Campaka, Campakā, Caṃpaka: 27 definitions
Campaka means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Alternative spellings of this word include Champaka.
Images (photo gallery)
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)Source: archive.org: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)
One of the Hands indicating Trees.—Campaka, the Laṅgula hand downwards;
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Dharmashastra (religious law)Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-śāstra
Campaka (चम्पक) is a Sanskrit word, identified with Michelia champaka (champak) by various scholars in their translation of the Śukranīti. This tree is mentioned as bearing good fruits. The King should plant such domestic plants in and near villages. He should nourish them by stoole of goats, sheep and cows, water as well as meat.
The following is an ancient Indian recipe for such nourishment of trees:
According to Śukranīti 4.4.105-109: “The trees (such as campaka) are to be watered in the morning and evening in summer, every alternate day in winter, in the fifth part of the day (i.e., afternoon) in spring, never in the rainy season. If trees have their fruits destroyed, the pouring of cold water after being cooked together with Kulutha, Māṣa (seeds), Mudga (pulse), Yava (barley) and Tila (oil seed) would lead to the growth of flowers and fruits. Growth of trees can be helped by the application of water with which fishes are washed and cleansed.”
Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
Caṃpaka (चंपक).—A vidyādhara. Once he visited the banks of river Yamunā with his wife Madālasā when they got from the forest nearby a child. The child in later years became famous as Ekavīra, founder of the Hehaya dynasty. (See EKAVĪRA).Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation
1) Campaka (चम्पक) is the name of a flower used in the worship of Śiva, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.1.11:—“[...] offerings of flowers, especially white flowers and rare flowers, shall be made to Lord Śiva. Flowers of Apāmārga, Karpūra, Jātī, Campaka, Kuśa, Pāṭala, Karavīra, Mallikā, Kamala (lotus) and Utpalas (lilies) of various sorts shall be used. When water is poured it shall be poured in a continuous stream”.
2) Campaka (चम्पक) is the name of a plant, whose flowers (kusuma) should not used in the worship of Śiva, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.1.14:—“[...] excepting the Campaka and the Ketaka there is no flower (kusuma) which does not appeal to Śiva. All other flowers can be used for worshipping Him”.
3) Campaka (चम्पक) is mentioned as one of the various flowers conjured by Vasanta (spring) in an attempt to charm Śiva, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.9. Accordingly as Kāma related to Brahmā:—“[...] Spring (Vasanta) too did the needful in enchanting Him. O, listen to it, O fortunate Being. I tell you the truth, the truth alone. He caused the various kinds of flowers to bloom in the place where Śiva was stationed—flowers such as Campakas, Keśaras, Punnāgas, Ketakas, Mallikās, Kurabakas etc. etc.”.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: Shodhganga: Edition translation and critical study of yogasarasamgraha
Campaka (चम्पक) refers to the medicinal plant known as “Michelia champaka Linn.” and is dealt with in the 15th-century Yogasārasaṅgraha (Yogasara-saṅgraha) by Vāsudeva: an unpublished Keralite work representing an Ayurvedic compendium of medicinal recipes. The Yogasārasaṃgraha [mentioning campaka] deals with entire recipes in the route of administration, and thus deals with the knowledge of pharmacy (bhaiṣajya-kalpanā) which is a branch of pharmacology (dravyaguṇa).
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
1. Campaka - A city in the time of Atthadassi Buddha. The Bodhisatta, as Susima, was born there. BuA.180.
2. Campaka - A king of fifty seven kappas ago, a previous birth of Khadiravaniya Revata. Ap.i.52; ThagA.i.109.
3. Campaka - See s.v. Campa.
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Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)Source: Wisdomlib Libary: Vajrayana
Campaka is the name of a mahāsiddha, of which eighty-four in total are recognized in Vajrayāna (tantric buddhism). His title is “the flower-king”. He lived somewhere between the 8th and the 12th century AD.
