Gardabha, Gardabhā, Gārdabha: 25 definitions


Gardabha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Gardabha in Purana glossary
Source: Google Books: Cultural History from the Vāyu Purāna

Gardabha (गर्दभ) falls under the category of domesticated animals (grāmya-paśu) according to the Vāyu Purāṇa.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Gardabha (गर्दभ).—The asses of the Tāmasa line.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 21. 17.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra

Gardabhā (गर्दभा, “female donkey”) refers to the sixth of eight yoni (womb), according to the Mānasāra. Yoni is the fourth of the āyādiṣaḍvarga, or “six principles” that constitute the “horoscope” of an architectural or iconographic object. Their application is intended to “verify” the measurements of the architectural and iconographic object against the dictates of astrology that lay out the conditions of auspiciousness.

The particular yoni (e.g., gardabhā) of all architectural and iconographic objects (settlement, building, image) must be calculated and ascertained. This process is based on the principle of the remainder. An arithmetical formula to be used in each case is stipulated, which engages one of the basic dimensions of the object (breadth, length, or perimeter/circumference). The first, third, fifth and seventh yonis are considered auspicious and therefore to be preferred, and the rest, inauspicious and to be avoided.

Vastushastra book cover
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Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Dietetics and Culinary Art (such as household cooking)

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India

Gardabha (गर्दभ) refers to the “donkey”, whose meat (māṃsa) is classified as “terrestrial” (bhūcara) according to the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana), and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—The text [māṃsa-prakaraṇa] says the three fold division of meat [such as terrestrial (bhūcara)...]. Here different types of meat and their properties are discussed in detail. The terrestrial animals are [viz., gardabha (donkey)].

Veterinary Medicine (The study and treatment of Animals)

Source: Shodhganga: Portrayal of Animal Kingdom (Tiryaks) in Epics An Analytical study

Gardabha (गर्दभ) refers to the Asiatic Wild ass (Equus hemionus), according to scientific texts such as the Mṛgapakṣiśāstra (Mriga-pakshi-shastra) or “the ancient Indian science of animals and birds” by Hamsadeva, containing the varieties and descriptions of the animals and birds seen in the Sanskrit Epics such as the Ramayana and Mahabharata.

Toxicology (Study and Treatment of poison)

Source: Shodhganga: Kasyapa Samhita—Text on Visha Chikitsa

Gardabha (गर्दभ) refers to “donkeys”, according to the Kāśyapa Saṃhitā: an ancient Sanskrit text from the Pāñcarātra tradition dealing with both Tantra and Viṣacikitsā—an important topic from Āyurveda which deals with the study of Toxicology (Viṣavidyā or Sarpavidyā).—In the beginning of the twelfth Adhyāya, Kāśyapasaṃhita adds external and internal antidotes for poisons of various animals and insects. The insect variety includes species [such as donkey, horse], and so on. [...]

The following treatments are mentioned for donkeys (gardabha): “(1). A drink of goat’s milk mixed with powdered Trikaṭu, Uśīra, Mustā, lotus, Māṁsī and Padmaka nullifies poison of donkey.etc. (2). A paste or lepa made of Aindrī, turmeric, Śaṅkhapīta leaves and Tānasa is also effective”.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: University of Vienna: Sudarśana's Worship at the Royal Court According to the Ahirbudhnyasaṃhitā

Gardabha (गर्दभ) refers to a “donkey”, according to the Ahirbudhnyasaṃhitā, belonging to the Pāñcarātra tradition which deals with theology, rituals, iconography, narrative mythology and others.—Accordingly, “An abnormal modification caused by a aggressive ritual against Kings, occurring at the improper time, dreadful and all-reaching, is characterized by the these signs: [...] [the King] is so deluded that he himself forgets the dos and don’ts; in a dream he sees himself with a shaven head and clad in a dark blue garment, travelling towards the southern direction on a cart pulled by a donkey (gardabharathena gardabhayujā); from such and other signs he should understand that the enemy is performing a aggressive ritual”.

