurements”, according to the Mānasāra (sanskrit literary treatise on vāstu-śāstra, or, ‘architectural science’). The measurement unit is used in the process of procuring/securing the height of the principal image and secondary images. Breadth, circumference, and other dimensions are derived from the height using rules of proportion.
Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.
Arthashastra (politics and welfare)Source: Wisdom Library: Arthaśāstra
Upamāna (उपमान) refers to “simile” and is the name of a yukti, or ‘technical division’, according to which the contents of the Arthaśāstra by Cāṇakya are grouped. Cāṇakya (4th-century BCE), aka Kauṭilya, was the chief minister of Chandragupta Maurya, the founder of the famous Maurya Empire.
Arthashastra (अर्थशास्त्र, arthaśāstra) literature concerns itself with the teachings (shastra) of economic prosperity (artha) statecraft, politics and military tactics. The term arthashastra refers to both the name of these scientific teachings, as well as the name of a Sanskrit work included in such literature. This book was written (3rd century BCE) by by Kautilya, who flourished in the 4th century BCE.
Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
Upamāna (उपमान).—Standard of comparison. The word is found in the Pāṇinisūtra उपमानानि सामान्यवचनैः (upamānāni sāmānyavacanaiḥ) P.II.I.55 where the Kāśikāvṛtti explains it as उपमीयतेऽनेनेत्युपमानम् । (upamīyate'nenetyupamānam |)
Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.
Nyaya (school of philosophy)Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories
Upamāna (उपमान, “comparison”) refers to the third of the four “means of valid knowledge” (pramāṇa), which in turn is classified as the first of the sixteen padārthas (“categories”), according to Gautama’s 2nd-century Nyāyasūtra (verse 1.1.3). Upamāna can be stated as the source of knowledge of the relation between a name and the nameable object or between a word and its denotation. A person, who has never seen a gavaya (wild cow) and does not know the meaning of the word gavaya, learns from a forester that ‘a gavaya is like a cow’. This statement is technically known as atideśavākya. When this person sees a gavaya in the forest, he first observes the similarity of the creature with a cow and then remembers the statement of the forester that a gavaya is like a cow. Then he comes to have the final knowledge that this animal is what is denoted by the word gavaya. This is upamiti. Here the instrument (karaṇa) of upamiti is the knowledge of similarity and the remembrance of the statement of the forester serves as the operative cause (vyāpāra) for an upamiti.
According to Nyāya, upamāna is a way of knowing the denotation of words and solving the problem of identification. The Vaiśeṣika does not accept upamāna as an independent source of knowledge. Praśastapāda holds it to be a case of inference. The Mīmāṃsakas recognize it as a separate source of valid knowledge, but their account of it is different from Nyāya.
Nyaya (न्याय, nyaya) refers to a school of Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. The Nyaya philosophy is known for its theories on logic, methodology and epistemology, however, it is closely related with Vaisheshika in terms of metaphysics.
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: Ancient Science of Life: A review on Ᾱrogya Rakṣā Kalpadrumaḥ
Upamāna (उपमान) refers to the process of “setting up of analogous models and assays” and is used to look for evidence in Ayurvedic products.—[...] It is to be recognized that Ayurvedic ingredients and products are multi-component and known to work on multiple organs/targets in the body concurrently. Innovations in clinical research and clinical trials are required to test efficacy of Ayurvedic products. [...] An eminent medical pharmacologist who later researched into Ayurveda and its products, Dr. Ashok D B Vaidya, in a lecture, cites different modes of evidence namely [... viz., setting up of analogous models and assays (upamāna), ...].
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
General definition (in Hinduism)Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism
Upamāna (उपमान, “comparison”), which can be roughly translated as comparison is the knowledge of the relationship between a word and the object denoted by the word. It is produced by the knowledge of resemblance or similarity, given some pre-description of the new object beforehand.
Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Upamāna (उपमान, “metamorphosis”) represents a set of ten observances that form part of the 19th quality of the Bodhisattvas accompanying the Buddha at Rājagṛha on the Gṛdhrakūṭaparvata. They accepted the non-existence of dharmas according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter 11.
Accordingly, these Bodhisattvas accept that dharmas are like:
- A magic show (māyā)
- A a mirage (marīci)
- The moon reflected in water (udakacandra)
- Space (ākāśa)
- An echo (pratiśrutkā)
- A city of the Gandharvas
- A dream (svapna)
- A shadow (chāyā)
- A reflection (bimba) in a mirror (ādarśa)
- A metamorphosis (nirmāṇa)
Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.
Languages of India and abroad
Pali-English dictionarySource: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
upamāna : (nt.) simile; parable; comparison.Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Upamāna, (nt.) (fr. upa + mā) comparison, the 2nd part of the comparison J. V, 341; VvA. 13. (Page 145)
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
upamāna (उपमान).—n (S) An illustration; an object or a matter adduced in illustration. 2 One of the four kinds of evidence;--that of analogy.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
upamāna (उपमान).—n An illustration. An object advanced in illustration.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
1) Comparison, resemblance; जातास्तदूर्वोरुपमानबाह्याः (jātāstadūrvorupamānabāhyāḥ) Ku.1.36.
