Naivedya: 26 definitions


Naivedya means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Naivedy.

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In Hinduism

Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śāktism

Naivedya (नैवेद्य, “cooked food”):—One of the five preliminary oblations (upacāra) to be offered during the worship of Gaṇeśa, Durgā, Śiva and Viṣṇu, according to the Durgāpūjātattva.

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Naivedya (नैवेद्य) refers to “food offerings”, according to the Kularatnoddyota verse 2.12-20.—Accordingly, “O one of good vows, I have talked about Ādinātha and the goddess who originates from his body. When he had enacted this most excellent union with her and externalized all the Kramamaṇḍala from his body, the lord of the gods worshipped it. (He did so) along with the mantras and Vidyās and (their) limbs with heaps of the aforementioned sacrificial substances as divine offerings and with lamps of many forms fed by the Great Clarified Butter (made from human fat). (He also made) food offerings (naivedya) born from the energy of his will, (with many kinds of) human flesh, divine offerings of flowers and tasty food, (each offered) separately”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Naivedya in Purana glossary
Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Naivedya (नैवेद्य) refers to “food offering” and represents one of the sixteen upacāra, or “sixteen types of homage and services”, as described while explaining the mode of worshipping the phallic form (liṅga) of Śiva in the Śivapurāṇa 1.11. Accordingly, “[...] the devotee shall install the phallic emblem (liṅga) and it will accord directly the region of Śiva. Or the devotee need perform the rites from water-offering to food offering alone duly. Or the devotee shall daily perform, as he can, ablution (abhiṣeka); food offering (naivedya); and obeisance (namaskāra) and propitiation (tarpaṇa),—all these in order. It will accord him the region of Śiva”.

Naivedya (नैवेद्य) or Naivedyasamarpaṇa refers to a certain offering mentioned in the Śivapurāṇa 1.20, while explaining the mode of worshipping an earthen phallic image (pārthiva-liṅga) according to the Vedic rites:—“[...] the excellent Naivedya shall be offered with the mantra ‘Namo Jyeṣṭhāya’ etc. Ācamana shall be offered again with the mantra ‘Tryambakam’ etc.”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Shodhganga: Temple management in the Āgamas

1) Naivedya (नैवेद्य) or Havis refers to “ritual food offering” and represents one of the various upacāras (offerings), in pūjā (ritual worship), as defined in the Śaivāgamas.—Pūjā consists of offering hospitality, in the form of water to wash the feet, to drink, water for ablutions, offering a bath, new clothes, fragrant unguents, fragrant flowers and ornaments, food and so on. Each step in the pūjā process is called “saṃskāra” and each offering is called “upacāra” [viz., Naivedya].

Naivedya (food-offering) is to be performed during pūjā (ritualistic worship), according to the Arcanāvidhipaṭala of Kāmikāgama.—[After Āvaraṇapūjā], the Ācārya then offers naivedya to the Lord either to all five faces or to the ūrdhva face. All the aṅga are also offered naivedya. If possible the havis is kept in separate vessels, else kept separately in the same plate. The Dvārapāla and other deities in the outer āvaraṇa (outer prākāra/corridor) must be worshipped separately with gandha, puṣpa, naivedya and so on. The Ācārya gives bali outside to the bhūta and other spirits with mantra and naivedya. He returns to the inner chambers to perform the nityahoma. Finally, he offers a satiatory sip of ācamana water and tāmbūla as digestive mouth freshener.

2) Naivedya (नैवेद्य) refers to one of the six kinds of Nirmālya (everything offered to the Lord and everything that is his property) according to the Uttara-Kāmikāgama (prāyaścittavidhi-paṭala).—Nirmālya is classified into six. Naivedya is that which has been prepared to be offered to the Lord.