These mahāsiddhas (e.g., Campaka) are defined according to the Abhayadatta Sri (possibly Abhayākaragupta) tradition. Its textual origin traces to the 11th century caturāsiti-siddha-pravṛtti, or “the lives of the eighty-four siddhas”, of which only Tibetan translations remains. Campaka (and other Mahāsiddhas) are the ancient propounders of the textual tradition of tantric or Vajrayana Buddhism.Source: academia.edu: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala
Campaka (चम्पक) refers to one of the eight trees (vṛkṣa) of the Jñānacakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the jñānacakra refers to one of the three divisions of the saṃbhoga-puṭa (‘enjoyment layer’), situated in the Herukamaṇḍala. Campaka is associated with the charnel ground (śmaśāna) named Agni and with the direction-guardian (dikpāla) named Bhṛgu.
Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism
1) Campaka (चम्पक) is the name of the caitya-tree (identified with Michelia champaka) under which the parents of Munisuvrata are often depicted in Jaina iconography, according to both the Śvetāmbara and Digambara tradition. The term caitya refers to “sacred shrine”, an important place of pelgrimage and meditation in Jainism. Sculptures with such caitya-trees generally shows a male and a female couple seated under a tree with the female having a child on her lap. Usually there is a seated Jina figure on top of the tree.
Munisuvrata is the twentieth of twenty-four tīrthaṅkaras: enlightened beings who, having conquered saṃsāra (cycle of birth and death), leave a path behind for others to follow. His father is Vijaya and his mother is Vaprā according to Śvetāmbara or Viprītā according to Digambara, according to the Ācāradinakara (14th century work on Jain conduct written by Vardhamāna Sūri).
2) Campaka (चम्पक) is the name of a big garden situated near big lotus-lakes in the vicinity of the four Añjana mountains, according to Jain cosmology.
The Añjana-mountains (and gardens such as Campaka) are situated in the southern direction of the central part of Nandīśvaradvīpa, which is one of the continents (dvīpa) of the middle-world (madhyaloka) and is mentioned in ancient Jaina canonical texts dealing with cosmology and geography of the universe. Examples of such texts are the Saṃgrahaṇīratna in the Śvetāmbara tradition or the Tiloyapannatti and the Trilokasāra in the Digambara tradition.Source: archive.org: Economic Life In Ancient India (as depicted in Jain canonical literature)
Campaka (चम्पक) refers to a type of flower (puṣpa) commonly used in for personal and commercial purposes in ancient India. People were fond of flowers. The groves and gardens were maintained for recreational purpose. The Jain canonical texts frequently mention different horticulture products viz. fruits, vegetables and flowers which depict that horticulture was a popular pursuit of the people at that time. Gardens and parks (ārāma, ujjāṇa or nijjaṇa) were full of fruits and flowers of various kinds which besides yielding their products provided a calm andquiet place where people could enjoy the natural surroundings.
The flowers (e.g., Campaka) fulfilled the aesthetic needs of the people. At the same time they had an economic importance in as much as some people depended on its trade. It is mentioned that people of Koṅkaṇa maintained themselves by selling fruits and flowers. (see Bṛhatkalpasūtra) Flower garlands and bouquet of various designs were prepared and sold. Saffron (kuṃkuma or kesara) was an important flower product. It yielded a good income to the producers. The flower attracted the bees who yielded honey (mahu, sanskrit: madhu) of different varieties, e. g. macchiya, kuṭṭiya, bhāmara, etc.Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra
1) Campaka (चम्पक) is the tree associated with the Kimpuruṣas, one of the eight divisions of the Vyantaras: a group of deities living above the Ratnaprabhā-earth in the “lower world” (adhaloka), according to chapter 2.2 [ajitanātha-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.
Accordingly: “[...] One thousand yojanas above Ratnaprabhā, with the exception of 100 yojanas above and below, live the eight classes of the Vyantaras in northern and southern rows within the 800 yojanas. In these are: [viz., the Kimpuruṣas with the campaka tree as lāñchana; ...]”.