Pancaratra book cover
context information

Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Vedic index of Names and Subjects

Gardabha (गर्दभ) or ‘the ass’, is mentioned in the Rigveda as inferior to the horse. In the Taittirīya-saṃhitā he again appears as inferior to the horse, but at the same time as the best bearer of burdens (bhāra-bhāritama) among animals. The same authority styles the ass dvi-retas, ‘having double seed’, in allusion to his breeding with the mare as well as the she-ass. The smallness of the young of the ass, and his capacity for eating, are both referred to. The disagreeable cry of the animal is mentioned in the Atharvaveda, and in allusion to this the term ‘ass’ is applied opprobriously to a singer in the Ṛgveda. A hundred asses are spoken of as a gift to a singer in a Vālakhilya hymn. The mule (aśvatara) is the offspring of an ass and a mare, the latter, like the ass, being called dvi-retas , ‘receiving double seed’, for similar reasons. The male ass is often also termed Rāsabha. The female ass, Gardabhī, is mentioned in the Atharvaveda and the Bṭhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad.

In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Gardabha (गर्दभ) refers to an “ass” (“donkey”) represents an incarnation destination of the tiryaggati (animal realm) according to the “world of transmigration” section in the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XXVII).—The Bodhisattva sees the animals (tiryak) undergoing all the torments: they are made to gallop by blows of the whip or stick; they are made to make long journeys carrying burdens; their harness is damaged; they are branded with hot iron. As a result of stupid conceit (mithyāmāna), they re reborn as [for example], an ass (gardabha).

Source: De Gruyter: A Buddhist Ritual Manual on Agriculture

Gardabha (गर्दभ) refers to the “donkeys”, according to the Vajratuṇḍasamayakalparāja, an ancient Buddhist ritual manual on agriculture from the 5th-century (or earlier), containing various instructions for the Sangha to provide agriculture-related services to laypeople including rain-making, weather control and crop protection.—Accordingly, [when the Bhagavān reached the vicinity of the residence of Vaiśravaṇa], “[...] All people, women, men, boys and girls, cattle, horses, mares, buffaloes, elephants, camels, donkeys (gardabha) and so on became delighted by comfort. That lotus lake had an expansion of two yojanas and [a depth of] a fathom all around in the four directions. [...]”

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala

Gardabha (गर्दभ) is the name of a Vīra (hero) who, together with the Ḍākinī named Gardabhī forms one of the 36 pairs situated in the Medinīcakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the medinīcakra refers to one of the three divisions of the dharma-puṭa (‘dharma layer’), situated in the Herukamaṇḍala. The 36 pairs of Ḍākinīs and Vīras [viz., Gardabha] are yellow in color; the shapes of their faces are in accordance with their names; they have four arms; they hold a skull bowl, a skull staff, a small drum, and a knife.

Source: MDPI Books: The Ocean of Heroes

Gardabha (गर्दभ) refers to a “donkey”, according to chapter 50 of the 10th-century Ḍākārṇava-tantra: one of the last Tibetan Tantric scriptures belonging to the Buddhist Saṃvara tradition consisting of 51 chapters.—Accordingly, “Now, I will explain the characteristic of Mahākaṅkāla. [A practitioner,] devoting himself to the yoga of the donkey-formed (gardabha-ākāra-yoga), can stop a rush of thought. [...] In the middle of that [top of the head], one should visualize a great hero in the form of a donkey (gardabha-ākṛti). One should meditate on [his] maṇḍala, which is completely furnished with all [appropriate qualities] and is greatly effective. The great hero in the middle of that [maṇḍala] is based on the yoga of Mahākaṅkāla. [...]”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

Gardabha in India is the name of a plant defined with Embelia ribes in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Samara ribes (Burm. f.) Benth. & Hook.f. ex Kurz (among others).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Nomenclator Botanicus (1797)
· Mantissa Plantarum (1771)
· Revisio Generum Plantarum (1891)
· Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal.
· FBI (1882)
· Natural history (1877)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Gardabha, for example health benefits, side effects, extract dosage, chemical composition, diet and recipes, pregnancy safety, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
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This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

gardabha (गर्दभ).—m (S) pop. gardhaba m An ass. Ex. jarīṃ ga0 vēgī dhāvē || tarīṃ aśva mōla pāvē ||.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

gardabha (गर्दभ).—m An ass.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Gardabha (गर्दभ).—(-bhī f.) [gard-abhac Uṇādi-sūtra 3.122]

