Yojana, Yojanā: 26 definitions

Introduction:

Yojana means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Buddhism, Pali, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Yojan.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Google Books: Cultural History from the Vāyu Purāna

Yojana (योजन): A unit of measurement of distance, according to the Vāyu Purāṇa (वायु पुराण). The following table gives some idea about their relations to each other:

8 Aṅgulas = Prādeśa (?);
21 Aṅgulas = Ratni;
24 Aṅgulas = Hasta;
2000 Dhanus = Gavyūti;
12 Aṅgulas = Vitasti;
2 Ratnis or 42 Aṅgulas = Kiṣku;
4 hastas = Dhanus;
8000 Dhanus = Yojana.


‘Yojana’ occurs very frequently in the Ṛg-veda and in later works as a measure of distance but there is no reference defining its real length. Later, it is reckoned at four Krośas or about nine miles. It is aslo calculated at 8 Krośas or 18 miles and the estimate of 2 miles is also found.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Yojana (योजन).—8000 dhanus make one yojana.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 7. 101; IV. 2. 126; Vāyu-purāṇa 8. 107; 51. 37; 101. 113 and 126.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Yojana (योजन) refers to a measurement unit consisting of “5 miles”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 2), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “We shall now proceed to give a brief description of (the qualifications of) a jyotiṣaka. [...] He must know the length, in yojana (5 miles), of the daily motion of each planet in its orbit and of the orbit itself, and generally the length, in yojanas in every ease”.

Source: Wikibooks (hi): Sanskrit Technical Terms

Yojana (योजन).—1. A unit of distance, probably somewhere between five and ten kilometres. 2. A unit of distance. 8000 × 4 cubits. The length of a yojana has differed at different times. The yojana of Āryabhaṭa I and Bhāskara I is roughly equivalent to 7½ miles. Note: Yojana is a Sanskrit technical term used in ancient Indian sciences such as Astronomy, Mathematics and Geometry.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India

Yojanā (योजना) or Yojanācatuṣka refers to one of the seven subsections of the Sūtrasthāna of the Carakasaṃhitā which enjoys a prime position among Ayurvedic treatises and is written in the form of advices of the sage Ātreya to the sage Agniveśa. The Carakasaṃhitā contains eight sections [viz., sūtrasthāna]. Sūtrasthāna contains 30 chapters. Of them the first 28 chapters are divided into seven subsections namely catuṣakas [viz., yojana-catuṣka].

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (kāmasūtra)

Yojana (योजन) refers to the “(sexual) union” (=‘commencement of the sexual act’), according to the Kāmasūtra of Vātsyāyana and Jaśodhara’s commentary called the Jayamaṅgalā .—Accordingly, “[When you are] about to practise sex, [first you should] rub her genitalia with your hand, and when there is dampness, the sexual act can be commenced (rata-yojana). This is the restoration of passion”.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Brhad Bhagavatamrtam

Yojana (योजन) refers to:—Approximately 8 miles. (cf. Glossary page from Śrī Bṛhad-bhāgavatāmṛta).

Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

1) Yojana (योजन) refers to an ancient unit of length, according to the Guhyasūtra chapter 3.—Accordingly, “[...] [Using the mantra] ‘oṃ namo vāyupathacāriṇe amitagatiparākramāya vimale kulu kulu svāhā’, [and taking] arsenic, gold [and?] a mineral, …, ground up with pig fat/marrow, over which one has recited [the navātman] 1000 times, he should smear [the mixture] on his feet/legs, while once again reciting the navātman: he will travel 200 yojanās unwearied!”.

2) Yojana (योजन) refers to the “connection (of atoms)”, according to Utpaladeva’s Vivṛti on Īśvarapratyabhijñākārikā 1.5.6.—Accordingly, “[...] Therefore even if an infinite number of atoms (ananta-paramāṇu) were connected (yojana), they should be manifest as having the size of one [single] atom; or [rather], even this [manifestation] would not exist, because atom[s], [taken] one by one, are beyond the realm of the sense organs”.

