Gauda, Gauḍa: 12 definitions

Introduction

Gauda means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Gauḍa (गौड).—In the “extraneous representation” (āhāryābhinaya) of dramatic plays, the women of Gauḍa are generally to have hairs curled, and they are to have the Śikhāpāśa and the Veṇī, according to Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 23. Gauḍa is probably the district of Malda and neighbouring regions of North Bengal.

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śāktism

Gauḍa (गौड) is the name of a Śāktapīṭha mentioned in the Kulārṇavatantra. The Kulārṇava-tantra is an important 11th century work for the Kaula school of Śāktism. It refers to eighteen such Śākta-pīṭhas (eg. Gauḍa) which is defined as a sacred sanctuary of Devī located here on earth. According to legend, there are in total fifty-one such sanctuaries (pīṭha) on earth, created from the corresponding parts of Devī’s body,

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Kavya (poetry)

Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyamimamsa of Rajasekhara

Gauḍa (गौड) is the name a locality mentioned in Rājaśekhara’s 10th-century Kāvyamīmāṃsā.—In the Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara describes the Gauḍas are a people inhabiting the whole tract of country lying between Benāras and the Bay of Bengal. To Rājaśekhara, the word Gauḍa is not the name of any particular country, so he describes the costume of Gauḍa ladies and mentions the fondness of the Gauḍa for the Sanskrit language. But N. L. Dey thinks that the whole of Bengal is known as the Gauḍa country with its capital at Gaud, the ruins of which have been discovered near Māldā in Bengal at a distance of about ten miles. The king of Pāla and Sena dynasties made this city of Gouḍa their capital on the several occasions. Further this city was also known as Lakṣmahavati or Lakhnauti after the name of king Lakṣmanasena of the Sena dynasty of Bengal.

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Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Gauḍa (गौड) is the name of a ancient country/region from where the Rudrākṣa trees are said to be very sacred, according to the Śivapurāṇa 1.25, while explaining the greatness of Rudrākṣa:—“[...] Rudrākṣas grown in Gauḍa land became great favourites of Śiva. They were grown in Mathurā, Laṅkā, Ayodhyā, Malaya, Sahya mountain, Kāśī and other places. They are competent to break asunder the clustered sins unbearable to the others, as the sacred texts have declared”.

Note: Gauḍa or Gauḍadeśa according to Skandapurāṇa, was the central part of Bengal extending from Vaṅga to the borders of Orissa.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: archive.org: Indian Historical Quarterly Vol. 7

Gauḍa (गौड) is the name of a country classified as both Hādi and Kādi (both types of Tantrik division), according to the 13th century Sammoha-tantra (fol. 7).—There are ample evidences to prove that the zone of heterodox Tantras went far beyond the natural limits of India. [...] The zones in the Sammoha-tantra [viz., Gauḍa] are here fixed according to two different Tantrik modes, known as Kādi and Hādi.

India history and geogprahy

Source: Project Gutenberg: Castes and Tribes of Southern India, Volume 1

1) Gauda (“headman”) is one of the gotras (clans) among the Kurnis (a tribe of South India). Kurni is, according to the Census Report 1901, “a corruption of kuri (sheep) and vanni (wool), the caste having been originally weavers of wool”. The gotras (viz., Gauda) are described as being of the Brāhman, Kshatriya, and Vaisya sub-divisions of the caste, and of Shanmukha’s Sudra caste.

2) Gauda (“headman”) is one of the exogamous septs (divisions) among the Kurubas (a tribe of South India). The Kurubas are sub-divided into clans or gumpus, each having a headman or guru called a gaudu, who gives his name to the clan. And the clans are again sub-divided into gotras or septs (viz., Gauda).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Gauda.—(EI 5; ASLV), Kannaḍa; same as Gāvuṇḍa; a village headman; the chief farmer of a village. See Gavuḍa. (EI 1), a temple priest. (IE 8-5; EI 28), Od8iyā; same as gokuṭa; a cowherd or milkman. Note: gauda is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

gauḍa (गौड).—m S The district of Gaur, the central part of Bengal. 2 A tribe of Brahmans or an individual of it.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

gauḍa (गौड).—m The central part of Bengal: a tribe of Brahmans.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Gauḍa (गौड).—1 Name of a country; the स्कन्दपुराण (skandapurāṇa) thus describes its position :-वङ्गदेशं समारभ्य भुवनेशान्तगः शिवे । गौडदेशः समाख्यातः सर्वविद्याविशारदः (vaṅgadeśaṃ samārabhya bhuvaneśāntagaḥ śive | gauḍadeśaḥ samākhyātaḥ sarvavidyāviśāradaḥ) ||

2) A particular subdivision of Brāhmaṇas.

3) see गोण्डः (goṇḍaḥ) above. L. D. B.

-ḍāḥ (pl.) The inhabitants of Gauḍa.

-ḍī 1 Spirit distilled from molasses; गौडी पैष्ठी च माध्वी च विज्ञेया त्रिविधा सुरा (gauḍī paiṣṭhī ca mādhvī ca vijñeyā trividhā surā) Ms. 11.95.

2) One of the Rāgiṇis.

3) (In rhet.) One of the Ritis or Vrittis or styles of poetic composition; S. D. mentions four Ritis, while K. P. only three, गौडी (gauḍī) being another name for पुरुषा वृत्ति (puruṣā vṛtti); ओजःप्रकाशकैस्तैः (ojaḥprakāśakaistaiḥ) (varṇaiḥ) तु परुषा (tu paruṣā) (i. e. gauḍī) M. P.7; ओजःप्रकाशकैर्वर्णैर्बन्ध आडम्बरः पुनः समासबहुला गौडी (ojaḥprakāśakairvarṇairbandha āḍambaraḥ punaḥ samāsabahulā gauḍī) S. D.627. Here is an illustration : उन्मीलन्मधुगन्धलुब्धमधुपव्याधूतचूताङ्कुरः क्रीडत्कोकिलकाकंलीकलकलैरु- द्गीर्णकर्णज्वराः । नीयन्ते पथिकैः कथं कथमपि ध्यानावधानक्षणप्राप्त- प्राणसमासमागमरसोल्लासैरमी वासराः ॥ अलंकारशेखर (unmīlanmadhugandhalubdhamadhupavyādhūtacūtāṅkuraḥ krīḍatkokilakākaṃlīkalakalairu- dgīrṇakarṇajvarāḥ | nīyante pathikaiḥ kathaṃ kathamapi dhyānāvadhānakṣaṇaprāpta- prāṇasamāsamāgamarasollāsairamī vāsarāḥ || alaṃkāraśekhara) 6.

-ḍam Sweetmeats; भोजनानि सुपूर्णानि गौडानि च सहस्रशः (bhojanāni supūrṇāni gauḍāni ca sahasraśaḥ) Rām.1.53.4. -a. Relating to or prepared from molasses; विविधानि च गौडानि खाण्डवानि तथैव च (vividhāni ca gauḍāni khāṇḍavāni tathaiva ca) Rām.7.92.12.

Derivable forms: gauḍaḥ (गौडः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Gauḍa (गौड).—m.

(-ḍaḥ) The district of Gaur, the central part of Bengal, extending from Banga to Bhubaneshwar in Orrissa: the ruins of its capital, called by the same name, are still in existance. m. plu.

(-ḍāḥ) The inhabitants of Gaur. f. (-ḍī) 1. Rum or spirit distilled from Gur or molasses. 2. One of the Raginis. 3. A style of poetry, the bold and spirited style, E. guḍa to surround, or guḍa raw sugar, and aṇ affix, fem. affix ṅīṣ.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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