Vinaya Pitaka (3): Khandhaka

by I. B. Horner | 2014 | 386,194 words | ISBN-13: 9781921842160

The English translation of the Khandhaka: the second book of the Pali Vinaya Pitaka, one of the three major ‘baskets’ of Therevada canonical literature. It is a collection of various narratives. The English translation of the Vinaya-pitaka (third part, khandhaka) contains many Pali original words, but transliterated using a system similar to the I...

Allowance for Kaṭhina

Kd.7.1.1 BD.4.351 At that time the awakened one, the Lord was staying at Sāvatthī in the Jeta Grove in Anāthapiṇḍika’s monastery. Now at that time as many as thirty monks of Pāvā,[1] all forest-dwellers, all almsmen, all wearers of rag-robes,[2] all wearers of the three robes,[3] going to Sāvatthī so as to see the Lord when the beginning of the rains was approaching, were unable to reach Sāvatthī for the beginning of the rains; they entered upon the rains on the way, at Sāketa. They spent the rains in a state of longing,[4] thinking: “The Lord is staying close[5] to us, six yojanas from here, but we are not getting a chance to see the Lord.”

Then these monks having, after the lapse of three months, kept the rains, after the Invitation[6] had been carried out, while the god was raining, while waters were gathering, while swamps BD.4.352 were forming,[7] with drenched robes and in a state of weariness approached Sāvatthī, the Jeta Grove, Anāthapiṇḍika’s monastery, the Lord; having approached, having greeted the Lord, they sat down at a respectful distance.

Kd.7.1.2 Now it is the custom[8] for awakened ones, for Lords to exchange friendly greetings with in-coming monks. So the Lord spoke thus to these monks:

“I hope, monks, that things went well with you, I hope you had enough to support life, I hope that, in unity, being on friendly terms and harmonious, you spent a comfortable rainy season and did not go short of almsfood?”

“Things did go well with us, Lord, we had enough to support life, Lord, and in unity we, Lord, being on friendly terms and harmonious, spent the rainy season[9] and did not go short of almsfood. Here are we, Lord, as many as thirty monks of Pāvā, coming to Sāvatthī so as to see the Lord, (but) when the beginning of the rains was approaching, we were unable to reach Sāvatthī for the beginning of the rains; we entered on the rains on the way, at Sāketa. We spent the rains, Lord, in a state of longing for you, Vin.1.254 thinking: ‘The Lord is staying close to us, six yojanas from here, but we are not getting a chance to see the Lord.’ Then we, Lord, having, after the lapse of three months, kept the rains, and after the Invitation had been carried out, while the god was raining, while waters were gathering, while swamps were forming, with drenched robes and in a state of weariness came along on the journey.”

Kd.7.1.3 Then the Lord, on this occasion, having given dhamma-talk[10] addressed the monks, saying:

I allow you, monks, to make up kaṭhina-cloth[11] when monks have completed the rains. Five (things) will be allowable to you, monks, when the kaṭhina-cloths have been made up: going BD.4.353 (to families for alms) without having asked for permission,[12] walking (for alms) not taking the three robes,[13] a group-meal,[14] a as many robes as you require,[15] and whatever robe-material accrues[16] there, that will be for them.[17] These five (things) will be allowable to you, monks, when the kaṭhina-cloths have been made. And thus, monks, should kaṭhina-cloth be made:

Kd.7.1.4 “The Order should be informed by an experienced, competent monk, saying: ‘Honoured sirs, let the Order listen to me. This material for kaṭhina-cloth[18] has accrued to the Order. If it seems right to the Order, the Order should give this material for kaṭhina-cloth to the monk so and so for making kaṭhina-cloth.[19] This is the motion. Honoured sirs, let the Order listen to me. This material for kaṭhina-cloth has accrued to the Order. The Order is giving this material for kaṭhina-cloth to the monk so and so for making kaṭhina-cloth. If the giving BD.4.354 of this material for kaṭhina-cloth to the monk so and so for making kaṭhina-cloth is pleasing to the venerable ones, let them be silent. He to whom it is not pleasing should speak. This material for kaṭhina-cloth is given by the Order to the monk so and so for making kathiṇa-cloth. It is pleasing to the Order, therefore they are silent. Thus do I understand this.