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Naivedya (नैवेद्य) refers to “edible offerings”, according to the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—Accordingly, [verse 10.39-45]—“[...] Outside of the lotus, [the Mantrin] should draw the very white śaśimaṇḍala, and outside of that [he is to draw] a square endowed with the mark of a vajra. Thus, having written [all this] with saffron, bile, and white milk he should worship in peace with an all white [offering]. In this way, he [gives] edible offerings (naivedya) and liquor to the appropriate, voracious form [of the deity]. [...]”.

Source: eScholarship: The descent of scripture: a history of the Kamikagama

Naivedya (नैवेद्य) refers to “ritual offerings”, according to the Kāmikāgama: an ancient Śaiva Āgama scripture in 12,000 Sanskrit verses dating to at least the 5th century and represented as an encyclopedic account of ritual instructions (kriyāpāda).—In modern print editions, the Kāmika-āgama is structured in two major parts. The Pūrvabhāga consists of 75 chapters (paṭalas) [...] Chapters 3 to 8 outline the particulars of daily ritual with specific chapters dedicated to bathing (Chapter 3, snāna), worship (Chapter 4, arcana), ancillaries of worship (Chapter 5, arcanāṅga), ritual offerings (Chapter 6, naivedya), characteristics of fire pits (Chapter 7, kuṇḍalakṣaṇa), and fire rituals (Chapter 8, agnikārya).

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Arcana-dipika - 3rd Edition

Naivedya (नैवेद्य) refers to “foodstuffs” and represents one of the various articles offered during worship, according to the Arcana-dīpikā (manual on deity worship), while explaining procedures performed in the morning.—According to time and place, sixteen [viz., naivedya], twelve, ten or five articles can be employed in the worship of Śrī Bhagavān.

Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Ganapatya (worship of Ganesha)

Source: Shiva Purana - (Ganesha)

Naivedya (नैवेद्य) refers to “different kinds of food-offerings” (used in the worship of Gaṇeśa), according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.4.18 (“Gaṇeśa crowned as the chief of Gaṇas”).—Accordingly, as Śiva said to Gaṇeśa: “[...] Gaṇeśa shall be adored with incense, lamps and different kinds of food-offerings (naivedya). After worshipping you with various articles of worship like betel etc. and eulogising you with hymns, the devotee shall worship the crescent moon. Afterwards, he shall feed the brahmins joyously with sweets with due honour. He himself shall take sweets and avoid salt. [...]”.

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Ganapatya (गाणपत्य, gāṇapatya) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Ganesha is revered and worshipped as the prime deity (ishta-devata). Being a minor though influential movement, Ganapatya evovled, llike Shaktism and Shaivism, as a separate movement leaving behind a large body of literature.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Google Books: Rituals, Mantras, and Science

Naivedya (नैवेद्य) symbolizes the food offered to the God. [It includes] recitation of a Vedic/Purāṇic verse. In a minor pūjā milk with sugar or sugar porridge etc. are offered. In a major pūjā the offering is called Mahānaivedya (‘great’ naivedya) when rich sweet dishes are offered.

While offering the food the worshipper behaves as if he is feeding the God. The following mantra is recalled in silence: “om prāṇāya svāhā, om apānāya svāhā, om vyānāya svāhā, om udānāya svāhā, om brahmaṇe svāhā”. These mantras correspond to six mudrās or gestures. The worshipper can make these mudrās if he knows them while he is ‘feeding’ the God. This is followed by a few minor etiquettes such as offering water to the God for washing hands etc.

Source: ACHC: Smarta Puja

Naivedya (नैवेद्य) refers to the “offering of food”, representing one of the various services (upacāra) of a pūjā (ritualistic worship of a deity) which aim at the purification of the devotee.—The worshipper offers food (naivedya) to the icon by preparing a small quadrangular (caturasra) maṇḍala of water on the ground and putting a plate or a bowl with the offering on it. According to a common belief the food offering is taken away by evil spirits if it is not placed on such a maṇḍala. Then the devotee sprinkles a little water on the food and places a few tulasi leaves on it for purification. In case of big icons in temples the plate is often lifted to the mouth of the icon while the priest sometimes covers his eyes with the left hand as it is not proper to watch the deity eating. He also has to ring the bell. When a complete meal is offered in temples the doors’ of the inner room of the temple are closed or a curtain is drawn.

