Varsha, Varṣā, Varṣa, Vārṣa: 24 definitions



Varsha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Varṣā and Varṣa and Vārṣa can be transliterated into English as Varsa or Varsha, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

1) Varṣā (मध्य, “rainy season”):—One of the six season of the year, comprising the months Śrāvaṇa and Bhādrapada.—This season takes place dusing visarga, when the moon is dominant, and releases nutrient essence to the living being. In these months, Vāyu-doṣa is aggrevated while Pitta-doṣa is accumulated. A skilled physician should moniter these conditions during the treatment of a patient.

2) Varṣā (वर्षा) is another name for Bhāraṅgī, which is a Sanskrit word referring to Clerodendrum serratum (beetle killer). It is classified as a medicinal plant in the system of Āyurveda (science of Indian medicine) and is used throughout literature such as the Suśrutasaṃhita and the Carakasaṃhitā. The synonym was identified in the Rājanighaṇṭu (verses 5.149-150), which is a 13th century medicinal thesaurus.

Source: Sushruta samhita, Volume II

Varsha is the Hindu season corresponding to “monsoon” / “rainy season”. The rains or the rainy season is marked by two months called Nabhas and Nabhasya (Shravana and Bhadra). Plants and vegetables (Oshadhis) that grow or sprout during Varsha (the rainy season), are matured in course of time and ripen in their virtues and potency in the season of Hemanta.

Subsequently wind thus accumulated in the summer, is agitated by the rains and cold winds in the forepart of Varsha (Pravrit) when the ground is flooded with water and thus gives rise to diseases which are incidental to a deranged state of the bodily wind. Likewise the features, which specifically mark the different seasons of the year are observed to characterise the different parts of a complete day and night, [or in other words] the evening is marked by those of Varsha (the rainy season).

During Varsha (the rainy season), the rivers overflow their banks, tumbling down the trees which grow on them. Ponds and lakes are decked with the full-blown Kumud and Nilotpala flowers. The earth is covered with profuse vegetation. All distinction between dry lands and reservoirs of water becomes impossible, and the sun and the planets are enveloped in dark clouds that shower torrents of rain but do not roar.

Source: Ancient Science of Life: Yogaśataka of Pandita Vararuci

Varṣa (वर्ष) refers to the “rainy season”, whose vāta-provocative symptoms are dealt with in the 10th century Yogaśataka written by Pandita Vararuci.—The Yogaśataka of Pandita Vararuci is an example of this category. This book attracts reader by its very easy language and formulations which can be easily prepared and have small number of herbs. It describes only those formulations which are the most common and can be used in majority conditions of diseases (viz., in Hemanta).

The 101st stanza is related with provocation of Doṣas in particular seasons. Seasons for provocation of Vāta are Hemanta (Jan-Feb), Varṣa (Rainy season) and Śiśira (Dec-Jan). Season for provocation of Pitta is Grīṣma (summer) and Śarad (Oct-Nov) while for provocation of Kapha is Vasanta (Feb-Mar).

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Varṣa (वर्ष).—The teacher of Vararuci. (For details see under Vararuci).

2) Varṣa (वर्ष).—See under Kālamāna.

Source: Geography in Ancient Indian inscriptions (purāṇa)

Varṣa (वर्ष) refers to “sub-continental region”.—Every varṣa has seven principal ranges styled kulaparvata (group mountain or clan mountain) besides a number of small hills (kṣudraparvata) which are situated near these.

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Varṣā (वर्षा) refers to the “rainy seasons”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.22. Accordingly as Śiva said to Sitā:—“[...] O my beloved, beautiful woman, clouds will not reach the place where I have to make an abode for you. O comely lass! even in the rainy seasons (varṣā) the clouds move about in the side ridges alone of the Himālayas. O gentle lady, the clouds usually come only upto the foot of Kailāsa. They never go above it. The clouds never go above the mountain Sumeru. The clouds Puṣkara, Āvartaka etc. reach the foot of Jambu (and return). Of these mountains I have mentioned you can choose one for residence as you desire. Please tell me quickly where you wish to reside”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Varṣa (वर्ष).—A god of Sutāra group.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 1. 89.