Kd.7.1.5 “Monks, kaṭhina-cloth becomes made thus, not made thus. And how, monks, does kaṭhina-cloth become not made? kaṭhina-cloth does not become made only by marking it,[20] kaṭhina-cloth does not become made only by washing it; kaṭhina-cloth does not become made only by calculating (the number of) robes (that it will make)[21]; kaṭhina-cloth does not become made only by cutting it; kaṭhina-cloth does not become made only by tacking it[22]; kaṭhina-cloth does not become made only by making the lengths[23]; kaṭhina-cloth does not become made only by marking with a piece of cloth[24]; kaṭhina-cloth does not become made only by strengthening the work[25]; kaṭhina-cloth does not become made only by making a braiding[26]; kaṭhina-cloth does not become made only by making a binding[27]; BD.4.355 kaṭhina-cloth does not become made only by patching[28]; kaṭhina-cloth does not become made only by dyeing the garment[29]; kaṭhina-cloth does not become made by insinuation[30]; kaṭhina-cloth does not become made by roundabout talking[31]; kaṭhina-cloth does not become made by its being temporary[32]; kaṭhina-cloth does not become made by postponement[33]; kaṭhina-cloth BD.4.356 does not become made if it has to be abandoned[34]; kaṭhina-cloth does not become made if it is not made allowable[35]; kaṭhina-cloth does not become made if it is (made) except for the outer cloak[36]; Vin.1.255 kaṭhina-cloth does not become made if it is (made) except for the upper robe; kaṭhina-cloth does not become made if it is (made) except for the inner robe; kaṭhina-cloth does not become made unless five parts[37] or more than five parts[38] (of kaṭhina-cloth) are cut out, are hemmed together[39] on that same day; kaṭhina-cloth does not become made unless the making is by an individual.[40] And even if kaṭhina-cloth comes to be quite properly made, but if no one gives thanks for it standing outside the boundary,[41] thus also kaṭhina-cloth comes to be not made. And thus, monks, does kaṭhina-cloth come to be not made.

Kd.7.1.6 “And how, monks, does kaṭhina-cloth come to be made? Kaṭhina-cloth comes to be made when it is unsoiled[42]; kaṭhina-cloth BD.4.357 comes to be made when what is allowable is unsoiled[43]; kaṭhina-cloth comes to be made when it is (made) out of pieces of cloth[44]; kaṭhina-cloth comes to be made when it is (made) out of rag-robes[45]; kaṭhina-cloth comes to be made when it is (made) out of (bits picked up near) a shop[46]; kaṭhina-cloth comes to be made if there is no insinuation; kaṭhina-cloth comes to be made if there is no roundabout talking; kaṭhina-cloth comes to be made if it is not temporary; kaṭhina-cloth comes to be made if there is no postponement; kaṭhina-cloth comes to be made if it has not to be abandoned; kaṭhina-cloth comes to be made if it is made allowable; kaṭhina-cloth comes to be made if there is the outer cloak; kaṭhina-cloth comes to be made if there is the upper robe; kaṭhina-cloth comes to be made if there is the inner robe; kaṭhina-cloth comes to be made if five parts or more than five parts are cut out, are hemmed together on that same day; kaṭhina-cloth comes to be made if the making is by an individual. And if kaṭhina-cloth comes to be quite properly made, and if one gives thanks for it standing on the boundary, kaṭhina-cloth thus also comes to be made. And thus, monks, does kaṭhina-cloth come to be made.

