The history of Andhra country (1000 AD - 1500 AD)

by Yashoda Devi | 1933 | 138,355 words

This book recounts the History of the Andhra Pradesh Country from 1000 to 1500 A.D. including many dynasties (for example. the Reddis of Korukonda and the Eruva Chola of Rajahmundry)....

Part 20 - Vijayagandagopala (A.D. 1250-1285)

Vijayagandagopala, the greatast of the Telugu pallavas had a reign of 35 years. He was trained in the arts of war and peace as associate ruler with Viragandagopala towards the close of his reign. The records of Vijayagandagopala range from his second to the 35th year. He had strong political contemporaries in Jatavarma Sundarapandya I, Ganapati, Koperunjinga and emperor Rajendra III of the cholas. Vijayagandagopala had many feudatories of Pallava and other lineages under him.

Extent of the Kingdom

The Extent of the kingdom of Vijayagandagopala is seen from his records and those of his subordinates. The earliest record of the reign is from Sulurpet (Nellore dt.) dated in Vijayagandagopala’s second year. Two inscriptions of his 3rd year are from Melur (North Arcot) and Conjeevaram. An inscription at Tirupukkuh and another at Tirupati give the 4th year of Vijayagandagopala. The next record is from. Tirupati dated in the 5th year of the king. Two inscriptions one from Tirupati and one from Tripurantakam give the 9th and the 14th year of Vijayagandagopala respectively. A Conjeevaram inscription is dated in the 15th year of Vijayagandagopala. The 16th year of the king is mentioned in two records at Conjeevaram and one at Tirupukkuli. The next record is of the 26th year of the king and one of the 28th year is from Uttiramerur (Conjeevaram taluq). Vijayagandagopala’s only record from hepaka (Cuddapah district) is dated in his 29th year. Two records of the 30th year are at Conjeevaram and Tirappukkuli—one in each place. A record of the 31st year is at Conjeevaram and of the 32nd year is from Tiruppukkuli. Besides these, two of Vijayagandagopala’s records are at Takkolam and one at Tiruvannaikkal or Jambukesvaram and another at Chiramana (Atmakur Taluq). dated A.D. 1285 corresponding to his 35th year.

His Political Relations

Vijayagandagopala, a Tribhuvana chakravarti and mahamandalesvara bore the usual Pallava prasasti beginning with' paramavamsodhbhava etc. To identity him with Vijayagandagopala, younger brother of Malavaraya and the minister of Tribhuvana chakravarti Konerimaikondan and with Gandagopala i.e. Tikka I and Allutikka of the Telugu cholas is a mistake. The statements “probably distinct from this Vijayagandagopala are two other chiefs (or a chief) of the same name claiming Pallava lineage and mentioned in a record from Tripurantakam (in the Kurnool district) and in an inscription from Atmakur (in the Nellore district),” is incorrect for we have seen above that the records referred to belong to one Vijayagandagopala, the great Telugu pallava would show that the boundary line between their respective territories was not clearly defined. As the earliets records of Vijayagandagopala are from Nellore area it is evident that he succeeded his brother there and in course of time extended the kingdom in the southern direction.

Vijayagandagopala and the Pandayas

The Pandyan contemporaries of Vijayagandagopala were Jatavarman, Sundarandya I and Mallapavaraman Kulasekhara I (Accession—A.D. 1268) Vijayagandagopala vanquished by Jatavarman towards the close of the reign of Viragandagopala was loyal to the Pandyan emperors in this period and so had not trouble to his kingdom from them.

Vijayagandagopala and Koppernnjinga

Perhaps Vijayagandagopala and Koperunjinga were on terms of friendship. The latter’s claim have defeated the former is based on the Pandyan success over him along with Viragandagopala towards the close of Vira’s reign. The next records of both are found side by side in the kingdom of Vijayagandagopala—Chingleput district and the surrounding country between the years A.D. 1254 and 1263 at Conjeevaram. Tiruvadisulam, Tirumalisai (chingleput district and Tiruparkanal N. Arcot dt.) There was no overlapping of the reign of Vijayaganda with that of Koyperunjinga. Kopperunjinga’s dominions extended roughly from Conjeevaram in the north to Tiruvidaimarudur in the south. The territory to the north of Conjeevaram was under Vijayagandagopala. Their records side by side would show that the boundary line between their respective territorier was not clearly' defined.