1b) The mind-born son of Brahmā in the 16th kalpa.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 21. 35.

1c) One of the ten branches of Supāra devas.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 100. 94.

2) Varṣā (वर्षा).—Of the Dhruva Maṇḍala.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 51. 11.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Kavya (poetry)

Source: Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara

Varṣa (वर्ष) is the name of one of the two sons of Saṅkarasvāmin, a Brāhman from in the city of Pāṭaliputra. Their story was narrated to Vyāḍi and Indradatta in the tale called ‘the two Brāhman brothers’, according to Kathāsaritsāgara chapter 2.

The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Varṣa, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.

Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyamimamsa of Rajasekhara

Varṣa (वर्ष) is the name of an important person (viz., an Ācārya or Kavi) mentioned in Rājaśekhara’s 10th-century Kāvyamīmāṃsā.—An ācārya of grammar and prior to Pānīni. According to Rājaśekhara his poetic examine held on Pātaliputra.

context information

Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Varṣa (वर्ष).—Name of an ancient scholar of grammar and Mimamsa, cited by some as the preceptor of कात्यायन (kātyāyana) and Panini. If not of Panini, he may have been a preceptor of Katyayana

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Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Arcana-dipika - 3rd Edition

Varṣa (वर्ष) refers to the “rainy” season and represents the months Āṣāḍha to Bhādrapadā (mid July to mid September) and is one of the six “seasons” (ṛtu).—According to the Vedic calendar, there are six different seasons, which correspond to the twelve months of the year.

Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Vedic index of Names and Subjects

Varṣa (वर्ष) denotes primarily ‘rain’, then ‘rainy season’ and ‘year’.

In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdomlib Libary: Vajrayogini

Varṣa (वर्ष) is the name of a cloud (megha) associated with Ghorāndhakāra: the south-western cremation ground (śmaśāna) according to the Vajravārāhī-sādhana by Umāpatideva as found in te 12th century Guhyasamayasādhanamālā. The name for the cloud of the southern direction is sometimes given as Varṣaṇa. As a part of this sādhana, the practicioner is to visualize a suitable dwelling place for the goddess inside the circle of protection which takes the form of eight cremation grounds.

These clouds (e.g., Varṣa) are known as cloud-kings (megharāja) and have names that are associated with the loud noises of thunderclouds and the noise of rain, according to the Guhyasamayasādhanamālā 11.77. Their presence in the cremation grounds may be connected with the nāgas, for they are known to be responsible for the rain.

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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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India history and geogprahy

Source: Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions

Varṣa (वर्ष) refers to a suffix for place-names mentioned in the Gupta inscriptions. The Gupta empire (r. 3rd-century CE), founded by Śrī Gupta, covered much of ancient India and embraced the Dharmic religions such as Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism. The termination varṣa is significant. It denotes a division of the earth as separated off by mountain ranges. From the Purāṇas we know of such names as Harivarṣa, Kiṃpuruṣa-varṣa and Bhārata-varṣa. Varṣam in Pāṇini (3.3.56) means the rainy season.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Varṣa.—(CII 3, 4; IA 17), a year; used for saṃvatsara or its abbreviations. (EI 23), the rainy season. Cf. varṣe (IA 19), used in the dates after the quotation of saṃvat; sometimes abbreviated to va. Cf. samaye used in the same sense. Cf. Tamil varuṣa-kāṇikkai (SITI), annual presents. (IE 7-1-2), ‘nine’; cf. the nine divisions of Jambu-dvīpa. Note: varṣa is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

1) Varṣa (वर्ष).—n (S) A year. varṣācyā kāṇṭhīṃ Within the or a year.

varṣa (वर्ष).—m S A division of the continent as known or apprehended by the Hindus. Nine varṣa are reckoned; viz. kuru, hiraṇmaya, rōmānaka, ilāvṛtta, harī, kētumālā, bhādrāsvā, kinnara, bharata.

varṣa (वर्ष).—m S Raining.

2) varṣā (वर्षा).—f S varṣākāla m (S) The rainy season.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

1) Varṣa (वर्ष).—n A year. varṣācyā kāṇṭhīṃ Within the or a year. Sometimes a division of the continent, bhāratavarṣa.

varṣa (वर्ष).—m Raining.