Kd.7.1.7 “And how, monks, do the kaṭhina (privileges) become removed[47]? Monks, there are these eight grounds[48] for the BD.4.358 removal of the kaṭhina (privileges): that depending on (a monk) going away; that depending on (his robe) being settled[49]; that depending on his resolves[50] (not to have it made up and not to come back); that depending on (the robe) being lost; that depending on his hearing (of the general removal of the privileges in the residence to which he has gone); (that depending on) the disappointment of his expectation[51] (that a special gift of a robe would be made to him); that depending on his having crossed the boundary[52]; (that depending on) the removal (of the kaṭhina privileges) together with (those of the other monks)”.[53]

Footnotes and references:

1.

tiṃsamattā Pāṭheyyakā bhikkhū, mentioned also at SN.ii.187, where called Paveyyakā, and also described as sabbe sasaṃyojanā, all (still) with the fetters; it is said that they all became freed from the āsavas (cankers) with no substrate remaining after the Lord had given them a discourse on the incalculability of the beginning of this faring-on, anamataggāyaṃ saṃsāro, which is part of the Anamatagga-saṃyutta. This event is referred to at Vin-a.1106; and also at Dhp-a.ii.32 (called anamataggadhammadesanā), from which it appears that Dhp.65 was uttered in connection with these monks. See also above, BD.4.31, n.2 for their identification with the tiṃsamattā bhaddavaggiyā sahāyakā.
Dictionary of Pali Proper Names takes Pāveyyakā (also a variant reading at Vin.1.253) as the right one and says that it is the “name given to the inhabitants of Pāvā”. Pāvā is mentioned at e.g. DN.ii.162. At DN.iii.207 it is called a city of the Mallas, the people being referred to as Pāveyyakā Mallā. According to Vin-a.1105 Pāṭheyya is a kingdom situated to the west of the Kosala country. See Vinaya Texts ii.146, n.

2.

Cf. Vin.3.230ff., where it is specifically stated in an “allowance” ascribed to Gotama that the first three of these types of monks may, if they so wish, come up to see the Lord. Cf. also MN.iii.40ff. These three, combined with the monk who is tecīvariko, wearer of the three robes, occur at MN.i.214; and cf. AN.i.38. These four practices (aṅga) are explained in much detail at Vism.59ff. At AN.ii.26 it is said that “among robes, rag-robes are trifling, easy to get, blameless”, quoted at Vism.64.

3.

Prescribed at Bu-NP.1. The three robes would be made of rags. See also Kd.8.12.

4.

ukkaṇṭhitarūpā.

5.

āsanneva, right near.

6.

Pavāraṇā; see Kd.4; also BD.1.283, n.5; GS.iv.183, n.3.

7.

udakacikkhalle.

9.

Vin-a.1106 says that on account of their longing to see the Lord, they did not say that they had spent a “comfortable” rainy season.

10.

According to Vin-a.1106 this was the talk on the incalculability of the beginning of this faring-on, see above, BD.4.351, n.1.

11.

kaṭhinaṃ attharituṃ, i.e. the formal or ceremonial making of the kaṭhina-cloth, given by the laity, into robes. See BD.2.5, n.1; BD.2.26, n.3.

12.

anāmantacāra. Vin-a.1106 says that “so long as the kaṭhina privileges are not removed, it is allowable to go (to families for alms) anāmantetvā”, i.e. not having asked for permission, “and it will be no offence in regard to the Cārittasikkhāpada”, i.e. Bu-Pc.46. In this Pācittiya, if a monk, although invited, nimantita, but not having asked (for permission, anāpucchā) if a monk be there, should call upon families, except at a right time, there is a Pācittiya offence. One of the right times is the time of making robes, although the making up of the kaṭhina-cloth is not specifically mentioned in this Pācittiya rule. Vinaya Texts ii.150, n.1 says that āmanteti must be equal to āpucchati; while Critical Pali Dictionary, under anāmantacāra, refers to Vin.4.100, santaṃ bhikkhuṃ anāpucchā. The Sanskrit Dictionaries give “invitation” and “interrogation” among the meanings of āmantraṇa. The word occurs at AN.iii.259; AN-a.iii.330 quotes Vin.4.100.

13.

asamādānacāra. Vin-a.1107 says “walking not taking with one the three robes, ticīvaraṃ asamādāya, the meaning is that it will be allowable to be away, separated from a robe”. This therefore is a relaxation of Bu-NP.2. At Vin.1.298 it is also said that an outer cloak may be laid aside when the kaṭhina cloth has been made.

14.

gaṇabhojana; thus a relaxation of Bu-Pc.32, although as the formulation of this rule developed, one of the exceptions to its general terms came to be the legality of eating a group-meal at the time of making robes.

