Karali, Karālī, Kaṟāḷi: 22 definitions


Karali means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, biology, Tamil. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Kaṟāḷi can be transliterated into English as Karali or Karalii, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Kubjikāmata-tantra

Karālī (कराली):—One of the four female attendant deities associated with Mitra, the central deity of the Mātṛcakra, according to the Kubjikāmatatantra. This central deity is named Piṅganātha in the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā. She is also known by the name Karālā. She is the goddess of the pītha named Jālandhara.

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Karālī (कराली) (seed-syllabe: ḍe) refers to one of the four Devīs (or Guhyakā) of the pantheon of Mantra-deities, according to the Brahmayāmala-tantra (or Picumata), an early 7th century Śaiva text consisting of twelve-thousand verses.—Patterning the processes of inner and outer ritual is the Brahmayāmala’s pantheon of mantra-deities, whose core comprises the Four Goddesses or Guhyakās, Four Consorts or Handmaidens [e.g., Karālī], and their lord, Kapālīśabhairava.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Wisdom Library: The Matsya-purāṇa

Karālī (कराली) is the name of a mind-born ‘divine mother’ (mātṛ), created for the purpose of drinking the blood of the Andhaka demons, according to the Matsya-purāṇa 179.8. The Andhaka demons spawned out of every drop of blood spilled from the original Andhakāsura (Andhaka-demon). According to the Matsya-purāṇa 179.35, “Most terrible they (e.g., Karālī) all drank the blood of those Andhakas and become exceedingly satiated.”

The Matsyapurāṇa is categorised as a Mahāpurāṇa, and was originally composed of 20,000 metrical verses, dating from the 1st-millennium BCE. The narrator is Matsya, one of the ten major avatars of Viṣṇu.

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Karālī (कराली) refers to a group of Deities, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.4.17 (“The Resuscitation of Gaṇeśa”).—Accordingly, as Brahmā narrated to Nārada: “[...] On being commanded by her, the infuriated Śaktis got ready to destroy the gods and others. [...] Karālīs (the Terrific), Kubjakās (the humpbacked), Khañjās (the lame), Lambaśīrṣās (the tall-headed) the innumerable Śaktis took up the gods with their hands and threw them in their own mouths. [...]”

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Toxicology (Study and Treatment of poison)

Source: Shodhganga: Kasyapa Samhita—Text on Visha Chikitsa

Karālī (कराली) refers to one of the four fangs of a snake (Daṃṣṭraka), as taught in the Nāgajanman (“birth of the Snakes”) section of the Kāśyapa Saṃhitā: an ancient Sanskrit text from the Pāñcarātra tradition dealing with both Tantra and Viṣacikitsā—an important topic from Āyurveda which deals with the study of Toxicology (Agadatantra or Sarpavidyā).—After 52 days, four fangs, namely Kālī, Karālī, Kamarī and Kālarātrī make their appearance on the left and right sides which are the receptacle of venom.

Unclassified Ayurveda definitions

Source: Ancient Science of Life: Snake bite treatment in Prayoga samuccayam

Karālī (कराली) refers to a type of snake-bite that “resembles cow's horn with the smell of agaru”, according to the 20th century Prayogasamuccaya (one of the most popular and widely practised book in toxicology in Malayalam).—[...] The author has given a detailed description of types of bite mark and the corresponding causes and prognosis... If vital parts in body such as forehead, cheeks, nose, ears, temples, palmar surface of hands, nipples, cardiac area, axillary area, umbilicus, groins and thighs are bitten, the chance of survival becomes doubtful. Four types of poisonous teeth and their prognosis are mentioned, which are: [viz., Karālī, ‘bite resembles cow’’s horn with the smell of agaru’ ...]

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

1) Karālī (कराली) is the deity of Karāla (Jālandhara), according to Tantric texts such as the Kubjikāmata-tantra, the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—Accordingly, as the Goddess (i.e., Kubjikā) said to Karālī:—“[...] You will have ten fearsome daughters and these ten (will) possess the most excellent qualities and higher bliss (uttarānanda). O fair lady, you will have six attendants in (your) entourage and the race of (your) fierce (karālī) daughters (will possess) the equal oneness of the bliss of the Command. (These) lords (īśvara) will generate the higher bliss (uttarānanda) in each Age, and when the fall from (true) knowledge comes to an end (they will create other teachers) again and again with diverse names (saṃjñābheda) and, O Karālī, they will be in your lineage by (the grace of) my Command”.