Vijayagandagopala and the Kakatiyas

Ganapati and Rudrama were the Kakatiya contemporaries of Vijayagandagopala. In this reign of Viragandagopala, the Telugu pallavas and the Kakatiyas were allies and fought against the Pandyas. Probably the same relationship continued between Vijayagandagopala and the Kakatiyas. The suggestion that Vijayaagandagopala was a samanta Teudatory of Ganapati, the Kakatiya is not borne out by evidence. On the other hand, the suzerainty of Vijayagandalgopala is recognised by the Kakatiya subordinates in their records in the Telugu Pallavas kingdom. Brahmisetic, minister of Ganapati made gifts at Conjeevaram in the 7th year of Vijayagandagopala (A.D. 1257). This shows the prevalence of the authority of Vijayagandagopala in Kanchi even after A.D. 1255—the year in which the supremacy of the Telugu cholas was recognised in a Kakatiyas inscription at Kanchi. The recognistion by the Kakatiyas of the Telugu chola and Telugu pallava supremacy at Kanchi shows that the Kakatiya empire was already showing signs of decay towards the close of the reign of Ganapati—after A D. 1250 in which year his records at Kanchi attest his power.

The authority of Vijayagandagopala was experienced by the Kakatiyas in the reign of Rudrama, in another quarter. For in his Tripurantakam inscription, Vijayagandagopala does not recognise Kakatiya supremacy.

Vijayagandagopala and the Telugu Cholas

The Telugu chola rulers contemporaneous with Vijayagandagopala were Kannaradeva at Konidena, Manmasiddha III, Tikka II and Manmagandgopala at Nellore and Aliutikka at Kanchi Aliutikka had a reign of twenty-four years from A.D. 1248 and in A.D. 1255 Konakattaiyan, a minister of Ganapati recorded gifts in the 5th year of Aliutikka. He claims to have killed the kings of the south, taken Kanchi and rdled their after making it his own. But his authority over Kanchi suffered an eclipse for by A.D. 1257, Vijayagandagopala enforced his authority there.

In extending his power into Kanchi, Vijayagandagopala came into conflict with the Telugu chodas. Tikkana somayaji saya that Gholana Manmasiddhi had successes over the kings of Dravida, Rarnata and vanquished king Vijaya, the ‘greatest, of his enemies. Manmasiddhi Gandagopala was also known as the destroyer of the pride of Vijaya. Evidently Cholana Manmasiddhi refers to Manmasiddhi III and Manmasiddhi Gandagopala to either of his sons, Tikka I or Manmagandagopala. So in extending his power in the northern direction, Vijayagandagopala came into conflct with Manmasiddhi III and his sons of the Nellore cholas and suffered sever defeat. This was probably about A.D. 1256 prior to his expedition to Kan chi. Perhaps to compensate for his failure in the north—A D. 1257 he started on southward expansion, met and vanquished Allutikka and left his records in the temples in Kanchi, perhaps to signify his success over the great Telugu Allutikka.

Vijayagandagopala’s feudatories

1. Madhusudana

Madhusudanadeva of family of the Telugu pallavas was a feudatory of Vijayagandagopala The Earliest member was Anduluri Vijayaditta Dechini. Probably Anduluru was his chief. He figures in a single record of Madhusudana. dated A.D. 1259 at Pentrala. Vijayaditya’s son was Tripurantakadeva. Tripurantaka must have been a more powerful chief than his father, as he finds mentioned in all the records of Madhusudana. Madhusudana Tripurantaka has been identified with Tripurantaka, minister of Chola Tikka who has been rightly identified with Manuma sittarasan Tirukalattidevan ie Tikka I (A D. 1209-1248). Madhusudana, son of Tripurantaka was a feudatory of Vijayagandagopala.

