Vinaya Pitaka (4): Parivara

by I. B. Horner | 2014 | 150,781 words | ISBN-13: 9781921842160

The English translation of the Khandhaka: the second book of the Pali Vinaya Pitaka, one of the three major ‘baskets’ of Therevada canonical literature. It analyses the rules from various points of view. The English translation of the Vinaya-pitaka (fourth part, parivara) contains many Pali original words, but transliterated using a system similar...

16. Synopsis Of Kaṭhina

Prv.16.1.1 BD.6.279 Vin.5.172 By whom is kaṭhina cloth not formally made[1]? By whom is kaṭhina cloth formally made? How is kaṭhina cloth not formally made? How is kaṭhina cloth formally made?

“By whom is kaṭhina cloth not formally made?” means: kaṭhina cloth is not formally made by two individuals: by him who does not formally make it and by him who does not give thanks.[2] Kaṭhina cloth is not formally made by these two individuals.

“By whom is kaṭhina cloth formally made?” means: kaṭhina cloth is formally made by two individuals: by him who formally makes it and by him who gives thanks. Kaṭhina cloth is formally made by these two individuals.

“How is kaṭhina cloth not formally made?” means: in twenty-four ways is kaṭhina cloth not formally made. Kaṭhina cloth is not formally made merely by marking it[3] … (Kd.7.1.5) … Thus also is kaṭhina cloth not formally made.

Insinuation[4] is called: he insinuates, saying “I will formally make kaṭhina out of this cloth”. Roundabout talk is called: he makes roundabout talk, saying “I will get[5] the cloth for kaṭhina cloth by means of this roundabout talk”. Temporary is called: it is called a gift that should not be appropriated. Postponement is called: there are two kinds of postponement: a postponement in carrying out (doing) and a postponement of possessions. To be forfeited is called: if the dawn breaks while it is being made.[6] In these twenty-four ways is kaṭhina cloth not formally made.

BD.6.280 “How is kaṭhina cloth formally made?” means in seventeen ways is kaṭhina cloth formally made. Kaṭhina cloth is formally made when it is unsoiled … see Kd.7.1.6 Thus also is kaṭhina cloth formally made. In these seventeen ways is kaṭhina cloth formally made.

Prv.16.2.1 With the formal making of kaṭhina cloth how many things are produced? With the formal making of kaṭhina cloth fifteen things are produced[7]: eight grounds,[8] two impediments,[9] five advantages.[10] With the formal making of kaṭhina cloth these fifteen things are produced.

Prv.16.2.2 Vin.5.173 Of a means[11] how many things are the condition through the contiguous condition, the condition through the immediate condition, the condition through the foundation condition, the condition through the inducement condition, the condition through the pre-arising condition, the condition through the post-arising condition, the condition through the co-arising condition[12]? Of a former action[13] how many things are the condition through the contiguous condition … ?

Of a removal[14] how many things, of an allotting[15] how many things, of a formal making how many things, of the grounds and the impediments how many things, of the clothing[16] how many things are the condition through the contiguous condition … the condition through the co-arising condition?

Prv.16.2.3 A former action is the condition of the means through a contiguous condition, it is the condition through an immediate BD.6.281 condition, it is the condition through a foundation condition, it is the condition through an inducement condition. A means is a condition of a former action through a pre-arising condition. A former action is the condition of the means through a post-arising condition. Fifteen things are the condition through a co-arising condition.

Prv.16.2.4 Removal is a condition of a former action through a contiguous condition, it is the condition through an immediate condition, it is the condition through a foundation condition, it is the condition through an inducement condition. A former action is the condition of removal through a pre-arising condition. Removal is the condition of a former action through a post-arising condition. Fifteen things are the condition through a co-arising condition.

Prv.16.2.5 Allotting is a condition of removal through a contiguous condition … an immediate condition … a foundation condition … an inducement condition. Removal is a condition of allotting through a pre-arising condition. Allotting is a condition of removal through a post-arising condition. Fifteen things are the condition through a co-arising condition.