2) Campaka (चम्पक) refers to one of the great gardens near the four Añjana mountains, which are situated in the “middle world” (madhyaloka), according to chapter 2.3.—Accordingly, “In the four directions from each of the Añjana Mountains there are lotus-lakes, 100,000 yojanas square: [...]. At a distance of 500 yojanas from each of them there are great gardens, 500 yojanas wide and 100,000 long, named Aśoka, Saptacchadaka, Campaka, and Cūta. Within the lotus-lakes are the crystal Dadhimukha Mountains, cylinder-shaped, characterized by terraces, gardens, etc., as decorations. They are 64,000 yojanas high, and 1,000 buried in the ground; 10,000 in diameter at top and bottom. [...]”.Source: HereNow4u: Lord Śrī Mahāvīra
Campaka (चम्पक) is the name of a garden visited by Mahāvīra during his fourth year of spiritual-exertion.—They left Puttakālaya and went to Kumāraka. There in a beautiful garden, Campaka, the Lord entered into meditation. The disciple ācārya of Pārśvanātha, Municandra, was staying with his disciples there at a shed of a potter named Kūpanātha. He had made a disciple the head monk and accepted the jinakalpa (conduct like Mahāvīra’s).
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
Languages of India and abroad
Pali-English dictionarySource: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
campaka : (m.) the tree Michelia Champaka.Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Campaka, the Champaka tree (Michelia champaka) having fragrant white & yellow flowers J. V, 420; VI, 269; Miln. 338; DA. I, 280; Vism. 514 (°rukkha, in simile); DhA. I, 384; VvA. 194. (Page 262)
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
campaka (चंपक).—m (S) A flower-tree, and, n, its flower, Michelia Champaca.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
campaka (चंपक).—m A flower-tree, its flower.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
1) A tree bearing yellow, fragrant flowers.
2) A kind of perfume.
-kam 1 A flower of this tree; अद्यापि तां कनकचम्पकदामगौरीम् (adyāpi tāṃ kanakacampakadāmagaurīm) Ch. P.1.
2) The fruit of a variety of plantain.
Derivable forms: campakaḥ (चम्पकः).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Campaka (चम्पक).—(same as Pali Campeyya), name of a nāga-king: Mahāvastu ii.177.13 ff.; colophon 188.22 iti śrīcampaka- nāgarājasya jātakaṃ (= Pali Campeyya-Jātaka (Pali), 506) samāptaṃ.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-kaḥ) 1. A tree bearing a yellow fragrant flower, (Michelia champaca.) 2. A division of the jack fruit. n.
(-kaṃ) The flower of the Champa. 2. A variety of the banana or plantain, (the fruit.) E. capi to shine, &c. affix ṇvul.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Campaka (चम्पक).—I. m. A tree, Micelia champaca, Lin., [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 17, 35. Ii. f. kā. The name of a town, [Hitopadeśa] 27, 10.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Campaka (चम्पक).—[masculine] [Name] of a tree, [neuter] its fruit; [feminine] ā a town.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum
Campaka (चम्पक) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—father of Kalhaṇa (Rājataraṅgiṇī). Oxf. 147^a.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Campaka (चम्पक):—[from campa] m. Michelia Campaka (bearing a yellow fragrant flower), [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa] etc.
2) [v.s. ...] a kind of perfume, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā lxxvii, 7]
3) [v.s. ...] a particular part of the bread-fruit, [Horace H. Wilson]
4) [v.s. ...] Name of a man, [Rājataraṅgiṇī vii]
5) [v.s. ...] of a relation of the Jaina Meru-tuṅga
6) [v.s. ...] of a country, [Buddhist literature]
7) [v.s. ...] n. the flower of the Campaka tree, [Mahābhārata; Suśruta] etc.