2) The standard of comparison, that with which anything is compared; one of the four requisites of an उपमा (upamā); उपमानममूद्विलासिनां (upamānamamūdvilāsināṃ) Ku.4.5; उपमानस्यापि सखे प्रत्युपमानं वपुस्तस्याः (upamānasyāpi sakhe pratyupamānaṃ vapustasyāḥ) V.2.3; Śi.2.49.
3) (In Nyāya Phil.) Analogy, recognition of likeness, considered as one of the four kinds of pramāṇas or means of arriving at correct knowledge. It is defined as प्रसिद्धसाधर्म्यात् साध्यसाधनम् (prasiddhasādharmyāt sādhyasādhanam); or उपमितिकरण- मुपमानं तच्च सादृश्यज्ञानात्मकम् (upamitikaraṇa- mupamānaṃ tacca sādṛśyajñānātmakam) Tarka. K. तन्न विश्वसनीयं वो राक्षसानां रणाजिरे । एतेनैवोपमानेन नित्यं जिह्मा हि राक्षसाः (tanna viśvasanīyaṃ vo rākṣasānāṃ raṇājire | etenaivopamānena nityaṃ jihmā hi rākṣasāḥ) || Rām.6. 5.54.
4) A particle of comparison.
Derivable forms: upamānam (उपमानम्).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Upamāna (उपमान).—(Pali Upavāṇa), name of a monk: MPS 35.1.
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Upamāna (उपमान).—[ (-vardhana), see uyate.]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-naṃ) See upamā.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Upamāna (उपमान).—i. e. upa-mā + ana, n. 1. Comparison (the third pramāṇa), Bhāṣāp. 139. 2. Likeness, [Kumārasaṃbhava, (ed. Stenzler.)] 4, 5. 3. An image, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] [distich] 22.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Upamāna (उपमान).—[neuter] comparison, simile, [especially] that with which a thing is compared, [opposed] upameya ([rhetorie]); adj. —° = upamā adj.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Upamāna (उपमान):—[=upa-māna] [from upa-mā] n. comparison, resemblance, analogy, [Mahābhārata; Suśruta; Kathāsaritsāgara] etc.
2) [v.s. ...] simile
3) [v.s. ...] the object with which anything is compared, [Pāṇini; Sāhitya-darpaṇa; Kumāra-sambhava] etc.
4) [v.s. ...] a particle of comparison, [Nirukta, by Yāska]
5) [v.s. ...] (in [logic]) recognition of likeness, comparison (the third of the four Pramāṇas or means of correct knowledge)
6) [v.s. ...] mfn. (ifc.) similar, like, [Kathāsaritsāgara]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Full-text (+43): Pramana, Purnopama, Pratyupamana, Upamanacintamani, Upamanopameyabhava, Vyatireka, Upamanata, Upameya, Ananvaya, Upamanavat, Rupaka, Upamanatva, Upama, Luptopama, Maya, Pratipa, Bahupama, Aupamanika, Ashtapramanas, Bimba.
Search found 19 books and stories containing Upamana, Upamāna, Upa-mana, Upa-māna; (plurals include: Upamanas, Upamānas, manas, mānas). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
A History of Indian Philosophy Volume 1 (by Surendranath Dasgupta)
Part 10 - Upamana, Arthapatti < [Chapter IX - Mīmāṃsā Philosophy]
Part 18 - Upamāna and Sabda < [Chapter VIII - The Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika Philosophy]
Part 15 - The four Pramāṇas of Nyāya < [Chapter VIII - The Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika Philosophy]
Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra (by Gelongma Karma Migme Chödrön)
Bodhisattva quality 19: the ten upamānas < [Chapter XI - The Ten Comparisons]
Introduction: the ten comparisons (upamāna) < [Bodhisattva quality 19: the ten upamānas]
Sixth comparison or upamāna: A city of the Gandharvas < [Bodhisattva quality 19: the ten upamānas]
The Tattvasangraha [with commentary] (by Ganganatha Jha)
Verse 1526-1527 < [Chapter 19b - (B) On analogical cognition]
Verse 1535 < [Chapter 19b - (B) On analogical cognition]
Verse 1533 < [Chapter 19b - (B) On analogical cognition]
Philosophy of Charaka-samhita (by Asokan. G)
Other sources of knowledge referred to in Carakasaṃhitā < [Chapter 6 - Source of Knowledge (pramāṇa)]
Knowledge (pramāṇa) [in Charaka philosophy] < [Chapter 6 - Source of Knowledge (pramāṇa)]
The historicity of logic and dialectical speculations of Carakasaṃhitā < [Chapter 7 - Logic and Dialectical Speculations]
Brahma Sutras (Shankara Bhashya) (by Swami Vireshwarananda)
The backdrop of the Srikanthacarita and the Mankhakosa (by Dhrubajit Sarma)
Part 5 - Alaṃkāra or the figures of speech < [Chapter III - Literary Assessment Of The Śrīkaṇṭhacarita]
Part 5g - Alaṃkāra (7): Upamā or simile < [Chapter III - Literary Assessment Of The Śrīkaṇṭhacarita]
Part 5u - Alaṃkāra (21): Vyatireka or contrast or dissimilitude < [Chapter III - Literary Assessment Of The Śrīkaṇṭhacarita]