Vinaya Pitaka (3): Khandhaka

by I. B. Horner | 2014 | 386,194 words | ISBN-13: 9781921842160

The English translation of the Khandhaka: the second book of the Pali Vinaya Pitaka, one of the three major ‘baskets’ of Therevada canonical literature. It is a collection of various narratives. The English translation of the Vinaya-pitaka (third part, khandhaka) contains many Pali original words, but transliterated using a system similar to the I...

On the least robe to be assigned, etc.

Kd.8.20.2 Then it occurred to the monks: “Those things that are allowed by the Lord—the three robes or the cloths for the rains or the piece of cloth to sit upon or the sheet or the Vin.1.297 itch-cloth or the cloth for wiping the face or the cloth for the BD.4.423 requisites (of water-strainers and bags)—are all these things to be allotted[1] or are they to be assigned?”[2] They told this matter to the Lord. He said:

I allow you, monks, to allot the three robes, not to assign them;[3] to allot the cloths for the rains during the four months of the rains, after that (time) to assign them; to allot a piece of cloth to sit upon, not to assign it; to allot a sheet, not to assign it; to allot an itch-cloth while the disease lasts, after that (time) to assign it; to allot a cloth for wiping the face, not to assign it; to allot a cloth for the requisites (of water-strainers and bowls), not to assign it.

Kd.8.21.1 Then it occurred to the monks: “Now what is the least robe to be assigned?”[4] They told this matter to the Lord. He said:

I allow you, monks, to assign as the least robe one that is eight finger-breadths in length and four finger-breadths wide according to the accepted finger-breadth.” Now at that time the made-up rag-robes of the venerable Kassapa the Great became heavy.[5] They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow you, monks, to make a rough darn.[6] It became misshapen at the corner.[7] They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow you, monks, to pull off the misshapen corner.[8] The threads were frayed out.[9] They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow you, monks, to insert BD.4.424 a braiding,[10] a binding.1 Now at that time the cotton cloth of the outer cloaks gave way.[11] They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow you, monks, to make a net-work.[12]


Kd.8.21.2 Now at that time when a set of three robes was being made by a certain monk, there was not enough for all (three) to be cut up (into pieces).

I allow you, monks, two (robes that are) cut up, one that is not cut up.” There was not enough for two to be cut up and one not cut up.

I allow you, monks, two (robes that are) not cut up, one that is cut up.” There was not enough for two to be not cut up and one cut up.

I allow you, monks, to insert an extra supply.[13] But, monks, the whole (set of three robes) should not be worn not cut up. Whoever should so wear it, there is an offence of wrong-doing.[14]


Kd.8.22.1 Now at that time much robe-material accrued to a certain monk, and he was desirous of giving that robe-material to his parents. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Because he is himself giving to his parents, monks, what can we say? I allow Vin.1.298 you, monks, to give to parents.[15] But, monks, a gift of faith should not be brought to ruin.[16] BD.4.425 Whoever should bring (one) to ruin, there is an offence of wrong-doing.


Kd.8.23.1 Now at that time a certain monk, laying aside a robe[17] in the Blind Men’s Grove,[18] entered a village for almsfood with (only) his upper and inner robes.[19] Thieves carried off that robe. That monk became badly dressed, wearing shabby robes. Monks spoke thus:

“Why are you, your reverence, badly dressed, wearing shabby robes?”

“Now I, your reverences, laying aside a robe in the Blind Men’s Grove, entered a village for almsfood with (only) the upper and inner robes. Thieves carried off that robe; that is why I am badly dressed, wearing shabby robes.” They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Monks, a village should not be entered by (a monk wearing only) the upper and inner robes; whoever should so enter (one), there is an offence of wrong-doing.[20]


Kd.8.23.2 Now at that time the venerable Ānanda, through unmindfulness, entered a village for almsfood with (only) his upper and inner robes. Monks spoke thus to the venerable Ānanda:

“Reverend Ānanda, has it not been laid down by the Lord that a village should not be entered (by a monk wearing only) the upper and inner robes? Why do you, your reverence, enter a village with (only) your upper and inner robes?”

“It is true, your reverences, that it was laid down by the Lord that a village should not be entered (by a monk wearing only) the upper and inner robes, but I entered through unmindfulness.”

They told this matter to the Lord.

Kd.8.23.3 He said: “Monks, there are five reasons for laying aside BD.4.426 the outer cloak: if one becomes ill,[21] or if he comes to be spending the rains,[22] or if he comes to go to the other side of a river, or if the dwelling-place comes to be secured with a bolt,[23] or if the kaṭhina-cloth has been made.[24] These, monks, are the five reasons for laying aside the outer cloak. And, monks, there are five reasons for laying aside the upper robe, the inner robe: if one becomes ill … or if the kaṭhina-cloth has been made. These, monks, are the five reasons for laying aside the upper robe, the inner robe. And, monks, there are five reasons for laying aside a cloth for the rains: if one becomes ill, or if he comes to go outside the boundary,[25] or if he comes to go to the other side of a river, or if the dwelling-place comes to be secured with a bolt, or if a cloth for the rains comes to be not made or imperfectly executed.[26] These, monks, are the five reasons for laying aside a cloth for the rains.”

