Kathina, Kaṭhina, Kāṭhina: 22 definitions


Kathina means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

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In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Kaṭhina (कठिन, “hard”).—One of the twenty Gurvādiguṇa, or, ‘ten opposing pairs of qualities of drugs’.—Kaṭhina is the characteristic of a drug referring to the ‘hardness’, while its opposing quality, Mṛdu, refers to its ‘softness’. It is a Sanskrit technical term from Āyurveda (Indian medicine) and used in literature such the Caraka-saṃhitā and the Suśruta-saṃhitā.

The quality of Kaṭhina, present in drugs and herbs, increases the Kapha (bodily fluids, or ‘phlegm’) and the Vāta (bodily humour in control of motion and the nervous system). It exhibits a predominant presence of the elements Earth (pṛthivī).

Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Kaṭhina (कठिन):—Hardness; one among 20 gurvadi gunas. Caused due activated prithvi; denotes physiological & pharmacological hardness; causes hardening / consolidation.

Source: National Mission for Manuscripts: Traditional Medicine System in India

Kaṭhina (कठिन, “hard”) and Mṛdu (“soft”) refers to one of the ten counterpart-couples of the twenty Śārīraguṇa (or Gurvādiguṇa), which refers to the “twenty qualities of the body”—where guṇa (property) represents one of the six divisions of dravya (drugs).—Śārīraka-guṇas are twenty in number. There are ten guṇas with their opposite guṇas. [...] Mṛdu (“soft”) has the predominant bhūta (element) of water and the associated actions of “loosening/ślathana”; while Kaṭhina (“hard”) has the predominant bhūta (element) of earth and is associated with the action “hardening/dried/dṛḍhīkaraṇa”.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Kaṭhina (कठिन) refers to “hard” (difficulty), according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.22 (“Description of Pārvatī’s penance”).—Accordingly, as Menā said to Pārvatī: “[...] Dear child, slender is your body and hard [i.e., kaṭhina] is the penance. Hence you shall perform penance here. You shall not go out. For a woman to go to a penance-grove for the realisation of her desire is what we have never heard of before. Hence, dear daughter, do not go out for penance”.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Access to Insight: A Glossary of Pali and Buddhist TermsA ceremony, held in the fourth month of the rainy season, in which a sangha of bhikkhus receives a gift of cloth from lay people, bestows it on one of their members, and then makes it into a robe before dawn of the following day.Source: Dhamma Dana: Pali English Glossary

N Period extending for a lunar month following the vassa and during which a great ceremony of robes offering is organised. The bhikkhus having observed the vassa respectfully can benefit from privileges of the kathina.

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Kathina in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

kaṭhina : (adj.) rough; hard; stiff. (nt.), the clothe annually supplied to the monks for making robes.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Kaṭhina, (adj. -n.) (Sk. kaṭhina & kaṭhora with dial. ṭh for rth; cp. Gr. kratuζ, kraterόs strong, krάtos strength; Goth. hardus=Ags. heard=E. hard. Cp. also Sk. kṛtsna=P. kasiṇa).

1) (adj.) hard, firm, stiff. Cp. II. 2; Dhs. 44, 45 (where also der. f. abstr. akaṭhinatā absence of rigidity, combined with akakkhalatā, cp. DhsA. 151 akaṭhina-bhāva); PvA. 152 (°dāṭha).—(fig.) hard, harsh, cruel J. I, 295=V. 448 (=thaddha-hadaya); adv. °ṃ fiercely, violently Miln. 273, 274.

2. (nt.) the cotton cloth which was annually supplied by the laity to the bhikkhus for the purpose of making robes Vin. I, 253 sq.; also a wooden frame used by the bh. in sewing their robes Vin. II. 115—117.—On the k. robe see Vin. I. 298 sq.; III, 196 sq. , 203 sq. , 261 sq.; IV, 74, 100, 245 sq. , 286 sq.; V, 15, 88, 119, 172 sq.; 218. Cp. Vin. Texts I. 18; II, 148; III, 92.