8) [v.s. ...] the fruit of a variety of the plantain, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
9) Campakā (चम्पका):—[from campaka > campa] f. Name of a town, [Jaimini-bhārata, āśvamedhika-parvan; Hitopadeśa]
[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch
1) m. Michelia Champaka Lin., ein Baum mit stark riechender gelber Blüthe, [Amarakoṣa 2, 4, 2, 44.] [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa 2, 4, 18.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 1146.] [Mahābhārata 3, 11572. 13, 2359.] [Rāmāyaṇa 1, 17, 35. 3, 17, 11.] [Suśruta 1, 103, 12. 171, 7. 2, 286, 2.] [Hitopadeśa 17, 22.] [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 3, 15, 19.] [Rgva tch’er rol pa 201 u.s.w.] n. die Blüthe [Suśruta 1, 223, 21.] [Mahābhārata 4, 261.] [Sāhityadarpana 41, 14.] campakadāmagaurī [Mahābhārata 15, 668.] [Caurapañcāśikā 1.] —
2) m. ein best. Parfum [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 76, 13.] —
3) m. ein best. Theil der Brodfrucht (panasaphalakoṣaikadeśāvayava) [Śabdakalpadruma] Vgl. campakālu u. s. w. —
4) m. Nomen proprium eines Mannes [Weber’s Verzeichniss No. 964.] [Rājataraṅgiṇī 7, 1120. 1179. 1600.] prabhu Nomen proprium des Vaters des Kalhaṇa [Rājataraṅgiṇī] in den Unterschrr. [Lassen’s Indische Alterthumskunde II, 18.] —
5) Nomen proprium eines Landes [Lebensbeschreibung Śākyamuni’s 245 (15).] [Vyutpatti oder Mahāvyutpatti 102.] —
6) f. ā Nomen proprium einer Stadt: campakābhidhānāyāṃ nagaryām [Hitopadeśa 27, 10.] [Weber’s Verzeichniss 114, 2.] Vgl. campā, campakavatī . —
7) n. die Frucht von einer Art Pisang (kadalīphalaviśeṣa, vulg. cā~pākalā) [Rājanirghaṇṭa im Śabdakalpadruma]
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5) deśa [Oxforder Handschriften 352,b,22.]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+5): Campakacaturdashi, Campakadesha, Campakagandha, Campakakusuma, Campakalata, Campakalu, Campakamala, Campakambike, Campakanatha, Campakanyasa, Campakaprabhu, Campakapupphiya, Campakapura, Campakapushpa, Campakarambha, Campakaranya, Campakaranyamahatmya, Campakashreshthikathanaka, Campakastavana, Campakavana.
Full-text (+164): Shitacampaka, Kanakacampaka, Campakalu, Vanacampaka, Pitacampaka, Shvetacampaka, Nagacampaka, Campakaprabhu, Campakacaturdashi, Bhumicampaka, Campakavati, Atigandha, Campakadesha, Campakavyavaharikatha, Campa, Campakanatha, Campakagandha, Campakapura, Kshudracampaka, Suvarnacampaka.
Search found 37 books and stories containing Campaka, Campakā, Caṃpaka; (plurals include: Campakas, Campakās, Caṃpakas). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
The Skanda Purana (by G. V. Tagare)
Chapter 7 - Superiority of Jāti Flower < [Section 5 - Mārgaśīrṣa-māhātmya]
Chapter 9 - The Story of Hunter Vasu: The Greatness of Padmasaras < [Section 1 - Veṅkaṭācala-māhātmya]
Chapter 6 - Description of the Land of Utkala < [Section 2 - Puruṣottama-kṣetra-māhātmya]
Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Caritra (by Helen M. Johnson)
Part 11: A spring festival < [Chapter II]
Part 6: Founding of Campā < [Chapter XII - Omniscience and wandering of Mahāvīra]
Part 6: Kunthu’s initiation < [Chapter I - Śrī Kunthusvāmicaritra]
The Padma Purana (by N.A. Deshpande)
Chapter 51 - Hanūmat Frees Puṣkala from Campaka < [Section 5 - Pātāla-Khaṇḍa (Section on the Nether World)]
Chapter 10 - The Efficacy of Campaka Flower < [Section 7 - Kriyāyogasāra-Khaṇḍa (Section on Essence of Yoga by Works)]
Chapter 87 - Monthly Offering of Flowers to Viṣṇu < [Section 6 - Uttara-Khaṇḍa (Concluding Section)]
The Mahavastu (great story) (by J. J. Jones)
Chapter XVIII - Jātaka of Campaka (the Nāga king) < [Volume II]
Chapter IX(b) - The Five Hundred Merchants (metrical) < [Volume III]
Chapter XXIV - The Buddha Maṅgala < [Volume I]
Śrī Kṛṣṇa-vijaya (by Śrī Gunaraja Khan)
Brihat Samhita (by N. Chidambaram Iyer)