Prv.16.2.6 Formal making is a condition of allotting through a contiguous … immediate … foundation … inducement-condition. Allotting is a condition of formal making through a pre-arising condition. Formal making is a condition of allotting through a post-arising condition. Fifteen things are the condition through a co-arising condition.

Prv.16.2.7 The grounds and the impediments are the condition of formal making through a contiguous … immediate … foundation … inducement condition. The formal making is the condition of the grounds and the impediments through a pre-arising condition. The grounds and impediments are the condition of the formal making through a post-arising condition. Fifteen things are the condition through a co-arising condition.

Prv.16.2.8 Vin.5.174 Expectation[17] and lack of expectation[18] are the condition of clothing through a contiguous … immediate … foundation … inducement condition. Clothing is the condition of expectation and lack of expectation through a pre-arising BD.6.282 condition. Expectation and lack of expectation are the condition of clothing through a post-arising condition. Fifteen things are the condition through a co-arising condition.

Prv.16.3.1 What is the provenance, what the arising, what the birth what the source, what the bringing forth, what the origin of a former action? What is the provenance … what the origin of a removal? What is the provenance … what the origin of an allotting … of formal making? What is the provenance what the origin of grounds and impediments … of expectation and lack of expectation?

Means is the provenance, means is the arising … means is the origin of former action. Former action is the provenance … the origin of removal. Removal is the provenance … of allotting. Allotting is the provenance … of formal making. Formal making is the provenance … of allotting. The grounds and the impediments are the provenance … of formal making. Expectation and lack of expectation are the provenance of clothing … the origin of clothing.

Prv.16.3.2 What is the provenance, what the arising … what the origin of means … former action … removal … allotting … formal making … the ground? and the impediments … clothing? What is the provenance … what the origin of expectation and lack of expectation?

Cause is the provenance, cause the arising … of means … Cause is the provenance, cause is … the origin of expectation and lack of expectation.

Prv.16.3.3 What is the provenance … of means … What is the provenance … what the origin of expectation and lack of expectation?

Condition is the provenance, condition the arising … of means … Condition is the provenance, condition is … the origin of expectation and lack of expectation.

Prv.16.3.4 With how many things is former action classified? Former action is classified with seven things: with washing, with calculating,[19] with cutting,[20] with tacking,[21] with sewing, with BD.6.283 dyeing, with making allowable. Former action is classified with these seven things.

With how many things is removal classified? Removal is classified with three things: with outer cloak, with upper robe, with inner robe.[22]

With how many things is allotting classified? … with three things: with outer cloak, with upper robe, with inner robe.

With how many things is formal making classified? Formal making is classified with one thing: with breaking into speech.[23]

Prv.16.3.5 How many roots of kaṭhina cloth, how many matters, how many materials[24]? Vin.5.175 One root of kaṭhina cloth: the Order[25]; three matters: outer cloak, upper robe, inner robe[26]; six materials: linen, cotton, silk, wool, coarse hemp, canvas.

Prv.16.3.6 What is the beginning of kaṭhina cloth, what is in the middle, what is the ending? Former action is the beginning of kaṭhina cloth, carrying out is in the middle, formal making is the ending.

Prv.16.3.7 When an individual is possessed of how many qualities is he incapable of formally making kaṭhina cloth? When an individual is possessed of how many qualities is he capable of formally making kaṭhina cloth? When an individual is possessed of eight qualities he is incapable of formally making kaṭhina cloth. When an individual is possessed of eight qualities he is capable of formally making kaṭhina cloth. Possessed of which eight qualities is the individual incapable of formally making kaṭhina cloth? He does not know former action … removal … allotting … formal making … ground … impediment … withdrawal[27] … advantage. Possessed of these eight qualities an individual is incapable of formally making kaṭhina cloth. Possessed of which eight qualities is the individual capable of BD.6.284 formally making kaṭhina cloth? He knows former action he knows advantage. Possessed of these eight qualities an individual is capable of formally making kaṭhina cloth.