Madhusudana’s earliest record is from Takkolam, dated in the 3rd year of Vijayagandagopala. His next inscription is from Pentrala dated A.D. 1260 mentioning him as Mahamandalesvara and a descendant of Mukkantikaduvetti and registering gifts for the increase of the kingdom of Mahamandalesvala Inumadigandagopalavijayadittadeva Maharaja. His Tiruvalangadu inscription is dated in the 18th year of Vijayagandagopala. The next record is from Takkolam dated in the 24th year of Vijayagandagopala. Madhusudana’s inscription at TJttiramerur is dated in the '28th year of Vijayagandagopala. Mis last inscription is from Tiruvannamalai, dated in the 36th year of Kopperunjinga, mentioning him as the younger brother of Vijayandagopala, and his son Kakkunayaka, the donor.

Madhusudana’s Political Relations

Madhusudana bore the common Pallava prasasti. As noted already, he is mentioned as the younger brother of Vijayagandagopala. And it has been suggested that he was a cousin, with brotherly relationship because no records of Vijayagandagopala and Viragandagopala mention Tripurantaka as their father or Madhusudana as brother. Madhusudana,. in his first record acknowledged the suzerainty of Vijayagandagopala and also in the Uttiramerur inscription of the 28th year of Vijayagandagopala. His overlord at Pentrala in A.D. 1259 was Inumadi Gandagopala Vijayaditta. Probably of the Pentrala Pallavas holding local sway and owing loyalty to Vijayagandagopala. Madhusudana’s last record shows that his son Kakkunayaka was in the service of Kopperunjinga. Nothing more is known of Kakkunayaka or his descendants. Madhusudana had some subordinates who figure in his Takkolam records.

2. Allada Pemmayadeva Maharaja

Brahmayadeva or Allada Pemmayadeva comes to light from his records at Tripurantakam and Vipparla and that of his subordinate at Mopur. Allada’s earliest inscription is from Tripurantakam dated A.D. 1259. His next inscription is from Vipparla dated A.D. 1264. His Mopur inscription of A.D. 1311 mentions that Ahobalatha, son of Mahamandalesvara Chalukyanarayana Vengi Tribhuvanamalla, the lord of Ayodhya and a subordinate of Alloda, led an expedition into the Marjavadi country and died at Dharatirtha.

Allada’s Political Relations

Allada’s records range from A.D. 1259 to 1311. He is variously mentioned as Inumadi Basavasankara Allada Pemmayadeva (Brahmaya deva) maharaja, Mahamandalesvara Allada Pemmayadeva Maharajulu and as Alladanatha Potarajrt Pemmayadeva Maharaja in records. He bore the entire Pallava. Prasasti beginning with anekamahimandala etc and his titles resemble those of Madhusudana. He was of the family of Mukkanti Kanduvetti and a devottee of Kamakotyambika.

Allada was a contemporary of Vijayagandagopala, Kopperunjinga and Ganapati, Rudrama and Prataparudra It is likely that he owed allegiance to Vijayagandagopala. There is no clear evidence of Allada’s subordination to Ganapati, He does not seem to have come into conflict with Kopperunjinga. Probably, Allada set himself to have come into independent at Mopur after the reign of Vijayagandagopala.

3. Nallasiddharasa

Nallasiddharasa is of a family of the Telugu pallavas. The earliest member of this family is Mallasittarasan, figuring as a feudatory of Kulottunga III in his 26th year. Tipurasur (Tripurasura) and Tyagasamudrapattai Bhimarasan figure in the records of their descendant, Nallasiddharasa, the feudatory of Vijayagandagopala. The earliest of Nallasiddharasa’s records is from Kalahastidated in the 7th year of Vijayagandagopala (A.D. 1257). His next two records are from Conjeevaram dated in the 16th and the 17th years of Vijayagandagopala. Nallasiddha is mentioned as Tipurasur Nallasiddharasan in the Ambalur record of the 20th year of Vijayagandagopala. His last record dated in the regnal years of Vijayagandagopala is from Conjeevaram dated in his 21st year. An undated record of his is in Mannemutter. (in Sulurpet taluq).

