Kathina, aka: Kaṭhina, Kāṭhina; 8 Definition(s)
Kathina means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Ayurveda (science of life)
Kaṭhina (कठिन, “hard”).—One of the twenty Gurvādiguṇa, or, ‘ten opposing pairs of qualities of drugs’.—Kaṭhina is the characteristic of a drug referring to the ‘hardness’, while its opposing quality, Mṛdu, refers to its ‘softness’. It is a Sanskrit technical term from Āyurveda (Indian medicine) and used in literature such the Caraka-saṃhitā and the Suśruta-saṃhitā.
The quality of Kaṭhina, present in drugs and herbs, increases the Kapha (bodily fluids, or ‘phlegm’) and the Vāta (bodily humour in control of motion and the nervous system). It exhibits a predominant presence of the elements Earth (pṛthivī).(Source): Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)A ceremony, held in the fourth month of the rainy season, in which a sangha of bhikkhus receives a gift of cloth from lay people, bestows it on one of their members, and then makes it into a robe before dawn of the following day.(Source): Access to Insight: A Glossary of Pali and Buddhist Terms
N Period extending for a lunar month following the vassa and during which a great ceremony of robes offering is organised. The bhikkhus having observed the vassa respectfully can benefit from privileges of the kathina.(Source): Dhamma Dana: Pali English Glossary
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
Languages of India and abroad
kaṭhina : (adj.) rough; hard; stiff. (nt.), the clothe annually supplied to the monks for making robes.(Source): BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
Kaṭhina, (adj. -n.) (Sk. kaṭhina & kaṭhora with dial. ṭh for rth; cp. Gr. kratuζ, kraterόs strong, krάtos strength; Goth. hardus=Ags. heard=E. hard. Cp. also Sk. kṛtsna=P. kasiṇa).
1) (adj.) hard, firm, stiff. Cp. II. 2; Dhs. 44, 45 (where also der. f. abstr. akaṭhinatā absence of rigidity, combd with akakkhalatā, cp. DhsA. 151 akaṭhina-bhāva); PvA. 152 (°dāṭha).—(fig.) hard, harsh, cruel J. I, 295=V. 448 (=thaddha-hadaya); adv. °ṃ fiercely, violently Miln. 273, 274.
2. (nt.) the cotton cloth which was annually supplied by the laity to the bhikkhus for the purpose of making robes Vin. I, 253 sq.; also a wooden frame used by the bh. in sewing their robes Vin. II. 115—117.—On the k. robe see Vin. I. 298 sq.; III, 196 sq. , 203 sq. , 261 sq.; IV, 74, 100, 245 sq. , 286 sq.; V, 15, 88, 119, 172 sq.; 218. Cp. Vin. Texts I. 18; II, 148; III, 92.(Source): Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
kaṭhina (कठिन).—a S pop. kaṭhīṇa a Hard, solid, firm. 2 fig. Difficult (of performance, endurance, comprehension, occurrence &c.); i. e. arduous, grievous, abstruse, improbable. Used of works, business, pains, distresses &c. 3 fig. Cruel, merciless, unrelenting. 4 Hard at death's door.(Source): DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
kaṭhīṇa (कठीण).—a Hard, solid, firm. Difficult. Cruel, merciless, unrelenting.(Source): DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
1) Hard, stiff; कठिनविषमामेकवेणीं सारयन्तीम् (kaṭhinaviṣamāmekaveṇīṃ sārayantīm) Me. 93; Amaru.72; Mu.2.2; so °स्तनौ (stanau).
2) Hardhearted, cruel, ruthless; न विदीर्ये कठिनाः खलु स्त्रियः (na vidīrye kaṭhināḥ khalu striyaḥ) Ku.4.5; Pt.1.64; विसृज कठिने मानमधुना (visṛja kaṭhine mānamadhunā) Amaru.7; so °हृदय (hṛdaya); °citta -3 Inexorable, inflexible.
4) Sharp, violent, intense (as pain &c). नितान्तकठिनां रुजं मम न वेद सा मानसीम् (nitāntakaṭhināṃ rujaṃ mama na veda sā mānasīm) V.2.11.
5) Giving pain.
-naḥ A thicket.
-nā 1 A sweetmeat made with refined sugar.
2) An earthen vessel for cooking; (n. also in this sense).
-nī Chalk. See कठिनिका (kaṭhinikā).
-nam 1 A Shovel, scoop; प्लवे कठिनकाजं च रामश्चक्रे समाहितः (plave kaṭhinakājaṃ ca rāmaścakre samāhitaḥ) Rām.2.55.17.
2) An earthen vessel for cooking (sthālī); कठिनं पूरयामास (kaṭhinaṃ pūrayāmāsa) Mb. 3.297.1.
3) A strap or pole for carrying burden; P. IV.4.72.
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1) Hardness, tightness; काठिन्यमुक्तस्तनम् (kāṭhinyamuktastanam) Ś.3.9.
2) Sternness, hard-heartedness, cruelty.
3) Diffculty, obscurity (of style). (-naḥ) The date fruit.
Derivable forms: kāṭhinam (काठिनम्).
See also (synonyms): kāṭhinya.(Source): DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
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