Vinaya Pitaka (3): Khandhaka

by I. B. Horner | 2014 | 386,194 words | ISBN-13: 9781921842160

The English translation of the Khandhaka: the second book of the Pali Vinaya Pitaka, one of the three major ‘baskets’ of Therevada canonical literature. It is a collection of various narratives. The English translation of the Vinaya-pitaka (third part, khandhaka) contains many Pali original words, but transliterated using a system similar to the I...

On obstacles and not-obstacles

Kd.7.13.1 “Monks, there are these two impediments,[1] these two non-impediments to (the removal of) the kaṭhina (privileges). And what, monks, are the two impediments to (the removal of) the kaṭhina (privileges)? The residence-impediment and the robes-impediment. And how, monks, does the residence-impediment come to be? Monks, in this case a monk who is either staying in or who is longing for that residence, goes away, thinking, ‘I will come back’.[2] Thus, monks, does the residence-impediment come to be. And how, monks, does the robes-impediment come to be? Monks, in this case, a monk’s robe-material comes to be not made up or it is imperfectly executed or the expectation of a robe is not fulfilled. Thus, monks, does the robes-impediment come to be. Monks, these are the two impediments to (the removal of) the kaṭhina (privileges).

Kd.7.13.2 “And what, monks, are the two non-impediments to (the removal of) the kaṭhina (privileges)? The residence-non-impediment and the robes-non-impediment. And how, monks, BD.4.375 does the residence-non-impediment come to be? In this case, monks, a monk goes away from that residence because of giving up, because of renunciation, because of sacrifice, because of indifference, thinking, ‘I will not come back’.[3] Thus, monks, does the residence-non-impediment come to be. And how, monks, does the robes-non-impediment come to be? In this case, monks, a monk’s robe-material comes to be made up or it is lost or destroyed or burnt or the expectation of a robe is disappointed.[4] Thus, monks, does the robes-non-impediment come to be. These, monks, are the two non-impediments to (the removal of) the kaṭhina (privileges).”

The Section on kaṭhina[5]: the Seventh.

In this Section are twelve items, the words[6] of abridgement are one hundred and eighteen. This is its key:

Thirty monks of Pāvā stayed longing in Sāketa,
at the end of the rains they went
with drenched (robes) to see the Conqueror. /
This item of kaṭhina-cloth, and the five things called allowable:[7]
Without asking permission, nor taking three robes,
a joint-meal likewise, /
As much as is required, and one that accrues will be for the makers.
The motion, and just what is made and just what is not made. /
Marking, washing, and calculating, and cutting, tacking,
making lengths, using a piece of cloth, and strengthening, braiding, / Vin.1.266
Binding, patching, dyeing, talk with hints,[8] temporary,
postponement, abandonment,
not (made) if it is not allowable, but for these three, /
BD.4.376 Unless five parts or more when they are cut out are hemmed together,
not (made) unless by an individual,
if properly (made) he gives thanks standing outside the boundary: /
kaṭhina-cloth comes to be not made,
thus it is taught by the awakened one.
Unsoiled, when what is allowable (is unsoiled),
pieces of cloth, rags, and bits near a shop, /
Not insinuation, nor roundabout talking,
not temporary and no postponement,
not abandoned, made allowable,
and inasmuch as it is for (a set of) three robes, /
If five parts or more are cut out and hemmed together,
if the making is by an individual,
if properly (made) he gives thanks standing on the boundary: /
Thus the making of kaṭhina-cloth.
Eight grounds for removal:
that depending on going away,
on being settled, on resolve and on loss, /
On hearing, on disappointment of an expectation,
over the boundary,
and the eighth is with the removal (of other monks’).
Taking a robe that is made up, he goes away, thinking,
“I will not come back”, /
His kaṭhina (privileges) become removed
because of his going away.
Taking robe-material he goes away,[9] when he is outside the boundary, he thinks, /
“I will have it made up here,
I will not come back”;
his kaṭhina (privileges) are removed because of (his robes) being settled.
Taking it, when he is outside the boundary, he intends,
thinking, “Neither that nor will I come back”, /
His kaṭhina (privileges) become removed depending on that[10] of resolve.
Taking robe-material he goes away, when he is outside the boundary, he thinks, /
“I will have it made up here, I will not come back,” but while it is being made up, it is lost; BD.4.377
his kaṭhina (privileges) become removed depending on that of loss. /
Taking it, he goes away, thinking, “I will come back”,
and has the robe-material made up outside,
when the robe has been made up,
he hears that the kaṭhina (privileges) are removed there; /
His kaṭhina (privileges) become removed
depending on that of hearing.
Taking it, be goes away, thinking, “I will come back”,
and has the robe-material made up outside, /
When the robe has been made up, (staying) outside
he does not go back[11]
until the removal of the kaṭhina (privileges);
his kaṭhina (privileges) become removed
depending on that of having crossed the boundary. /
Taking it, he goes away, thinking, “I will come back”,
and has the robe-material made up outside,
when the robe has been made up,
thinking, “I will come back”,
(his return) coincides[12] with the removal of the kaṭhina (privileges); /
The removal of his kaṭhina (privileges) is because it occurs[13] with (that of) the other monks.
Taking and taking with him, the going away[14] is seven times sevenfold. /
There is no sixfold[15] going away,
(the robes) imperfectly executed depending on “going away”.
Taking it, this arises, “I will have it made up
when I am outside the boundary”; /
Settled and resolves and loss, these three.
Taking it, thinking, “I will not come back”,
“I am making it up outside the boundary”; /
Settled, then resolves, then loss, this is three (fold).
Without having determined, for it does not (occur) to him,
the threefold meaning below.[16] / Vin.1.267 BD.4.378
Taking it, he goes away, thinking, “I will come back”,
“I am making it up outside the boundary”,
thinking, “I will not come back”, he gets it made up;
his kaṭhina (privileges) are removed
because of (his robes) being settled. /
Resolves and loss, hearing, having crossed the boundary,
it may arise with (those of the other) monks;
thus there is going away fifteen times. /
Taking with him, imperfectly executed,
taking it with him likewise again,
these are four turns[17] where all is fifteen-fold. /
And contrary to expectation, in accordance with expectation,
and business, these three.
One should understand this from what has been said:[18] there are three that are each twelve (-fold). /
Here are nine on “without collecting”,
there is a set of five on comfort;
impediments, non-impediments;
the key is made from what has been said.[19] Vin.1.268