2) Karālī (कराली) is the name of the Goddess associated with Jālandhara, one of the sacred seats (pīṭha), according to the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā, an expansion of the Kubjikāmatatantra: the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.

3) Karālī (कराली) refers to one of the thirty-two Bhairavīs (also Dūtis) embodying the syllables of the goddess’s Vidyā, according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—The thirty-two Bhairavīs [i.e., Karālī] are the consorts of the Bhairavas presiding over the sonic energies of the thirty-two syllables of her Vidyā.

Source: Kamakoti Mandali: The Yoginis of Narasimha Vyuha

Karālī (कराली) is the name of a Mātṛkā-Śakti created by Mahārudra in order to control the plague of demons created by Andhakāsura.—Accordingly, Andhaka-Asura tried to kidnap Umā (Devī Pārvatī), and was fiercely attacked by Mahārudra who shot arrows at him from his mahāpināka. when the arrows pierced the body of Andhakāsura, drops of blood fell to earth and from those drops, thousands of Andhakas arose. To control this plague of demons, Mahārudra created Mātṛkā-Śaktis [viz., Karālī] and ordered them to drink the blood of the demons and drain them dry.

Source: Kamakoti Mandali: Nrisimha matrika-mandala

Karālī (कराली) refers to one of the various Mātṛkā-Śaktis created by Rudra in order to destroy the clones that spawned from Andhaka’s body.—Accordingly, [...] Andhakāsura attempted to abduct Girājanandinī (Pārvatī) and thus ensued a fierce battle between Andhakāsura and the great Rudra, the Lord of Umā. Like raktabīja, every drop of blood that fell from the body of Andhaka created another Asura like him and in no time, the entire world was filled with Andhakas. To destroy the growing number of Andhakas, Rudra created innumerable Mātṛkā-Śaktis [viz., Karālī]. These Śaktis of immense power at once began to drink every drop of blood that flowed from the body of Andhaka, but they could still not effectively contain the emergence of more and more demons.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: academia.edu: A Critical Study of the Vajraḍākamahātantrarāja (II)

Karālī (कराली) refers to one the twenty-four Horā (astronomical) Goddess to be invoked during pūjā (ritual offering) in Tantric Buddhism, according to the 9th-century Vajraḍākatantra chapter 18.61-74. [...] A Yogin, putting a vessel in the left side of him, offers various things together with raw flesh, fish, immortal nectar (pañcāmṛta). Then the Yogin invites Goddesses to please them with nectar—five Ḍākinīs and twenty-four Goddesses [viz., Karālī] come to the Yogin’s place, forming a maṇḍala.

Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi

Karālī (कराली) is the name of a deity [i.e., oṃ kaṅkālyai svāhā; oṃ karālyai svāhā], according to the Kalaśa Pūjā [i.e., Kalasha Worship] ritual often performed in combination with the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi, which refers to the primary pūjā and sādhanā practice of Newah Mahāyāna-Vajrayāna Buddhists in Nepal.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: The Jaina Iconography

Karālī (कराली) is the name of a Yoginī mentioned in various Jaina manuscripts, often being part of a list of sixty-four such deities. How the cult of the Tantrik Yoginīs originated among the vegetarian Jainas is unknown. The Yoginīs (viz., Karālī) are known as attendants on Śiva or Pārvatī. But in the case of Jainism, we may suppose, as seen before that they are subordinates to Kṣetrapāla, the chief of the Bhairavas.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: What is India: Epigraphia Indica volume XXXI (1955-56)

Karalī is the name of an ancient city mentioned in the “Ghūmlī plates of Bāṣkaladeva” (989 A. D.). Karalī cannot be traced now. But a bridge at the eastern approach of Porbandar, the famous port of Western Saurashtra on the Arabian Sea, is said to bear the name Karlī-pūl. The village of Karalī may therefore have stood in its neighbourhood.

