Naivedya: 14 definitions

Introduction

Naivedya means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śāktism

Naivedya (नैवेद्य, “cooked food”):—One of the five preliminary oblations (upacāra) to be offered during the worship of Gaṇeśa, Durgā, Śiva and Viṣṇu, according to the Durgāpūjātattva.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous (N) next»] — Naivedya in Purana glossary
Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Naivedya (नैवेद्य) refers to “food offering” and represents one of the sixteen upacāra, or “sixteen types of homage and services”, as described while explaining the mode of worshipping the phallic form (liṅga) of Śiva in the Śivapurāṇa 1.11. Accordingly, “[...] the devotee shall install the phallic emblem (liṅga) and it will accord directly the region of Śiva. Or the devotee need perform the rites from water-offering to food offering alone duly. Or the devotee shall daily perform, as he can, ablution (abhiṣeka); food offering (naivedya); and obeisance (namaskāra) and propitiation (tarpaṇa),—all these in order. It will accord him the region of Śiva”.

Naivedya (नैवेद्य) or Naivedyasamarpaṇa refers to a certain offering mentioned in the Śivapurāṇa 1.20, while explaining the mode of worshipping an earthen phallic image (pārthiva-liṅga) according to the Vedic rites:—“[...] the excellent Naivedya shall be offered with the mantra ‘Namo Jyeṣṭhāya’ etc. Ācamana shall be offered again with the mantra ‘Tryambakam’ etc.”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Shodhganga: Temple management in the Āgamas

1) Naivedya (नैवेद्य) or Havis refers to “ritual food offering” and represents one of the various upacāras (offerings), in pūjā (ritual worship), as defined in the Śaivāgamas.—Pūjā consists of offering hospitality, in the form of water to wash the feet, to drink, water for ablutions, offering a bath, new clothes, fragrant unguents, fragrant flowers and ornaments, food and so on. Each step in the pūjā process is called “saṃskāra” and each offering is called “upacāra” [viz., Naivedya].

Naivedya (food-offering) is to be performed during pūjā (ritualistic worship), according to the Arcanāvidhipaṭala of Kāmikāgama.—[After Āvaraṇapūjā], the Ācārya then offers naivedya to the Lord either to all five faces or to the ūrdhva face. All the aṅga are also offered naivedya. If possible the havis is kept in separate vessels, else kept separately in the same plate. The Dvārapāla and other deities in the outer āvaraṇa (outer prākāra/corridor) must be worshipped separately with gandha, puṣpa, naivedya and so on. The Ācārya gives bali outside to the bhūta and other spirits with mantra and naivedya. He returns to the inner chambers to perform the nityahoma. Finally, he offers a satiatory sip of ācamana water and tāmbūla as digestive mouth freshener.

2) Naivedya (नैवेद्य) refers to one of the six kinds of Nirmālya (everything offered to the Lord and everything that is his property) according to the Uttara-Kāmikāgama (prāyaścittavidhi-paṭala).—Nirmālya is classified into six. Naivedya is that which has been prepared to be offered to the Lord.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Arcana-dipika - 3rd Edition

Naivedya (नैवेद्य) refers to “foodstuffs” and represents one of the various articles offered during worship, according to the Arcana-dīpikā (manual on deity worship), while explaining procedures performed in the morning.—According to time and place, sixteen [viz., naivedya], twelve, ten or five articles can be employed in the worship of Śrī Bhagavān.

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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Google Books: Rituals, Mantras, and Science

Naivedya (नैवेद्य) symbolizes the food offered to the God. [It includes] recitation of a Vedic/Purāṇic verse. In a minor pūjā milk with sugar or sugar porridge etc. are offered. In a major pūjā the offering is called Mahānaivedya (‘great’ naivedya) when rich sweet dishes are offered.

While offering the food the worshipper behaves as if he is feeding the God. The following mantra is recalled in silence: “om prāṇāya svāhā, om apānāya svāhā, om vyānāya svāhā, om udānāya svāhā, om brahmaṇe svāhā”. These mantras correspond to six mudrās or gestures. The worshipper can make these mudrās if he knows them while he is ‘feeding’ the God. This is followed by a few minor etiquettes such as offering water to the God for washing hands etc.

Source: ACHC: Smarta Puja

Naivedya (नैवेद्य) refers to the “offering of food”, representing one of the various services (upacāra) of a pūjā (ritualistic worship of a deity) which aim at the purification of the devotee.—The worshipper offers food (naivedya) to the icon by preparing a small quadrangular (caturasra) maṇḍala of water on the ground and putting a plate or a bowl with the offering on it. According to a common belief the food offering is taken away by evil spirits if it is not placed on such a maṇḍala. Then the devotee sprinkles a little water on the food and places a few tulasi leaves on it for purification. In case of big icons in temples the plate is often lifted to the mouth of the icon while the priest sometimes covers his eyes with the left hand as it is not proper to watch the deity eating. He also has to ring the bell. When a complete meal is offered in temples the doors’ of the inner room of the temple are closed or a curtain is drawn.

The ritual of the imagined consumption of food by the icon corresponds to the eating habits of the Brahmins which can still-be observed today It is conceived as the offering of food as an oblation to the breaths (prāṇa), which represent the sacrificial fires. With the first six bits of food the names of the five breaths and Brahman, the highest principle are uttered accompanied by the exclamation svāhā which usually accompanies an offering in the fire.

Source: Shodhganga: Temples and cult of Sri Rama in Tamilnadu (h)

Naivedya refers to “offering food” and represents one of the various daily ceremonies performed during puja (worship).—Offering of water and food or tirtham and prasadam to the deities on the different occasions or specified hours of the day is an important item in the daily pujas. [...] While for the daily routine, only ordinary plain rice was offered, special food preparations were offered often on festival days. [...] The daily routine includes a number of ceremonies [viz., Naivedya] that are repeated.

India history and geogprahy

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Naivedya.—(EI 30), daily offerings to gods. Note: naivedya is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

naivēdya (नैवेद्य).—n m (S) An offering of some eatable to an idol. Pr. gharacē dēvāsa nai0 nakō. v dākhava, arpa, samarpa. 2 The preparing or making ready of this offering. 3 fig. Making a meal (i. e. offering to one's belly). v kara.

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naivēdya (नैवेद्य).—a S (Possible, purposed, necessary, proper) to be presented in oblation.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

naivēdya (नैवेद्य).—n m An offering of some eatable to an idol. The preparing, making ready of this offering. Making a meal.

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Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Naivedya (नैवेद्य).—An offering of eatables presented to a deity or idol.

Derivable forms: naivedyam (नैवेद्यम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Naivedya (नैवेद्य).—n.

(-dyaṃ) An offering of eatable articles presented to a deity, and may afterwards be distributed to his ministers or worshippers, especially when it has been presented to any form of Vishnu. E. niveda presenting, offering, ṣyañ aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Naivedya (नैवेद्य).—[neuter] offering of eatables to a deity.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Naivedya (नैवेद्य):—[=nai-vedya] [from nai] n. an offering of eatables presented to a deity or idol, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa] (cf, [Religious Thought and Life in India 144, 415])

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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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