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Yojana (योजन) refers to “fusing” (with Śiva), according to the Netratantroddyota commentary on the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—Accordingly, [verse 8.8-9, while describing the purification process of the initiand]—“[Śivahood [is that] whose level is parāparapada, ‘but Śiva, the ultimate cause, engages in action established in that’ Stated in the Svacchanda Tantra, [for the initiation of] Ācāryas, the [Mantrin] should perform fusion with lower Śiva (aparaśiva-yojana) after he has fused them with higher Śiva (paramaśiva-yojana-anantara). For Sādhakas, immediately after fusion with Śiva (śivayojana-anantara), the [Mantrin] should perform unification with Sadāśiva. For the Putraka, [he should join him with] the highest tattva, [and for the] Samayin, īśvara-tattva. This is the distribution”.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Prakrit Bharati Academy: Jainism - the Creed for all Times

Yojana (योजन).—The yojana, too, has been variously described. According to one view an utsedha-yojana is equivalent to 7,68,000 utsedha-aṅgula or eight miles. Another view expressed in the book entitled Our True Geography’, published by Jambūdvīpa Vijñāna Saṃśodhana Kendra, Palitana, holds it that the present day equivalent of an utsedha-yojana, which equals four gāu or nine miles or 15 Km.

For astronomical measurements the unit in vogue was the pramāṇa-yojana, which is 400 times that of an utsedha-yojana or equivalent to 3600 miles at the very least.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Yojana.—(CII 1, 4), name of a measure of distance; a dis- tance of about nine miles. Note: yojana is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

yojana : (nt.) yoking; application; a measure of length, which is about, 7 miles. || yojanā (f.), construction; suggestion; proposal; an exegesis.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Yojana, (nt.) (Vedic yojana) 1. the yoke of a carriage J. VI, 38, 42 (=ratha-yuga).—2. a measure of length: as much as can be travelled with one yoke (of oxen), a distance of about 7 miles, which is given by Bdhgh. as equal to 4 gāvutas (DhA. II, 13). It occurs in descending scale of yojana-tigāvuta-usabha at DhA. I, 108. ‹-› Dh. 60; J. V, 37 (yojana-yojana-vitthatā each a mile square); SnA 194. More favoured combinations of yojana with numbers are the foll. : 1/2 (aḍḍha°): DA. I, 35; DhsA. 142.—3: DhA. II, 41.—4: PvA. 113.—5: VvA. 33.—15: DhA. I, 17; J. I, 315; PvA. 154.—18: J. I, 81, 348.—20: DhA. IV, 112 (20 X 110, of a wilderness).—25: VvA. 236.—45: J. I, 147, 348; DhA. I, 367.—50: Vism. 417.—100: D. I, 117; It. 91; Pv. I, 1014.—500: J. I, 204.—1, 000: J. I, 203.—Cp. yojanika. (Page 559)

— or —

Yojanā, (f.) (*Sk. yojanā, fr. yojeti) (grammatical) construction; exegesis, interpretation; meaning KhA 156, 218, 243; SnA 20, 90, 122 sq. 131 sq. 148, 166, 177, 248, 255, 313; PvA. 45, 50, 69, 73, 139 (attha°), and passim in Commentaries. (Page 559)

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

yōjana (योजन).—n (S) A measure of distance equal to four krōśa; which, at 8000 cubits or 4000 yards each, will amount to nine miles. Other computations make the yōjana but about five miles. 2 Joining, uniting, applying. Vide infra.

--- OR ---

yōjanā (योजना).—f (S) Arranging, disposing, concerting, laying in train. 2 Devising, contriving, planning, excogitating. 3 Putting to, setting on or at, applying, addressing, joining, lit. fig. but esp. fig.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

yōjanā (योजना).—f Arranging. Planning. Addressing.

--- OR ---

yōjana (योजन).—n A measure equal to four kōśa. Joining.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Yojana (योजन).—[yuj-bhāvādau lyuṭ]

1) Joining, uniting, yoking.

2) Applying, fixing.

3) Preparation, arrangement.

4) Grammatical construction, construing the sense of a passage.

5) A measure of distance equal to four Krośas or eight or nine miles; स्याद् योजनं क्रोशचतुष्टयेन (syād yojanaṃ krośacatuṣṭayena); प्रथममगमदह्ला योजने योजनेशः (prathamamagamadahlā yojane yojaneśaḥ) Līlā.; न योजनशतं दूरं बाह्यमानस्य तृष्णया (na yojanaśataṃ dūraṃ bāhyamānasya tṛṣṇayā) H.1.146.