Footnotes and references:

1.

palibodha, obstruction, hindrance, obstacle, impediment, drawback. Ten palibodhas are enumerated at Kh-a.39, and explained in detail at Vism.90ff. But in its explanation of āvāsapalibodha, the first on the list, the Visuddhimagga makes no reference to kaṭhina; cīvarapalibodha does not occur here or in Kh-a.
The idea of the palibodhas and apalibodhas is somewhat difficult to follow. After kaṭhina-cloth is made, five privileges are allowable to monks (Kd.7.1.3), and there are eight grounds for the removal of these privileges (Kd.7.1.7). But then, it seems, these eight grounds are in turn subject to the two impediments and the two non-impediments. That is to say, the kaṭhina privileges cannot be removed if there is present an impediment to the grounds for removing them, but only if there is no impediment to these grounds. Vin-a.1114 says, “Having shown the removal of the kaṭhina (privileges), now whatever are impediments are said to be cut off in regard to these kaṭhina (privileges).” See Vinaya Texts ii.149, n. and Vinaya Texts ii.157, n.2.

2.

The first of the grounds for removing the kaṭhina privileges is that depending on a monk having gone away. But here, although he goes away, he intends to come back. Thus the ground for removing the privilege meets with an obstruction.
Text here reads, idha bhikkhave bhikkhu vassati vātasmiṃ āvāse sāpekhho vā pakkamati (with variant reading vesati) which has led translator at Vinaya Texts ii.169 to render, “A Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, goes away (for a time), when it is raining or storming, with the intention of returning to that residence.” But Sinhalese edition 1933, ii.322 and Siamese edition both read, idha bhikkhave bhikkhu vassāti vā tasmiṃ āvāse sapekho vā pakkamati, which I follow as making more sense.

3.

As he does not intend to return there is no reason why his kaṭhina privileges should not be removed. His intention provides the non-impediment.

4.

These are no impediments to the grounds for removing the kaṭhina privileges. They may be removed, as we have seen, because a monk’s robe is made up, because he resolves not to have it made up, because it is lost, or because his expectation of a robe is disappointed. Cf. Bu-NP.1, definition of “when the robes are settled”, and see BD.2.6, BD.2.15.

5.

Kaṭhinakkhandhaka. Cf. Kaṭhinavagga, Vin.3.195–223.

6.

mukha, the mouth, so what issues from it.

7.

kappiyan ti; Sinhalese edition kappissanti, will be allowable.

8.

nimitta-kathā here. It may be a composite word for nimittakata and parikathākata; otherwise the latter is not included in this part of the “key”, although it is mentioned lower down.

9.

yāti.

10.

taṃ, doubtless “ground” is to be understood.

11.

nāmeti, cf. Snp.1143, nāpenti with variant reading nāmenti.

12.

sambhoti.

13.

jāyati.

14.

gati.

15.

chaccā. Sinhalese edition chaṭṭhe.

16.

Pali has “below”, referring to the leaves of the palm-leaf manuscripts, where we say “above”.

17.

vārā, i.e. for recitation.

18.

Nayato, perhaps “from the method”.

19.

Nayato, perhaps “from the method”.