Prv.16.3.8 Of how many individuals are formal makings of kaṭhina cloth not effective? Of how many individuals are formal makings of kaṭhina cloth effective? Of three individuals formal makings of kaṭhina cloth are not effective. Of three individuals formal makings of kaṭhina cloth are effective. Of which three individuals are formal makings of kaṭhina cloth not effective? If, standing outside the boundary, he gives thanks[28]; if, giving thanks, he does not break into speech; if breaking into speech, he does not inform another (monk).[29] Of these three individuals formal makings of kaṭhina cloth are not effective. Of which three individuals are formal makings of kaṭhina cloth effective? If, standing on the boundary, he gives thanks[30]; if, giving thanks, he breaks into speech; if, breaking into speech, he informs another (monk). Of these three individuals formal makings of kaṭhina cloth are effective.

Prv.16.3.9 How many formal makings of kaṭhina cloth are not effective? How many formal makings of kaṭhina cloth are effective? Three formal makings … are not effective. Three formal makings … are effective. Which three formal makings of kaṭhina cloth are not effective? There is failure as to clothing, and failure as to time, and failure as to making.[31] These three formal makings of kaṭhina cloth are not effective. Which three formal makings of kaṭhina cloth are effective? There is success as to clothing, success as to time, and success as to making. These three formal makings … are effective.

Prv.16.4.1 Kaṭhina cloth should be known, the formal making of kaṭhina cloth should be known, the month for the formal making of kaṭhina cloth should be known, failure in the formal making of kaṭhina cloth should be known, success in the formal making of kaṭhina cloth should be known, insinuation should be known, roundabout talking should be known, what is temporary should BD.6.285 be known, postponement should be known, what is to be forfeited should be known.

Vin.5.176 “Kaṭhina cloth should be known” means: the classification of these very things,[32] the combination, the name,[33] the denomination,[34] the giving of a name,[35] the interpretation,[36] the distinctive sign,[37] the expression,[38]—that is to say, kaṭhina cloth.

“The month for the formal making of kaṭhina cloth should be known”[39] means: the last month of the rains should be known.

“Failure in the formal making of kaṭhina cloth should be known” means: the failure in the formal making of kaṭhina cloth in the twenty-four ways should be known.[40]

“Success in the formal making of kaṭhina cloth should be known” means: the success in the formal making of kaṭhina cloth in the seventeen ways should be known.[41]

“Insinuation[42] should be known” means: he insinuates, saying, “I will formally make kaṭhina cloth with this cloth.”

“Roundabout talk[43] should be known” means: he makes roundabout talk, saying, “I will get the cloth for kaṭhina cloth by this roundabout talk.”

“What is temporary[44] should be known” means: a gift that should not be appropriated should be known.

“Postponement[45] should be known” means: the two postponements should be known: the postponement in carrying out and the postponement of possessions.

“What is to be forfeited[46] should be known” means: if the dawn breaks while it is being made.