Nallasiddharasa’s Political Relations

Nallasiddharasa bore the usual prasasti of the Telugu’pallava. He was a subordinate of Vijayagandagopala for fifteen years, from the 7th to the 21st regnal year. He seems to have set himself independent afterwards as none of his later records is dated in the regnal years of Vijayagandagopala but his own. In a record of his 15th year from Conjeevaram. Nallasiddha renewed the grant of Kattanur to Viraraghava at Tiruppukkuli. The identity of Nallasiddharasa of Sulurpet inscription with this Nallasiddharasa is probable.

4. Tyagasamudrapattai Alutunai

Apparasan made a grant of Gandagopalamadai in Conjeevaram in the 9th year of Vijayagandagopala. He appears as Satyavalittunai Apparasar in a’ record from Gudur taluq dated in the reign of Vijayagandagopala.

5. Girakkl Perumandideva

A Telugu chola feudatory of Vijayagandagopala made a grant in the 21st year of his over-lord. (A.D. 1271).

6. Karumanikka Perumandinayaka

In A.D. 1263 from an epigraph at Tripurantakam, Karumanikka Perumandinayaka, appears as a subordinate of Vijayagandagopala.

7. Rajaraja Sambuvarayan

A sambuva raya of the family of Sengani Ammaiyappan and grandson of Sengeni Viragaram Ammaiyappan was in the service of Rajaraja III in his 29th and 31st years (A.D. 1245-1247). His full name is Viraperumal Ediridisola Sambuvanarayan Alappirandonayan, alias Rajaraja Sambuvarayan. As subordinate of Vijayagandagopala, he made gifts in the 5th, 8th and 18th years of his overlord. He is mentioned as Pillaiyar i.e. feudatory of Vijayagandagopala.

8. Viracholan Sambuvaraya

A Viracholan Sambuvaraya figures in a record of the 16th year of Vijayagandagopala.

9. Panchanadivananilagangaraiyan

Panchanadivananilagangaraiyan and Arunagiri peruma Nilagangaraiyar were in the service of Vijayagandagopala.Later on they served Jatavarman Sundara Pandya I and Kopperunjinga.

10. Devapperumal Malavarayan

Devapperumal Malavarayan figures in a record of the 7th year of Vijayagandagopala.

11. Rajendra chola Mummadi Vaidumba Maharaja

Rajendra chola Mummadi Vaidumba Maharaja and Devar Sola gangadeva figure in the 2nd and 28th years of Vijayagandagopala respectively.

12. Tyagasamudrapattai Tikkarasar Visaiyadevan

A subordiate of Vijayagandagopala, made gists in the 29th year of his overlord.

13 Golapudi Kesinayaka

Golapudi Kesinayaka was a subordinate of Vijayagandagopala. His record from Chiramana dated A.D. 1285 gives him a prasasti some of titles being—buragandani talagenduganda and Badyamaharajasthapanacharya. Badya is probably a TeJugu Chola prince. Kesinayaka’s two sons—Kamenayaka and Devinayaka made gifts to god at Chiramana in that year.

Lastly, the Kakatiya minister Brahmisetti and Viranarasimha of the Yadhavarayas were subordinates of Vijayagandagopala.

Vijayagandagopala and other Rulers

Rajaraja III and Rajendra III were the Chola emperors in this period Some of the feudatories of Vijayagandagopala e.g. Nallasiddharasa, Sambuvarayas etc were, prior to their coming under Vijayagandagopala, were in the service of the Chola emperors, as seen above. Vijayagandagopala does not seem to have come into conflict with the rulers in Vengi. Some of whom were—Ganapati and Bhimavallabha in Konamandala, Manmapota and Ganapati at Gudimetta, Ganapati, Bhima lV and his successors at Amaravati, Beta and Ganapama at Yendmandala, Bhima and Uttambhima in Ongerumarga, Rudra II and his successors at Madapalli, Ganapati at Maddur, Vijayaditya IV at pithapur, Mahadeva I at Vengi and Sarugadhara II, Singadeva and Madhava II at Addanki.

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