This inscribed copper plate (mentioning  Karalī) was found in the course of digging operations at Ghūmlī in the former Navanagar State. The date corresponds to the 22nd April, 989 A.D. and it records the grant of a village made by Rāṇaka Bāṣkaladeva surnamed Kuṃkumalola, for the merit of his parents, in favour of a Brāhmaṇa.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Wisdom Library: Local Names of Plants and Drugs

Karali [कारली] in the Marathi language is the name of a plant identified with Momordica charantia L. from the Cucurbitaceae (Pumpkin) family having the following synonyms: Momordica muricata, Momordica zeylanica, Momordica charantia var. muricata. For the possible medicinal usage of karali, you can check this page for potential sources and references, although be aware that any some or none of the side-effects may not be mentioned here, wether they be harmful or beneficial to health.

Karali in the Bengali language is the name of a plant identified with Dendrocalamus strictus from the Poaceae (Grass) family having the following synonyms: Bambusa stricta, Bambos stricta.

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

1) Karali in India is the name of a plant defined with Dendrocalamus strictus in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Bambusa verticillata Benth. (among others).

2) Karali is also identified with Ensete superbum It has the synonym Musa superba Roxb..

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Sweet's Hortus Britannicus, or ‘a catalogue of all the plants indigenous or cultivated in the gardens of Great Britain, arranged according to the natural system’ (1830)
· Annals of the Royal Botanic Garden Calcutta (1896)
· Species Plantarum, ed. 4 (1799)
· The Indian Forester (1988)
· Gard. Bull. Sing. (1958)
· Indian Forest Records (1936)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Karali, for example side effects, diet and recipes, chemical composition, extract dosage, pregnancy safety, health benefits, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
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This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

karalī (करली).—f A white kind of fish covered with prickles or barbs. 2 C A water-scuttle or baler. See karalēṃ. 3 A kind of grass.

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karaḷī (करळी).—f Spasmodic affection (esp. of the legs). 2 A common term for the two extreme cross pieces which, together with the two central cross pieces (tarasē m pl) and the longitudinal pieces (ghōḍīṃ or ghōḍakīṃ n pl), compose the bed of a gāḍā (loadcart void of sāṭhā or box). 3 A cross-piece overlying the piḍhēṃ of a cart, and narrower. The pegs pass through it. 4 An upright of the box of a cart, a sloat. 5 (Commonly kuraḷī) The interstitial unwoven threads of a web.

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karaḷī (करळी).—a Built or made with the stone karaḷa.

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karāḷī (कराळी).—f Spasm of the limbs, cramp. v caḍha, utara, bāndha. Gen. in pl karāḷyā.

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kāralī (कारली).—f (kāravēlla S) A vegetable, Momordica charantia. 2 Applied by some to the tree karaṇḍī.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

kāralī (कारली).—f A vegetable, Momordica. Charantia.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Karālī (कराली).—name of a yoginī (compare prec.): Sādhanamālā 584.12; name of a piśācī: Mahā-Māyūrī 238.20; name of a rākṣasī: Mahā-Māyūrī 243.15.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Karālī (कराली):—[from karāla] f. one of the seven tongues and nine Samidhs of Agni, [Muṇḍaka-upaniṣad; Gṛhyāsaṃgraha]

2) [v.s. ...] a sword

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

Karali (करलि) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Kadali.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Karaḷi (ಕರಳಿ):—[noun] a kind of crab.

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Karaḷi (ಕರಳಿ):—[noun] a rough, handspun cotton cloth.

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Karaḷi (ಕರಳಿ):—[noun] the evergreen tree Carallia lucida (= C. integirrima) of Rhizophoraceae family.

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Karāli (ಕರಾಲಿ):—[noun] = ಕರಾಳಿ [karali]1.

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Karāḷi (ಕರಾಳಿ):—[noun] one of the powers of Śiva, personified as a female.

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Karāḷi (ಕರಾಳಿ):—[noun] = ಕರಳಿ [karali]2.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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