1) An ass; न गर्दभा वाजिधुरं वहन्ति (na gardabhā vājidhuraṃ vahanti) Mṛcchakaṭika 4.17; प्राप्ते तु षोडशे वर्षे गर्दभी ह्यप्सरा भवेत् (prāpte tu ṣoḍaśe varṣe gardabhī hyapsarā bhavet) Subhāṣ. The ass is noted for three remarkable qualities :-अविश्रान्तं वहेद्भारं शीतोष्णं च न विन्दति । ससंतोषस्तथा नित्यं त्रीणि शिक्षेत गर्दभात् (aviśrāntaṃ vahedbhāraṃ śītoṣṇaṃ ca na vindati | sasaṃtoṣastathā nityaṃ trīṇi śikṣeta gardabhāt) || Chāṇ.7.

2) Smell, odour.

-bham The white water-lily.

-bhī 1 A she-ass.

2) An insect generated in cow-dung.

Derivable forms: gardabhaḥ (गर्दभः).

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Gārdabha (गार्दभ).—a. (-bhī f.) [गर्दभस्येदं अण् (gardabhasyedaṃ aṇ)] Belonging to or coming from an ass, asinine; Av.6.72.3.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Gardabha (गर्दभ).—(ka) (compare Pali Gadrabha, a yakkha), name of a yakṣa: °bha Mūla-Sarvāstivāda-Vinaya i.15.4 ff.; °bhaka i.16.15; Mahā-Māyūrī 37; Samādhirājasūtra p. 43, line 20.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Gardabha (गर्दभ).— I. m. An ass, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 298. Ii. f. bhī. 1. A she ass, Mahābhārata 13, 1827. 2. An insect, a kind of beetle living in cow-dung. [Suśruta] 2. 288, 3.

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Gārdabha (गार्दभ).—i. e. gardabha + a, adj. Referring, or belonging to, or proceeding from, an ass, Mahābhārata 8, 2051.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Gardabha (गर्दभ).—[masculine] ass (adj. —° [feminine] ā); [feminine] ī she-ass; [Name] of [several] plants; (a cert. throw with the dice*).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Gardabha (गर्दभ):—[from gard] 1. gardabha m. ‘crier, brayer (?)’, an ass, [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda] etc. (ifc. f(ā). , [Kathāsaritsāgara lxx])

2) [v.s. ...] a kind of perfume, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

3) [v.s. ...] [plural] Name of a family, [Pravara texts ii, 3, 3; v, 4]

4) [v.s. ...] n. the white esculent water-lily, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

5) [v.s. ...] Embelia Ribes, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

6) [from gard] 2. gardabha [Nominal verb] [Parasmaipada] bhati, to represent an ass, [Sāhitya-darpaṇa x, 21 a/b.]

7) Gārdabha (गार्दभ):—mfn. ([from] gard), belonging to or coming from an ass, [Atharva-veda vi, 72, 3; Mahābhārata viii, xii; Suśruta]

8) drawn by asses (a cart), [Āpastamba-dharma-sūtra i, 32, 25.]

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Gardabha (गर्दभ) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Gaḍḍaha, Gaddaha.

[Sanskrit to German]

Gardabha in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Gardabha in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Gardabha (गर्दभ) [Also spelled gardabh]:—(nm) see [gadhā].

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Gardabha (ಗರ್ದಭ):—[noun] the Equus hemionus, the four-legged, long-eared, short-maned mammal of the horse genus; an ass.

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Gārdabha (ಗಾರ್ದಭ):—[noun] the horse-like perissodactylous mammal, Equus heminous of Equidae family, having long ears and a short mane, either domesticated or wild; an ass; ಗಾರ್ದಭ ಗಾನ [gardabha gana] gārdabha gāna (sarc.) a singing that is unpleasant or grating to the ear; singing like a bird called swine.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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