15.

yāvadatthacīvaraṃ. Vin-a.1107 says that as many robes as are required will be allowable as long as they are not allotted, not assigned. Cf. Bu-NP.1 where it is said that an extra robe may be worn for at most ten days when the kaṭhina privileges have been removed and the robes settled. “Till that has taken place, a Bhikkhu may use (temporarily, and without actually appropriating them) as many robes as he likes” (Vinaya Texts ii.151, n.3, q.v.). According to Vism.64f. the strict wearer of the three robes, tecīvarika, should not accept a fourth robe, which, to less ascetic monks, would be of use when washing and dyeing the set of three robes.

16.

cīvaruppāda.

17.

nesaṃ bhavissati. Vin-a.1107 says that this may be the robe of a dead monk, or a gift to the Order, or a robe that accrues to the Order in any way.

18.

kaṭhinadussa.

19.

Vin-a.1109 says that neither a saṅgha, Order, nor a gaṇa, group, makes the kaṭhina cloth, but an individual.

20.

ullikhitamattena, according to Vin-a.1110 for the purpose of measurement lengthwise and across. The monk marks it, ullikhati, with his nails, showing the measurement of each strip, padesa, so that he can recognise it.

21.

cīvaravicāraṇamattena, Vin-a.1110 saying, “let it be for five or seven nine or eleven”.

22.

bandhanamattenā ti moghasuttakāropanamattena, so Vin-a.1110, i.e. by putting false threads in (the material). Vinaya Texts ii.153 reading “when it has only been pieced together”, takes it that the false threads are “put in the cloth to show where it is to be cut or sewn”. But in the series of actions necessary for completing the making of kaṭhina-cloth “cutting”, or cutting out, has been done already. Moghasuttaka, allowed at Vin.2.116, is defined by Buddhaghosa in an exegesis on Kd.15.11.3, see Vin-a.1206. Cf. bandhanamatta above, BD.4.260, n.2; and also at Vin.2.135 although here it seems to have a different meaning.

23.

ovaṭṭikakaraṇamattenā ti moghasuttakānusārena dīghasibbitamattena, so Vin-a.1110, i.e. only by sewing a long (strip) by following the “false threads”. Ovaṭṭika allowed at Vin.1.290.

24.

kaṇḍūsakaraṇamattenā ti muddhiyapaṭabandhanamattena, so Vin-a.1110, i.e. only by putting on a piece of cloth as a sign. Kaṇḍūsaka allowed at Vin.1.290, on which Vin-a.1128 says kaṇḍūsakaṃ vuccati muddikā, a mark (or sign) (the disfigurement) is called kaṇḍūsaka.

25.

daḷhikammakaraṇamattena. This is apparently done by sewing the cloths, cimilikā, together, Vin-a.1110; Vinaya Texts ii.153 reading “when it has only been made strong (in the seams)”. Daḷhikamma allowed at Vin.1.290.

26.

anuvātakaraṇamattena. It appears from Vin-a.1110 that the anuvāta was put along the back (of the cloth). See Vin.4.121 (= BD.2.409 q.v. n.7.) where the Commentary, on the rule for disfiguring a new robe says there is no offence if it is on a braiding, anuvāta. Anuvāta allowed at Vin.2.116.

27.

paribhaṇḍakaraṇamattena. The paribhaṇḍa appears to have been put inside the cloth. Again see Vin.4.121, and BD.2.409, n.8. Allowed at Vin.2.116.

28.

ovaddheyyakaraṇamattena. Vin-a.1111 says, “only by putting it on the in-coming cloth. Or taking cloth from a kaṭhina-robe, only by putting the cloth on another kaṭhina-robe”. The variant reading for this last is akaṭhinacīvara, what is not kaṭhina-cloth. The whole meaning is obscure. It perhaps refers to the saṅghātī, the outer cloak, which had to be made of double cloth. On the other hand ovaddheyya may mean “patching”.

29.

kambalamaddanamattena. Kambala, usually a garment or blanket made of wool, is allowed at Vin.1.281. But the kaṭhina material was of cotton cloth. Maddana too usually means crushing or kneading. But Vin-a.1111 says “throwing it once into the dye, rajana, for the colour of ivory, for the colour of withered leaves”. Monks’ robes are of the colour of old ivory, and russets, yellows, browns and reds.