“The formal making of kaṭhina cloth should be known” means: if cloth for kaṭhina cloth has accrued to an Order, what line of action should be taken by the Order, what line of action should be taken by (the monk) who is the formal maker of it, what line of action should be taken by (the monk) who BD.6.286 gives the thanks[47]? A monk who is a formal maker of kaṭhina cloth should be given by the Order a formal act at which motion is followed by one resolution. Kaṭhina cloth should be made that same day by a monk who is the formal maker of it after he has washed it, smoothed it,[48] calculated it, cut it sewn it, dyed it, made it allowable. If he wants formally to make kaṭhina cloth into an outer cloak the old outer cloak must be removed, a new outer cloak allotted, and he should break into speech, saying, “I will formally make kaṭhina cloth into this outer cloak.” If he wants formally … to make an upper robe … If he wants formally to make kaṭhina cloth into an inner robe … speech, saying, “I will formally make kaṭhina cloth into this inner robe.” After the monk who is the formal maker of kaṭhina cloth has approached the Order arranged his outer robe over one shoulder, stretched out his joined palms in salutation, he should speak thus to it: “Venerable sirs, the Order’s kaṭhina cloth has been formally made, the formal making of kaṭhina cloth was according to regulation; give thanks.” After he has arranged his upper robe over one shoulder and has stretched forth his joined palms in salutation, he should be spoken to thus by those monks who gave the thanks: Vin.5.177 “Revered sir, the Order’s kaṭhina cloth has been formally made, the formal making of kaṭhina cloth was according to regulation; we are giving thanks.” After a monk who is a formal maker of kaṭhina cloth has approached several monks, arranged his upper robe over one shoulder, stretched out his joined palms in salutation, he should speak thus to them: “Venerable sirs, the Order’s kaṭhina cloth … give thanks.” … by those monks who give the thanks … “ … we are giving thanks”. After the monk who is a formal maker of kaṭhina cloth has approached one monk, … he should speak thus to him: “Reverend sir … give thanks.” After he has arranged his upper robe over one shoulder, stretched out his joined palms in salutation, he should be spoken to thus by the monk who is the giver of the BD.6.287 thanks: “Reverend sir, the Order’s kaṭhina cloth has been formally made, the making of kaṭhina cloth was according to regulation; I am giving thanks.”

Prv.16.5.1 An Order formally makes kaṭhina cloth, a group … an individual formally makes kaṭhina cloth. An Order does not formally make kaṭhina cloth, a group does not … an individual formally makes kaṭhina cloth. If the Order does not formally make kaṭhina cloth, if a group does not … if an individual formally makes kaṭhina cloth: kaṭhina cloth is not formally made by the Order, kaṭhina cloth is not formally made by a group, kaṭhina cloth is formally made by an individual.

An Order recites the Pātimokkha, a group recites the Pātimokkha, an individual recites the Pātimokkha. An Order does not recite the Pātimokkha, a group does not recite the Pātimokkha, an individual recites the Pātimokkha. If an Order … if a group does not recite the Pātimokkha, if an individual recites the Pātimokkha the Pātimokkha is not recited by an Order … not recited by a group, the Pātimokkha is recited by an individual.

When an Order is complete, when a group is complete, on the recital by the individual the Pātimokkha is recited by an Order … by a group … by an individual. In the same way an Order does not formally make kaṭhina cloth, a group does not formally make kaṭhina cloth, an individual formally makes kaṭhina cloth: by the thanking of an Order, by the thanking of a group, by the formal making by an individual kaṭhina cloth is formally made by an Order … by a group, kaṭhina cloth is formally made by an individual.

Prv.16.6.1 “Depending on his going away
his kaṭhina (privileges) are called removed[49]
by the Kinsman of the Sun:
And I ask you this:
Which impediment is cut off first?”

Vin.5.178 “Depending on his going away
his kaṭhina (privileges) are called removed
by the Kinsman of the Sun,
And I answer you this:
the robes-impediment is cut off first,
On his going outside the boundary
the residence-impediment is cut off.”[50]

BD.6.288 “Depending on (his robes) being settled[51]
his kaṭhina (privileges) are called removed
by the Kinsman of the Sun:
And I ask you this … ”

“And I answer you this:
the residence-impediment is cut off first,
When the robes are settled
the robes-impediment is cut off.”

“Depending on his resolves[52]
his kaṭhina (privileges) are called removed
by the Kinsman of the Sun:
And I ask you this … ”

“And I answer you this:
the two impediments are cut off simultaneously.”

“Depending on (the robe-material) being lost[53]
his kaṭhina (privileges) are called removed
by the Kinsman of the Sun:
And I ask you this … ”

“And I answer you this:
the residence-impediment is cut off first,
When the robe is lost
the robes-impediment is cut off.”

“Depending on his hearing (the news)[54]
his kaṭhina (privileges) are called removed
by the Kinsman of the Sun:
And I ask you this … ”

“And I answer you this:
the robes-impediment is cut off first,
On his hearing of it
the residence-impediment is cut off.”

