Ayas, Ayās, Āyas, Ayash: 15 definitions


Ayas means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Google Books: Studies in the History of the Exact Sciences (Astronomy)

Ayas (अयस्) (or Loha) refers to “iron”, representing the material to be used for the images (pratimā) of the planet Saturn, according to the grahaśānti (cf. grahayajña) section of the Yājñavalkyasmṛti (1.295-309), preceded by the section called vināyakakalpa (1.271-294), prescribing a rite to be offered to Vināyaka.—[Images of and offerings to grahas]—The materials which are used to compose the images (pratimā) of the grahas are prescribed: red copper (Sun), crystal (Moon), red sandal-wood (Mars), gold (Mercury and Jupiter), silver (Venus), iron (Saturn) [i.e., ayas], lead (Rāhu) and white copper (Ketu). Such prescriptions for the planetary images are not found in gṛhya texts except in the Āśvalāyanagṛhyapariśiṣṭa (2.3) where the materials are almost the same as those in Yājñavalkyasmṛti, the only difference being the use of saffron for Mercury instead of gold. According to the Śāntikalpa (13.3), red copper (Sun and Mars), gold (Mercury and Jupiter), silver (Moon and Venus), and black iron (Saturn, Rāhu, and Ketu) are used.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Ayas (अयस्) refers to “iron”, according to the Kulārṇava-tantra 14.89.—Accordingly, “Just as iron (ayas) penetrated by mercury becomes gold, even so a soul penetrated by initiation becomes divine”.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Ayas (अयस्) refers to “iron (begging bowl)”, according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter 41).—Accordingly, “[Digression on a case brought against the Buddha; A. The accusation].—[Question].—So be it! But the Buddha sometimes has physical and vocal actions that do not seem to accompany knowledge. How is that? [...] He insults his disciples and treats them like foolish men (mohapuruṣa). He insults Devadatta and says to him: ‘You are a fool (mūḍha), a corpse (śava), a spit-swallower (kheṭāśika)’. The Buddha forbids the possession (dhāraṇa) of eight kinds of begging-bowls (pātra) and authorizes the Bhikṣus to use only two kinds of bowls: i) fired clay (mṛttikāpātra) and ii) iron (ayas-pātra) but he himself uses a stone bowl (śailapātra). [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Economic Life In Ancient India (as depicted in Jain canonical literature)

Ayas (अयस्) refers to “iron”: a metal that was typically mined, extracted and used (both domestic and industrial) in ancient India. Mining was an important industry at that time as well. It is also known as Loha. The Jaina canonical texts mention about the extraction of various kinds of minerals, metals (e.g., ayas) and precious stones. The term ‘āgara’ occurring intire texts denotes the mines which provided many kinds of mineral products. The references in the texts of various professions and trade in metallic commodities clearly show a highly developed industry of mining and metallurgy in that period.

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Ayas (अयस्) refers to “iron”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “Here in the cycle of rebirth consisting of endless misfortune, sentient beings roam about repeatedly, struck down by spear, axe, vice, fire, corrosive liquid or razor [com.—special weapon (śastraviśeṣaḥ) made of iron (ayomayaḥ)] in hell, consumed by the multitude of flames from the fire of violent actions in the plant and animal world, and subject to unequalled trouble in the human condition [or] full of desire among the gods. [Thus ends the reflection on] the cycle of rebirth.”.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Ayas (अयस्).—a. [i-gatau-asun]

1) Going, moving; nimble. n. (-yaḥ) 1 Iron (eti calati ayaskāntasaṃnikarṣaṃ iti tathātvam; nāyasollikhyate ratnam Śukra 4.169. abhitaptamayo'pi mārdavaṃ bhajate kaiva kathā śarīriṣu R.8.43.

2) Steel.

3) Gold.

4) A metal in general.

5) Aloe wood.

6) An iron instrument; yadayonidhanaṃ yāti so'sya dharmaḥ sanātanaḥ Mahābhārata (Bombay) 6.17.11.

7) Going. m. Fire. [cf. L. aes, aeris; Goth. ais, eisarn; Ger. eisin].

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Ayās (अयास्).—a. [fr. i 'to go' Nir.] Ved. Agile, nimble.

-yāḥ ind. [i -āsiḥ Uṇādi-sūtra 4.221] Fire.

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Āyas (आयस्).—4 P.

1) To exert oneself; पिण्डार्थमायस्यतः (piṇḍārthamāyasyataḥ) Mu.3.14.

2) To weary oneself, become exhausted or fatigued; नायस्यसि तपस्यन्ती (nāyasyasi tapasyantī) Bhaṭṭikāvya 6.69,14.14,15.54. Caus.

1) To trouble, afflict; आयासयति मां जलाभिलाषः (āyāsayati māṃ jalābhilāṣaḥ) K.35; Mu.7.8; V.2.

2) To weary, tire out, worry.

3) To injure, affect; lessen, diminish; नाऽऽयासयन्त संत्रस्ता (nā''yāsayanta saṃtrastā) Bhaṭṭikāvya 8.61.

4) To string (as a bow); अनायासितकार्मुकः (anāyāsitakārmukaḥ) Pañcatantra (Bombay) 1.385.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ayas (अयस्).—n.

(-yaḥ) Iron. m.

(-yāḥ) A name of Vahni or fire. E. iṇa to go, and asun Unadi. aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ayas (अयस्).— (probably a-yam + as), n. Iron.

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Ayās (अयास्).—i. e. a-yas, adj. Indefatigable(?), Chr. 290, 11 = [Rigveda.] i. 64, 11.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ayas (अयस्).—[neuter] metal, iron.

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Ayās (अयास्).—[adjective] untired, brisk, active.

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Āyas (आयस्).—= [Simple], [Causative] āyāsayati strain, stretch, tire, vex, harass ([with] ātmānam refl.*).

Āyas is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms ā and yas (यस्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Ayas (अयस्):—n. iron, metal, [Ṛg-veda] etc.

2) an iron weapon (as an axe, etc.), [Ṛg-veda vi, 3,5 and 47, 10]

3) gold, [Naighaṇṭuka, commented on by Yāska]

4) steel, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.];

5) cf. [Latin] aes, aer-is for as-is; [Gothic] ais, Thema aisa; Old [German] er, iron; [Gothic] eisarn; [modern] [German] Eisen.

6) Ayaś (अयश्):—[from ayas] (in [compound] for ayas).

7) Ayās (अयास्):—(2, twice 3 [i.e. aiās] [Ṛg-veda i, 167, 4 and, vi, 66, 5]) mfn. ([from] a + √yas?; See ayāsya), agile, dexterous, nimble, [Ṛg-veda]

8) n. (ind.) fire, [Uṇādi-sūtra]

9) Āyas (आयस्):—[=ā-√yas] [Parasmaipada] -yasyati, to work hard, exert one’s self, weary one’s self, [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa; Bhāgavata-purāṇa; Harivaṃśa] etc.;

—to become exhausted, [Harivaṃśa; Rāmāyaṇa] etc.:

—[Causal] [Parasmaipada] -yāsayati, to weary, worry;

—to give pain, torment, [Suśruta; Mahābhārata; Kathāsaritsāgara] etc.:

—[Passive voice] of [Causal] -yāsyate, to pine away;

—to consume by grief, [Rāmāyaṇa etc.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ayas (अयस्):—[a-yas] (yaḥ) 5. n. Iron. m. A fire.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Ayas (अयस्) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Ao, Aya.

[Sanskrit to German]

Ayas in German

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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Ayash in Hindi refers in English to:—(nm) disgrace, infamy..—ayash (अयश) is alternatively transliterated as Ayaśa.

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