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

kaṭhina (कठिन).—a S pop. kaṭhīṇa a Hard, solid, firm. 2 fig. Difficult (of performance, endurance, comprehension, occurrence &c.); i. e. arduous, grievous, abstruse, improbable. Used of works, business, pains, distresses &c. 3 fig. Cruel, merciless, unrelenting. 4 Hard at death's door.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

kaṭhīṇa (कठीण).—a Hard, solid, firm. Difficult. Cruel, merciless, unrelenting.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Kaṭhina (कठिन).—a.

1) Hard, stiff; कठिनविषमामेकवेणीं सारयन्तीम् (kaṭhinaviṣamāmekaveṇīṃ sārayantīm) Me. 93; Amaruśataka 72; Mu.2.2; so °स्तनौ (stanau).

2) Hardhearted, cruel, ruthless; न विदीर्ये कठिनाः खलु स्त्रियः (na vidīrye kaṭhināḥ khalu striyaḥ) Kumārasambhava 4.5; Pañcatantra (Bombay) 1.64; विसृज कठिने मानमधुना (visṛja kaṭhine mānamadhunā) Amaruśataka 7; so °हृदय (hṛdaya); °citta -3 Inexorable, inflexible.

4) Sharp, violent, intense (as pain &c). नितान्तकठिनां रुजं मम न वेद सा मानसीम् (nitāntakaṭhināṃ rujaṃ mama na veda sā mānasīm) V.2.11.

5) Giving pain.

-naḥ A thicket.

-nā 1 A sweetmeat made with refined sugar.

2) An earthen vessel for cooking; (n. also in this sense).

-nī Chalk. See कठिनिका (kaṭhinikā).

-nam 1 A Shovel, scoop; प्लवे कठिनकाजं च रामश्चक्रे समाहितः (plave kaṭhinakājaṃ ca rāmaścakre samāhitaḥ) Rām.2.55.17.

2) An earthen vessel for cooking (sthālī); कठिनं पूरयामास (kaṭhinaṃ pūrayāmāsa) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 3.297.1.

3) A strap or pole for carrying burden; P. IV.4.72.

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Kāṭhina (काठिन).—

1) Hardness, tightness; काठिन्यमुक्तस्तनम् (kāṭhinyamuktastanam) Ś.3.9.

2) Sternness, hard-heartedness, cruelty.

3) Diffculty, obscurity (of style). (-naḥ) The date fruit.

Derivable forms: kāṭhinam (काठिनम्).

See also (synonyms): kāṭhinya.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Kaṭhina (कठिन).—nt., (1) (= Pali id.), the rough cloth from which monks' robes were made: Mahāvyutpatti 8687; 9035; 9104; 9406 (= Tibetan sra brkyaṅ); [Prātimokṣasūtra des Sarvāstivādins] 490.10 uddhṛte (see ud- dharati) kaṭhine; cpds., kaṭhina-cīvara (= Pali id.), a robe made of k. cloth, Avadāna-śataka ii.13.6; 18.1; kaṭhināstaraṇa, nt., Mahāvyutpatti 8685; °stāra, m. (so Mironov) or °stāraṇa, nt. (not in Mironov), Mahāvyutpatti 9407; °stara, Mūla-Sarvāstivāda-Vinaya ii.152.9; all = Pali kaṭhinattharaṇa or °tthāra, the ceremony of ‘spreading out’ or dedicating the kaṭhina; kaṭhināstāraka, m., (the monk) who superintends this ceremony, Mahāvyutpatti 8686 (with Index); Mūla-Sarvāstivāda-Vinaya ii.154.10 ff.; on the ceremony compare [Sacred Books of the East] 17.148 ff. with notes; Mūla-Sarvāstivāda-Vinaya ii.151 ff. (long description); (2) hut (of a caṇḍāla): Avadāna-śataka ii.114.9 anyataracaṇḍāla- kaṭhinaṃ piṇḍāya praviṣṭaḥ; 114.13; 115.3 piṇḍapātam ādāya caṇḍālakaṭhinān nirgataḥ.

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Kathina (कथिन).—adj. (= Sanskrit kaṭhina), hard: -śilavat °nān-tarātmā Lalitavistara 158.5, so all mss. according to Lefm.; Calcutta (see LV.) kaṭh°.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kaṭhina (कठिन).—mfn.