The ritual of the imagined consumption of food by the icon corresponds to the eating habits of the Brahmins which can still-be observed today It is conceived as the offering of food as an oblation to the breaths (prāṇa), which represent the sacrificial fires. With the first six bits of food the names of the five breaths and Brahman, the highest principle are uttered accompanied by the exclamation svāhā which usually accompanies an offering in the fire.

Source: Shodhganga: Temples and cult of Sri Rama in Tamilnadu (h)

Naivedya refers to “offering food” and represents one of the various daily ceremonies performed during puja (worship).—Offering of water and food or tirtham and prasadam to the deities on the different occasions or specified hours of the day is an important item in the daily pujas. [...] While for the daily routine, only ordinary plain rice was offered, special food preparations were offered often on festival days. [...] The daily routine includes a number of ceremonies [viz., Naivedya] that are repeated.

In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi

Naivedya (नैवेद्य) refers to “eatables” (for offering during worship) [i.e., naivedya-phala-pakvānna], according to the Guru Mandala Worship (maṇḍalārcana) ritual often performed in combination with the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi, which refers to the primary pūjā and sādhanā practice of Newah Mahāyāna-Vajrayāna Buddhists in Nepal.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Naivedya.—(EI 30), daily offerings to gods. Note: naivedya is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

Source: Yale Journal of Music & Religion: Ritual Music in Contemporary Brahmanical Tantric Temples of Kerala

Naivedya (नैवेद्य) refers to “offering food” (to the deity).—Daily pūjā in Kerala includes several phases. [...] Then, as he previously did on his own body, he installs the different mantras into the body of the idol. Soon after that he offers various kinds of honorary services to the deity, worships him/her, and offers food (naivedya). While the main door of the shrine is still closed, at the time of the offering of honorary services, a Mārār musician standing near the steps of the śrīkōvil offers royal music, playing specific compositions on the iṭakka hourglass drum. At the end of this offering the priest opens the door, and devotees catch sight of the deity and exit the inner enclosure of the temple. [...]

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

naivēdya (नैवेद्य).—n m (S) An offering of some eatable to an idol. Pr. gharacē dēvāsa nai0 nakō. v dākhava, arpa, samarpa. 2 The preparing or making ready of this offering. 3 fig. Making a meal (i. e. offering to one's belly). v kara.

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naivēdya (नैवेद्य).—a S (Possible, purposed, necessary, proper) to be presented in oblation.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

naivēdya (नैवेद्य).—n m An offering of some eatable to an idol. The preparing, making ready of this offering. Making a meal.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Naivedya (नैवेद्य).—An offering of eatables presented to a deity or idol.

Derivable forms: naivedyam (नैवेद्यम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Naivedya (नैवेद्य).—n.

(-dyaṃ) An offering of eatable articles presented to a deity, and may afterwards be distributed to his ministers or worshippers, especially when it has been presented to any form of Vishnu. E. niveda presenting, offering, ṣyañ aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Naivedya (नैवेद्य).—[neuter] offering of eatables to a deity.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Naivedya (नैवेद्य):—[=nai-vedya] [from nai] n. an offering of eatables presented to a deity or idol, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa] (cf, [Religious Thought and Life in India 144, 415])

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Naivedya (नैवेद्य):—(dyaṃ) 1. n. A religious offering.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Naivedya (नैवेद्य) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Ṇevijja, Ṇevejja.

[Sanskrit to German]

Naivedya in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Naivedya in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Naivedya (नैवेद्य) [Also spelled naivedy]:—(nm) oblation, offerings made to a deity.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Naivēdya (ನೈವೇದ್ಯ):—

1) [noun] an offering of food, fruit, etc. to a deity.

2) [noun] anything offered so.

3) [noun] (fig.) food; meals.

4) [noun] the fact of being without; lack; absence.

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Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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