30.

nimittakatena. Pali-English Dictionary gives for nimittaṃ karoti, “to pick out the aim, to mark out”, and Childers “to drop a hint”. There is nothing in the Commentary to support the rendering given at Vinaya Texts ii.154, and the alternative suggestion put forward, Vinaya Texts ii.154, n.5 is more pertinent: “Or perhaps according to some commentators, when it has been decided to accept the gift as a kaṭhina, that is, when it has been decided that the cloth is of a suitable kind to make robes out of.” For Vin-a.1111, defining nimittakatena, says “‘I will make a kaṭhina (-robe) with this cloth (dussena)’, this is called nimittakatena. For it is called just this in the Parivāra” (see Vin.5.172 which defines nimittakamma as nimittaṃ karoti iminā dussena kaṭhinaṃ attharissāmī ti). “But” Vin-a.1111 continues, “in some commentaries it is said that he (i.e. the monk) says, “this cloth (or cloak, sāṭaka) is excellent, it is possible to make a kaṭhina (-robe) with this”; this means: having thus insinuated (dropped a hint, or made a sign, nimittakammaṃ katvā) as to getting it.” Critical Pali Dictionary gives for a-nimittakata, “of which no decision has been made”.
Vism.23 = Vb.352 asks, “What here is nemittakata?” i.e. insinuation. The answer is (following translation at Path of Purity, i.27) “What to others is a sign, nimitta, making a sign, nimittakamma, a hint, obhāsa, giving a hint, roundabout talk, winding speech, parikathā (see next term in Vinaya text and next note) on the part of one of evil desires”, etc. Vism.28 explains nimitta and nimittakamma so as to leave no doubt that by them “hinting” or “insinuating” is meant. Cf. also Vb-a.483.

31.

parikathākatena. Vin-a.1111 says “he ought to give kaṭhina cloth, the benefactor giving kaṭhina-cloth produces much merit”, thus is meant “by making parikathā”, roundabout talk. At Vism.23 = Vb.353 parikathā is included in definition of nemittikata, see previous note. It is defined at Vism.29 = Vb-a.484 as “speaking round and round until one gets what is wanted”. Vin.5.172 says “parikathā means that he makes roundabout talk, saying, ‘I will bring forth kaṭhina-cloth by this roundabout talk’”. Critical Pali Dictionary gives for a-parikathākata, not “obtained by speaking of its worth”.

32.

kukkukatenā ti tāvakālikena, Vin-a.1111. Vin.5.172 says that it is called a gift that is not appropriated.

33.

sannidhikatena, so Vinaya Texts ii.154 and Pali-English Dictionary Vin.5.172 = Vin-a.1111 says that there are two “ postponements” or “storings up”, sannidhi, that of karaṇa, doing or making, and that of nicaya, possessions. Vin-a.1111 further explains, “postponement of doing (or making) is not doing (or making) it today) putting the doing (or making) to one side; postponement of possessions means that the Order, receiving kaṭhina-cloth today, gives it (to the monks) the next day”. Sannidhikata occurs at Vin.2.270 in reference to food.

34.

nissaggiyena. Vin.5.172 = Vin-a.1111 saying “while it is being made the dawn breaks”. All the various processes in the making of the kaṭhina robes had to be carried out on one and the same day.

35.

akappakatena. Cf. Bu-Pc.58, where a new robe has to be disfigured so that the owner can identify it. The three modes of disfigurement consisted in applying some kind of smudge (bindu) to the robe. Cf. BD.2.409, n.5, and Vin-a.1111 anādinnakappabindunā, by not giving the smudge (that makes the robe) allowable.

36.

aññatra saṅghāṭiya, if the outer cloak is lacking, not finished.

37.