Footnotes and references:

1.

adhiṭṭhātabbāni. See notes on an-adhiṭṭhita at BD.2.7, BD.2.121.

2.

vikappetabbāni. See note on a-vikappita at BD.2.7. Vikappana, assignment, is defined at Vin.4.122.

3.

Cf. Vin.3.196 where an extra robe is defined as one that is “not allotted, not assigned”.

4.

See definition of robe (-material) at Vin.3.196 = BD.2.7.

5.

According to Vin-a.1129 because of the patches sewn on to the worn places. Kassapa the Great always wore rag-robes.

6.

suttalūkhaṃ kātuṃ. Vin-a.1129 sutten’ eva aggaḷaṃ kātun ti attho, “to make a patch only of thread”, so perhaps suttalūkha is a rough darn; cf. Kd.8.12.2.

7.

vikaṇṇa. Vin-a.1129 says that when they had cut off the thread as they were sewing, one corner of the outer cloak became long. At Vin.2.116 cīvaraṃ vikaṇṇaṃ hoti, the robe-material became misshapen. See Vinaya Texts iii.92, n.7.

8.

vikaṇṇam uddharituṃ. Vin-a.1129 says that this means to cut off the long comer.

9.

okiriyanti. Vin-a.1129 mentions that the robe fell down, or hung down, at the cut corner.

10.

See BD.2.409, n.7, n.8; and above, BD.4.354.

11.

As at Kd.15.28.2. The word translated as “cotton cloth” is pattā. Vinaya Texts ii.231, n.3 says “we probably ought to read paṭṭā, not pattā,” and cf. Vinaya Texts iii.141, n.6. Paṭṭā are perhaps strips of cloth used as braidings and bindings. Vin-a.1129 says pattā lujjanti means that the threads put in front of the large pattā fall out, and thus the pattā give way.

12.

aṭṭhapadaka, perhaps a “patch”, Pali-English Dictionary “Net-work” tentatively suggested in Critical Pali Dictionary Commentary simply says that aṭṭhapadakaṃ kātuṃ means to sew the front of a piece of cloth with an aṭṭhapadaka-covering (aṭṭhapadakacchannena). The word occurs at Vin.2.150 with vetuṃ, and is translated at Vinaya Texts iii.167 as “to weave the string across and across”; see Vinaya Texts iii.167, n.1

13.

anvādhikaṃ pi āropetuṃ. Vin-a.1129 says “to give an added (or extra, āgantuka) piece of cloth. This may be put in if there is not enough; if there is enough there must not be an added piece of cloth, (for then, what there is) should be cut up”.

14.

See above, Kd.8.11.

15.

vinipātetabbaṃ. Vin-a.1129, “if the parents stand begging in the dust it should be given”. The point is that the robe-material had been given to the monk, and should therefore, unless there is strong reason to the contrary, be retained by him. At all events it was not to be wasted.

16.

Cf. Vin.4.286, where it is “no offence” for a nun to give recluses’ robe-material to her parents.

17.

“cīvara (robe) must here be used for saṅghāṭi. See … section 2, below, where saṅghāṭi occurs”, Vinaya Texts ii.232, n.3. See Bu-NP.29 on the laying aside of robes.

19.

santaruttara. See BD.2.12, n.1. At Bu-NP.2 it is an offence for a monk to be away from his three robes, even for one night, unless there is the agreement of the monks.

20.

Cf. Bu-Sk.1–Bu-Sk.4. At Kd.7.1.3, above, among the five kaṭhina privileges is included that of going for alms without wearing the three robes.

21.

Then, according to Bu-NP.2 he has to get the agreement of the monks to be regarded as not away, separated from his three robes, although he is in actual fact separated from them, since he does not feel well enough to go on a journey taking all of them with him.

22.

vassikasaṃketa, at the rendezvous for the rains. During the rains monks are allowed to wear cloths for the rains instead of their usual three robes, in order to save these from the damp and wet.

23.

aggaḷagutti. Aggaḷa here in sense of “bolt”, not “patch”.

24.

See Bu-NP.2 and above, Kd.7.1.3.

25.

When, presumably he must put on his set of three robes. Travelling in the rains was allowed only if the business was urgent and if the monk was not absent from the rains-residence for more than seven days. See Kd.3

26.

Cf. Vin.3.155, Vin.3.225, Vin.3.229, etc., for vippakata, imperfectly executed. Cloths for the rains allowed at Kd.8.15.15.