2) varṣā (वर्षा).—f-varṣāṛtu-kāla m The rainy season.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Varṣa (वर्ष).—[vṛṣ bhāve ghañ kartari ac vā]

1) Raining, rain, a shower of rain; तपाम्यहमहं वर्षं निगृह्णाभ्युत्सृजामि च (tapāmyahamahaṃ varṣaṃ nigṛhṇābhyutsṛjāmi ca) Bg.9.19; विद्युत्स्तनितवर्षेषु (vidyutstanitavarṣeṣu) Ms.4.13; Me.37.

2) Sprinkling, effusion, throwing down, a shower of anything; सुरभि सुरविमुक्तं पुष्पवर्षं पपात (surabhi suravimuktaṃ puṣpavarṣaṃ papāta) R.12.12; so शरवर्षः, शिलावर्षः, लाजवर्षः (śaravarṣaḥ, śilāvarṣaḥ, lājavarṣaḥ) &c.

3) Seminal effusion.

4) A year (usually only n.); इयन्ति वर्षाणि तया सहोग्रमभ्यस्यतीव व्रतमासिधारम् (iyanti varṣāṇi tayā sahogramabhyasyatīva vratamāsidhāram) R.13.67; न ववर्ष वर्षाणि द्वादश दशशताक्षः (na vavarṣa varṣāṇi dvādaśa daśaśatākṣaḥ) Dk.; वर्षभोग्येण शापेन (varṣabhogyeṇa śāpena) Me.1.

5) A division of the world, a continent; (nine such divisions are usually enumerated:-1 kuru; 2 hira- ṇmaya; 3 ramyaka; 4 ilāvṛta; 5 hari; 6 ketumālā; 7 bhadrāśva; 8 kiṃnara; and 9 bhārata); यस्मिन् नव वर्षाणि (yasmin nava varṣāṇi) Bhāg.5.16.6. एतदूढगुरुभारभारतं वर्षमद्य मम वर्तते वशे (etadūḍhagurubhārabhārataṃ varṣamadya mama vartate vaśe) Śi.14.5.

6) India (= bhāratavarṣa).

7) A cloud (only m. according to Hemachandra).

8) A day; अप्राप्तयौवनं बालं पञ्चवर्षसहस्रकम् (aprāptayauvanaṃ bālaṃ pañcavarṣasahasrakam) Rām.7.73.5. (com. varṣaśabdo'tra dinaparaḥ).

9) A place of residence; वर्षमस्य गिरेर्मध्ये रामेण श्रीमता कृतम् (varṣamasya girermadhye rāmeṇa śrīmatā kṛtam) Mb.3. 13.12.

Derivable forms: varṣaḥ (वर्षः), varṣam (वर्षम्).

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Varṣā (वर्षा).—(Usually f. pl.)

1) The rainy season, the rains, the monsoon; ग्रीष्मे पञ्चाग्निमध्यस्थो वर्षासु स्थण्डिलेशयः (grīṣme pañcāgnimadhyastho varṣāsu sthaṇḍileśayaḥ) Y.3. 52; Bk.7.1.

2) Rain (sing. in this sense).

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Vārṣa (वार्ष).—a. (-rṣī f.) [वर्ष-अण् (varṣa-aṇ)]

1) Belonging to the rains.

2) Annual.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Varṣa (वर्ष).—mn.

(-rṣaḥ-rṣaṃ) 1. Rain, raining. 2. Sprinkling, effusion. 3. Seminal effusion. 4. A year. 5. A Varsha, or division of the known continent; nine such are reckoned; viz:—Kuru, Hiranmaya, Ramyaka, Ilavrita, Hari, Ketumala, Bhadrashwa, Kin- Nara, and Bharata. 5. Jambu-Dwipa, or India. 6. A cloud. m. plu.

(-rṣāḥ) The rains or rainy season, containing two months, according to the Hindu classification of the seasons, which some systems consider to be Shravana and Bhadra, and others, Bhadra and Aśhwin; the duration of the monsoon is however longer, being reckoned from A sarha to Kartika, or from the middle of June to the beginning of October. f. Sing.