Cf. Vin.1.287 where each of the three robes of a monk was allowed to be worn chinnaka, cut up into pieces to resemble the divisions of a paddy field; and Vin.1.297 where it is said that one of the three robes might be worn acchinnaka, not cut up. Vin-a.1111 says that five or more parts are to be made by taking pieces, showing mahāmaṇḍala-aḍḍhamaṇḍala, i.e. either circular or semi-circular seams (see Critical Pali Dictionary under aḍḍhamaṇḍala) or “the greater circles and the lesser circles” (see Vinaya Texts ii.209 and Vin-a.1127), or “the seams and the short seams” (cf. Vin.1.287). Vin-a.1111 continues, “thus it (the robe) comes to be made with seams (or circles); setting that to one side there ought not to be another that is not cut up or that is in (only) two, three or four pieces”.

38.

atirekapañcaka, Critical Pali Dictionary gives “more than one of the five parts”.

39.

samaṇḍalīkatena, see last note but one.

40.

aññatra puggalassa atthārā. Vin-a.1111 says “setting to one side the making by an individual, it does not become made because of another making by either an Order or a group”. It seems that each monk must make up the kaṭhina cloth distributed to him by the Order, and not rely upon the Order or a group to do so for him; see above Kd.7.1.4 and cf. Vin-a.1109.

41.

nissīmaṭṭho anumodati. Vin-a.1111 merely says, “if he (or, one) gives thanks standing, ṭhito, outside, bahu, the boundary of the precincts” (i.e. of the residence where the work is being done). Anumodati more likely refers to a monk thanking the Order than to an Order thanking the donors of the kaṭhina-cloth, for see Kd.7.1.4 where the Order gives the monks the material for making into kathiṇa-cloth.

42.

ahatena, which Vin-a.1111 explains by aparibhuttena, not used.

43.

ahatakappena. Vin-a.1111 says “by washing it once or twice (so as to make it) as though unsoiled”.

44.

pilotikāya, which Vin-a.1111 explains by hatavatthakasāṭakena, out of a cloak or garment which are soiled; variant reading gatavatthukasāṭakena.

45.

Vin-a.1112 says “when rag-robes have accrued in twenty-three fields”; the idea being that a monk must wander about in order to acquire his rags. Vin-a., quoting another commentary, says that the meaning there is that when a monk who is a rag-robe wearer is touring for alms and rags, colaka, then (kaṭhina-cloth comes to be made) when the robe is made up from the rags received.

46.

pāpaṇikena. Vin-a.1112 saying “if taking pieces of cloth, pilotika, dropped at the door of a shop, he gives them for kaṭhina-cloth, the meaning is because of this”. Cf. Vin-a.1128, pāpaṇike ti antarāpaṇato patitapilotikacīvare, robes of piles of cloth taken amidst a shop. At Vism.62, pāpaṇika, “shop-rag” is included under paṃsukūla, rag-robes.

47.

ubbhataṃ kaṭhinaṃ. See Bu-NP.1, Bu-NP.2, Bu-NP.3, and BD.2.5, n.3; BD.2.6, n.5; BD.2.13, n.2.

48.

mātikā, channels, headings. See Vinaya Texts ii.157 for these eight grounds for the removal of the five kaṭhina privileges being “closely connected” with the description in Kd.7.13 of the two so-called palibodhas. “Palibodha seems to mean the continued existence of a claim on the Bhikkhu’s side to a share in the distribution of the kaṭhina”. There are in this connection two palibodhas, that concerned with the monk’s residence, āvāsa, and that concerned with his robes, cīvara. The mātikā are exemplified in the following stories. See also Vin.5.177 and BD.2.5, n.3; BD.2.6, n.5.

49.

niṭṭhāna. Cf. niṭṭhita, “settled”, BD.2.6.

50.

sanniṭṭhāna. Word occurs at Ja.1187, Ja.iv.167 + katvā.

51.

āsāvacchedikā. Cf. BD.2.6, n.4.

52.

I.e. of the residence to which kaṭhina-cloth had been given, and where he should have made up his portion.

53.

Editors of Vinaya Texts ii.156, n.4 thinks that this section should have begun “the new chapter”. I hold it to be correct as it is, for with it cease the words ascribed to Gotama. The stories that follow, Kd.7.2Kd.7.12 inclusive, are not supposed to have been told by him, but are exemplifications of the grounds for removing the kaṭhina privileges, and which some later person or persons apparently thought wise to incorporate in the “text”.

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