(-naḥ-nā-naṃ) 1. Hard, solid. 2. Unkind, severe. 3. Paralysed, rendered stiff or rigid. 4. Difficult, obscure. nf.

(-naṃ-nā) An earthen vessel. f.

(-nā) A sweetmeat made with refined sugar.

(-nī or -nikā) Chalk. E. kaṭh to be confounded, and inac Unadi affix, fem. affixes ṭhāp and ṅīṣ.

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Kāṭhina (काठिन).—m.

(-naḥ) The date fruit. n.

(-naṃ) 1. Hardness. 2. Sternness. E. kaṭhina, and aṇ aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kaṭhina (कठिन).—perhaps for kaṣṭa + ina (cf. kaṭh), I. adj., f. . 1. Hard, solid, [Pañcatantra] 190, 16; [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 2, 77. 2. Cruel, [Kathāsaritsāgara, (ed. Brockhaus.)] 19, 89. Ii. f. , Chalk, [Pañcatantra] [prologue.] 7. Iii. n. A pat, Mahābhārata 3, 8484.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kaṭhina (कठिन).—[adjective] hard, violent ([abstract] [feminine], tva [neuter]); [feminine] ī chalk; [neuter] cooking vessel.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Kaṭhina (कठिन):—[from kaṭh] mfn. (Comm. on [Uṇādi-sūtra ii, 49]) hard, firm, stiff (opposed to mṛdu)

2) [v.s. ...] difficult, [Meghadūta; Suśruta; Pañcatantra] etc.

3) [v.s. ...] harsh, inflexible, cruel, [Kumāra-sambhava; Amaru-śataka] etc.

4) [v.s. ...] violent (as pain), [Vikramorvaśī]

5) Kaṭhinā (कठिना):—[from kaṭhina > kaṭh] f. crystallized sugar, a sweetmeat made with refined sugar, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

6) [v.s. ...] a species of betel, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) Kaṭhina (कठिन):—[from kaṭh] n. an earthen vessel for cooking, [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa]

8) [v.s. ...] a strap or pole for carrying burdens, [Pāṇini 4-4, 72] (cf. vaṃśa-kaṭhina)

9) [v.s. ...] a shovel, scoop, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

10) [v.s. ...] n. (also) a garment made in a day and offered to a monk as a present, [Buddhist literature]

11) Kāṭhina (काठिन):—n. ([from] kaṭhina) hardness, sternness, [Horace H. Wilson]

12) m. the date fruit, [Horace H. Wilson]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Kaṭhina (कठिन):—[(naḥ-nā-naṃ) a.] Hard; unkind; difficult; paralysed. n. and f. An earthen vessel. f. A sweetmeat. 3. f. Chalk. nikā 1. f. Idem.

2) Kāṭhina (काठिन):—(naḥ) 1. m. Date fruit. n. Hardness; sternness.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Kaṭhīna (कठीन) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Kaḍhiṇa, Kaḍhiṇaga.

[Sanskrit to German]

Kathina in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Kathina in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Kaṭhina (कठिन) [Also spelled kathin]:—(a) difficult, arduous; tough; stiff, hard; severe; ~[natā/nāī] difficulty.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Kaṭhiṇa (ಕಠಿಣ):—[adjective] hard a) not easily dented, pierced, cut or crushed; resistant to pressure; firm and unyielding to the touch; rigid; solid and compact; b) demanding great physical or mental effort or labor; fatiguing; difficult; esp. difficult to do, difficult to understand, explain or answer, difficult to deal with; not easily managed or controlled; c) not easily moved; unfeeling; callous; unfriendly; hostile; d) harsh; severe; stern.

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Kaṭhiṇa (ಕಠಿಣ):—[noun] = ಕಠಿಣತೆ [kathinate].

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Kaṭhina (ಕಠಿನ):—[adjective] = ಕಠಿಣ [kathina]1.

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Kaṭhina (ಕಠಿನ):—[noun] = ಕಠಿಣ [kathina]2.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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