“(Depending on) the disappointment of his expectation[55]
his kaṭhina (privileges) are called removed
by the Kinsman of the Sun:
And I ask you this … ”

“And I answer you this:
the residence-impediment is cut off first,
When there is disappointment of robe-material
the robes-impediment is cut off.”

“Depending on his crossing a boundary[56]
his kaṭhina (privileges) are called removed
by the Kinsman of the Sun:
BD.6.289 And I ask you this …”

“And I answer you this:
the robes-impediment is cut off first,
When he has gone outside the boundary
the residence-impediment is cut off.”

“Depending on withdrawal
together with[57] (the kaṭhina privileges)
his kaṭhina privileges are called removed
by the Kinsman of the Sun:
And I ask you this:
Which impediment is cut off first?”

“And I answer you this:
the two impediments are cut off simultaneously.”

Prv.16.7.1 How many removals of the kaṭhina (privileges) are dependent on an Order, how many … on an individual, how many removals of the kaṭhina (privileges) are dependent neither on an Order nor on an individual? One removal of the kaṭhina (privileges) is dependent on an Order: a temporary withdrawal.[58] Four removals of the kaṭhina (privileges) are dependent on an individual: that depending on his going away, that depending on (his robe) being settled, that depending on his resolves, that depending on his crossing the boundary. Four removals of the kaṭhina (privileges) are dependent neither on an Order nor on an individual: that depending on (the robe) being lost, that depending on (his) hearing, the disappointment of an expectation, the withdrawal together with.[59]

Prv.16.7.2 Vin.5.179 How many removals of the kaṭhina (privileges) are removed inside the boundary … outside the boundary, how many removals of the kaṭhina (privileges) may be removed inside the boundary … outside the boundary? Two removals of the kaṭhina (privileges) are removed inside the boundary: temporary withdrawal and withdrawal together with. Three removals of the kaṭhina (privileges) are removed outside the boundary: that depending on going away, that depending on hearing, that depending on crossing the boundary. Four BD.6.290 removals of the kaṭhina (privileges) may be removed inside the boundary and may be removed outside the boundary; that depending on (the robes) being settled, that depending on resolves, that depending on (the robe) being lost, the disappointment of an expectation.

Prv.16.7.3 How many removals of the kaṭhina (privileges) are of one arising, one cessation? How many removals of the kaṭhina (privileges) are of one arising, different cessations? Two removals of the kaṭhina (privileges) are of one arising, one cessation: temporary withdrawal, withdrawal together with. The remaining withdrawals of the kaṭhina (privileges) are of one arising, different cessations.

Concluded is the Synopsis of Kaṭhina

Its Summary

By whom, how, fifteen, things, and cause as provenance,
Condition, classification, roots, and the beginning, eight individuals, /
Of three breakings, three, should be known,
and formal making compared with recital,
Impediment, depending on, boundaries,
and about arising and cessation. /

Concluded is the Parivāra[60]

Footnotes and references:

1.

anatthata, not formally made, see BD.2.26, n.3. Kd.7 is devoted to Kaṭhina. There was a certain formality together with strict regulations for the proper making up of the kaṭhina cloth into robes at the end of the rains. Thus “formally make” seems a better translation for attharati (spread) while keeping karoti for simply making, making up. Cf. Vinayavinicchayā 2697, called Kaṭhinakkhandhaka.

2.

See Kd.7.1.6.

3.

See Kd.7.1.5.

4.

nimittakamma, or perhaps literally, making a sign; see BD.4.355, n.3. The words commented on in this paragraph occur inKd.7, for all of which see BD.4.355 and Vin-a.1111 which is the part of the Commentary on the Kaṭhinakkhandhaka to which Vin-a.1370 refers.

5.

nibbattessāmi, I will make it to be produced, to come into being.

6.

Vin-a.1111 interprets this to mean: “to be forfeited during the night”; and then it gives the Parivāra exegesis.

7.

At Vin-a.1112 it is said “all this is gone into in the Parivāra”.

