by A. Yamuna Devi | 2012 | 77,297 words | ISBN-13: 9788193658048
This page relates ‘Politics and Administration (3): Samsphota (War)’ of the study on the Amarakoshodghatana of Kshirasvamin (in English) which represents a commentary on the Amarakosha of Amarasimha. These ancient texts belong the Kosha or “lexicography” category of Sanskrit literature which deals with the analysis and meaning of technical words from a variety of subjects, such as cosmology, anatomy, medicine, hygiene. The Amarakosa itself is one of the earliest of such text, dating from the 6th century A.D., while the Amarakoshodghatana is the earliest known commentary on that work.
[Cf. II.8.106; p.197]
Amarakośa lists 31 synonyms of war of which Saṃsphoṭa is one.
(i) Mekhalā (II. 8. 91; p. 194)–
[The sword knot:]
Kṣīrasvāmin explains that which is tied to the wrist preventing the sword from slipping away when struck is mekhalā—
mīyate maṇibandhe prakṣipyate mekhalā yathā praharato hastānna niryāti |
(ii) Yaṣṭīka, Pārśvadhika (II. 8. 71; p. 189)–
Armed with club or battle axe: Kṣīrasvāmin remarks that the word Pārśvadha is not found in the sense of axe and hence the Kashmirian recension uses the word adhitihetika instead:
(iii) Adhipāṅga (II. 8. 64; p. 188)–
A girdle over the coat of nail:
The constituents of army have already been mentioned above. One of the remarks of Kṣīrasvāmin related to those fighting on elephants is presented here.
(b) Hastyāroha (II. 8. 60; p. 187)–
[Those who fight on elephants:]
Amarakośa mentions ādhoraṇa, hastipakā, hastyārohā and niṣādin as synonyms.
Kṣīrasvāmin observes that some take the first two as (elephant drivers) mahouts and the latter two as those who fight on elephants–
dvau dvau bhinnārthavityeke ādyau dvau pālakau parau dvau yoddhārau |
Some of the rituals practised in royal houses before starting on the expeditions are also mentioned in Amarakośa Such words are also specially commented by Kṣīrasvāmin
(c) Lohābhisāra (II. 8. 95; p. 195)–
[Lustration of Weapons (arms):]
Kṣīrasvāmin explains it to be a ritual practiced at the onset of expedition. He adds that the weapons and war troops lustrated and worshipped before the king starts the expedition. Kṣīrasvāmin also records the different views in such practices.
śastrabhṛtāṃ rājñāṃ yaḥ śāstriko vidhiḥ prasthanātprāk sa lohābhisāraḥ lohaṃ śastramabhisāryate prasthane'treti | nīrasya śāntyudakasyājanaṃ kṣepo'tra nīrājanam | mantroktyā vāhanāyudhāderniśeṣeṇa rājānaṃ vātra | nīrājanādanantaraṃ karma lohābhisāraḥ iti muniḥ—vidhirlohābhisārastu rājñāṃ nīrājanottaraḥ durgo'pilohābhisārastu vidhiḥ paro nīrājanānnṛpaiḥ | daśamyāṃ daṃśitaiḥ kāryaṃ iti | āta eva nīrājanādvidhirityeke paṭhanti |
(d) Teja (II. 8. 20; p. 180)–
tejaḥ utkaṭatvaṃ | yadbharataḥ—
ādhikṣepāvamānādeḥ prayuktasya pareṇa yat |
prāṇātyaye'pyasahanaṃ tattejaḥ samudāhṛtam |
(e) Parākrama (III. 3. 138, p. 303)–
Kṣīrasvāmin defines valour as exertion against the enemy–
udyogo'rīn prati balotsāhaḥ |
(f) Parājaya (II. 8. 113; p. 198)–
Kṣīrasvāmin mentions Parājaya, Parājita and Parābhūta as words to denote defeat.
(g) Samvid (III. 3. 92; p. 291)–
[A greement or established custom:]
saṃbhāṣā saṃketo yathā—
pravṛttau ca nivṛttau ca saṃvidaṃ sthapayedraṇe |
Footnotes and references:
N.Ś., XX. 79