(-rṣā) A sort of gramineous plant: see pṛkkā. E. vṛṣ to sprinkle, aff. ac or ghañ; or vṝ to screen, &c., Unadi aff. sa .

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Vārṣa (वार्ष).—mfn.

(-rṣaḥ-rṣī-rṣaṃ) Belonging to a year, to the rains, &c. E. varṣa, aṇ aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Varṣa (वर्ष).—i. e. vṛṣ + a, I. adj. at the end of a comp. Raining, [Hitopadeśa] ii. [distich] 147. Ii. m. and n. 1. Rain, [Meghadūta, (ed. Gildemeister.)] 36; figurat., Chr. 39, 3 (a shower of arrows). 2. A cloud. 3. A year, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 53, 10 (n.); [Pañcatantra] 159, 14 (n.). 4. A division of the known continent, of which there are reckoned nine, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 8, 9, 22. 5. India, also called Bhārata-, Ii. f. ṣā. 1. pl. The rainy season, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 3, 173; [Hitopadeśa] 80, 15. 2. A sort of gramineous plant.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Varṣa (वर्ष).—[adjective] raining (—°); [neuter] [masculine] rain ([neuter] [plural] the rains as a season), a year, a part of the world; [masculine] [Name] of a grammarian; [feminine] ā rain, [plural] (sgl.) the rains.

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Vārṣa (वार्ष).—[feminine] ī belonging to the rainy season.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Varṣa (वर्ष):—a mf(ā)n. ([from] √vṛṣ) raining (ifc. e.g. kāma-v, raining according to one’s wish), [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

2) m. and (older) n. (ifc. f(ā). ) rain, raining, a shower (either ‘of rain’, or [figuratively] ‘of flowers, arrows, dust etc.’; also applied to seminal effusion), [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.

3) ([plural]) the rains, [Atharva-veda] (cf. varṣā f.)

4) a cloud, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

5) a year (commonly applied to age), [Brāhmaṇa] etc. etc. (ā varṣāt, for a whole year; varṣāt, after a year; varṣeṇa within a year; varṣe every year)

6) a day (?), [Rāmāyaṇa vii, 73, 5] ([Scholiast or Commentator])

7) a division of the earth as separated off by certain mountain ranges (9 such divisions are enumerated, viz. Kuru, Hiraṇmaya, Ramyaka, Ilāvṛta, Hari; Ketu-mālā, Bhadrāśva, Kiṃnara, and Bhārata; sometimes the number given is 7), [Mahābhārata; Purāṇa] (cf. [Indian Wisdom, by Sir M. Monier-Williams 420])

8) India (= bhāratavarṣa and jambu-dvīpa), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

9) Name of a grammarian, [Kathāsaritsāgara]

10) Varṣā (वर्षा):—[from varṣa] a f. See p. 927, col. 2.

11) [from varṣa] b f. rain, [Śāṅkhāyana-gṛhya-sūtra; Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

12) [v.s. ...] [plural] (exceptionally sg.) the rains, rainy season, monsoon (lasting two months accord. to the Hindū division of the year into six seasons [see ṛtu], the rains falling in some places during Śrāvaṇa and Bhādra, and in others during Bhādra and Āśvina, and in others for a longer period), [Taittirīya-saṃhitā] etc. etc.

13) [v.s. ...] Medicago Esculenta, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.] cf. [Greek] ἐέρσαι, ‘rain-drops.’

14) Vārśa (वार्श):—n. ([from] vṛśa) Name of a Sāman, [Pañcaviṃśa-brāhmaṇa]

15) Vārṣa (वार्ष):—1. vārṣa mf(ī)n. ([from] varṣa or varṣā) belonging to the rainy season, [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā]

16) belonging to a year, yearly, annual, [Horace H. Wilson]

17) 2. vārṣa Vṛddhi form of varṣa in [compound]

18) 3. vārṣa n. ([from] vṛṣa of which it is also the Vṛddhi form in [compound]) [gana] pṛthv-ādi

19) Name of a Sāman, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

20) Varṣa (वर्ष):—[from vṛṣ] b See p.926etc.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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