6) Exciting, instigation.

7) Concentration of the mind, abstraction (= yoga q. v.).

8) Erecting, constructing (also yojanā in this sense).

9) Ved. Effort, exertion.

1) A road, way.

11) The Supreme Spirit of the universe.

12) A finger.

-nā 1 Junction, union, connection.

2) Grammatical construction.

3) Use, application.

Derivable forms: yojanam (योजनम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Yojana (योजन).—n.

(-naṃ) 1. God, the Supreme Being, the soul of the world. 2. A measure of distance equal to four Krosas, which at 8000 cubits or 4000 yards to the Krosa or Kos, will be exactly nine miles; other computations make the Yojana but about five miles, or even no more than four miles and a half. 3. Joining, union, junction, yoking. 4. Application, preparation. 5. Construction, putting together of the sense of a passage. 6. Instigation, exciting. 7. Concentration of the mind. f.

(-nā) 1. Union, connection. 2. Grammatical construction. E. yuj to join, aff. lyuṭ .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Yojana (योजन).—i. e. yuj + ana, n. 1. Joining. 2. A means for inducing (the gods) to yoke (their horses and to come), Chr. 294, 5 = [Rigveda.] i. 88, 5. 3. A line, row, Chr. 294, 3 = [Rigveda.] i. 92, 3. 4. The Supreme Being. 5. A measure of distance of about five or nine miles, [Pañcatantra] 226, 9.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Yojana (योजन).—[neuter] harnessing, yoke, team, drive, course, way, stage (a cert. measure of distance); direction, instruction, collection or concentration of the mind; arrangement, preparation, conjunction, combination (also [feminine] ā).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Yojana (योजन):—[from yuj] a etc. See pp. 858, [columns] 1, 2.

2) [from yoga] b n. joining, yoking, harnessing, [Pāraskara-gṛhya-sūtra; Harivaṃśa]

3) [v.s. ...] that which is yoked or harnessed, a team, vehicle (also applied to the hymns and prayers addressed to the gods), [Ṛg-veda]

4) [v.s. ...] course, path, [ib.]

5) [v.s. ...] (sometimes m.; ifc. f(ā). ) a stage or Yojana (id est. a distance traversed in one harnessing or without unyoking; [especially] a [particular] measure of distance, sometimes regarded as equal to 4 or 5 English miles, but more correctly = 4 Krośas or about 9 miles; according to other calculations = 2 1/2 English miles, and according to some = 8 Krośas), [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.

6) [v.s. ...] instigation, stimulation, [Sāhitya-darpaṇa]

7) [v.s. ...] mental concentration, abstraction, directing the thoughts to one point (= yoga), [Upaniṣad]

8) [v.s. ...] the Supreme Spirit of the Universe (= paramātman), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

9) [v.s. ...] a finger, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

10) [v.s. ...] nf (ā). use, application, arrangement, preparation, [Ṛg-veda; Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra; Mahābhārata; Sāhitya-darpaṇa]

11) [v.s. ...] erecting, constructing, building, [Rājataraṅgiṇī; Kathāsaritsāgara]

12) [v.s. ...] junction, union, combination, [Sāhitya-darpaṇa; Vedāntasāra]

13) Yojanā (योजना):—[from yojana > yoga] f. application of the sense of a passage, grammatical construction, [Śaṃkarācārya]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Yojana (योजन):—(naṃ) 1. n. God; 4 kros; joining.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Yojana (योजन) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Juṃjaṇa, Juṃjaṇayā, Juṃjaṇā, Joaṇa, Joaṇā.

[Sanskrit to German]

Yojana in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

1) Yojana (योजन) [Also spelled yojan]:—(nm) joining, uniting; union; junction, a measure of distance (roughly equal to eight miles).

2) Yojanā (योजना):—(nf) a plan/planning, scheme; disposition, arrangement (as [śabda yojanā]); —[āyoga] Planning Commission; ~[kāra] a planner; -[citra] a plan.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Yōjana (ಯೋಜನ):—

1) [noun] the act of joining, harnessing, coupling.

2) [noun] the act of organising; the manner of being organised; organisation.

3) [noun] a measure of distance equal to four to five miles.

4) [noun] self-concentration, abstract meditation and mental abstraction practised as a system.

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Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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