8.

mātikā, see Kd.7.1.7; also BD.2.6, n.5 where the eight are enumerated.

9.

palibodha, see Kd.7.13.

10.

This refers to Kd.7.1.3. See Vinayavinicchaya verse 2725.

11.

payoga.

12.

I take these kinds of paccaya, condition, from Nyanatiloka’s Buddhist Dictionary, Colombo, 1956, s.v. paccaya, though this may be to take them out of their rightful context.

13.

pubbakaraṇa. Vin-a.1369 specifies “beginning with washing”.

14.

paccuddhāra, see Bu-NP.2, Bu-NP.3, Bu-NP.18, and BD.2.22, n.3. Also see below Vin.5.174 which clearly relates the removal to robes, and Vin-a.1369 which says it is the removal of the outer cloak and so on; this probably refers to the old robes.

15.

adhiṭṭhāna, i.e. of the kaṭhina robe-material. See Bu-NP.1.3.1.1, Bu-NP.1.4.1 and note at BD.2.7.

16.

Text reads vatthu, but Vin-a.7369 reads vattha, “clothing,” a reading it supports by saying vattha means the outer cloak and so on.

17.

āsā, anāsā. See Vin.1.259ff., and BD.2.6, n.4.

18.

āsā, anāsā. See Vin.1.259ff., and BD.2.6, n.4.

19.

vicāraṇā, as at Kd.7.1.5.

21.

bandhana, Kd.7.1.5.

22.

On the three robes see BD.2.1, n.2.

23.

Vin-a.1370 says this means that (the monk) thinks “I am formally making kaṭhina robes into this outer cloak, into this upper robe, into this inner robe”.

24.

bhūmi is a word of several meanings to which we must now add that of material or stuff, i.e. basis.

25.

The Order has to give the kaṭhina material to a monk, Kd.7.1.4.

26.

Only if the three robes are made up is kaṭhina cloth properly made, Kd.7.1.5.

27.

ubbhāra, sec Vin.5.136 in Prv.16.3.8. See Vin.1.255, Vin.1.300, BD.2.5, n.3, and Vin-a.1113.

29.

Vin-a.1109 gives this interpretation.

31.

Explained at Vin-a.1370 as (i) unallowable cloth, (ii) what is given today by the donors is given tomorrow by the Order for the formal making, and (iii) though cut out today it is not made. For these clauses Cf. Kd.7.1.5.

32.

Vin-a.1370 says material shape and so on.

33.

These terms are at Ds.1306.

34.

These terms are at Ds.1306.

35.

These terms are at Ds.1306.

36.

These terms are at Ds.1306.

37.

These terms are at Ds.1306.

38.

These terms are at Ds.1306.

39.

“The formal making of the kaṭhina cloth” is given a long paragraph at the end of Prv.16.4.4.

42.

For these terms see Vin.5.172.

43.

For these terms see Vin.5.172.

44.

For these terms see Vin.5.172.

45.

For these terms see Vin.5.172.

46.

For these terms see Vin.5.172.

47.

Cf. Vin-a.1109 Which points out that in the Parivāra the kaṭhina is made by two monks: the one who makes it and the one who gives the thanks.

48.

vimajjitvā, not among the processes given at Kd.7.

50.

Verse cited at Vin-a.1112.

52.

sanniṭṭhānantika, as at Kd.7.1.7, Kd.7.2.1; see BD.4.359, n.1. The line is quoted at Vin-a.1113.

54.

savanantika, as at Kd.7.1.7, Kd.7.2.1.

55.

As at Kd.7.1.7.

56.

As at Kd.7.1.7.

57.

sahubbhāra, “together with” meaning the withdrawal of other monks’ privileges.

58.

antarubbhāra, not in Kd.7 (?).

59.

See Kd.7.1.7.

60.

Parivāraṃ niṭṭhitaṃ. Does this mean that the material so far presented is the original compilation, and that the remainder of the material is a later addition? See Introduction, p.xiii; also the final ending on Vin.5.226, Parivāro niṭṭhito.

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