Sthayibhava, aka: Sthāyibhāva, Sthayin-bhava; 6 Definition(s)
Sthayibhava means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)
Sthāyibhāva (स्थायिभाव) refers to “durable psychological states”, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 7.31.
There are eight kinds of sthāyibhāva defined:
- rati (love),
- utsāha (energy),
- jugupsā (disgust),
- krodha (anger),
- hāsa (mirth),
- smaya, vismaya (astonishment),
- bhaya (fear),
- śoka (sorrow)
Sthāyibhāva (स्थायिभाव).—Just as among persons having same characteristics and similar hands, feet and belly and celebrity, some due to their birth, manners, learning and skill in arts and crafts, attain kingship, while others endowed with an inferior intellect become their attendants, in a similar manner, determinants (vibhāva), consequents (anubhāva) and Complementary psychological states (vyabhicāribhāva) become dependent on the Durable psychological states (sthāyibhāva). Being the shelter of others, the Durable psychological states become masters.(Source): archive.org: Natya Shastra
Sthāyibhāva (स्थायिभाव) refers to “permanent moods” according to Cirañjīva Bhaṭṭācārya (fl. 17th century).—Having dealt with the number of rasas Cirañjīva proceeds to discuss on the permanent mood or sthāyibhāvas which are favourable to different rasas. He has enumerated nine sthāyibhāvas conducive to nine rasas admitted by him before. These are—rati, hāsa, śoka, krodha, utsāha, bhaya, jugupsā, vismaya and nirveda related to nine rasas. The permanent mood being nourished by excitants etc is transformed into rasa.
According to Bhaṭṭa Lollaṭa a sthāyibhāva being produced by the vibhāvas, and nourished by the vyabhicāribhāvas, becomes a matter of experience in the form of anubhāva and is consumed in rasa (Aesthetic pleasure). Bhaṭṭa Lollaṭa mentions that rasa is not synonymous to sthāyibhāva. The sthāyibhāva is converted into rasa, when it is carried to maturity by the combination of vibhāvas etc.(Source): Shodhganga: The Kavyavilasa of Ciranjiva Bhattacarya (natyashastra)
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)
Sthāyībhāva (स्थायीभाव) is that bhāva which subjugates all the compatible bhāvas such as hāsya, as well as the incompatible bhāvas such as anger, and which predominates and continues to reign as the emperor of all the other bhāvas. Sthāyībhāva is the rati that the bhakta has in his heart for Kṛṣṇa in identifying himself as āśraya and Kṛṣṇa as viṣaya. In the description of the ingredients of rasa, you see that āśraya has been classified within vibhāva as ālambana (support). That bhāva brings the other bhāvas under its control, and accepts some of them as motivations for rasa, and some as assistants to taste rasa. In this predominant position, although it has the form of a relishable bhāva, at the same time, it relishes the other bhāvas itself. Study this very deeply, and reflect on how the sthāyībhāva is different from the other bhāvas. Rati in the form of sthāyībhāva can be either primary or secondary, so there are two types of Rati: mukhya-rati and gauṇa-rati.(Source): Pure Bhakti: Jaiva-dharma
Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).
Languages of India and abroad
sthāyībhāva (स्थायीभाव).—m S A feeling or passion as an object of dramatic or poetical description. There are eight, and they form a class or order opposed esp. to the order termed vyabhicāribhāva. They are Love, mirth, sorrow, heroism, anger, fear, aversion, astonishment (rati, hāsa, śōka, utsāha, krōdha, bhaya, nirvēda, vismaya). 2 Fixed or permanent condition.(Source): DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sthāyibhāva (स्थायिभाव).—a fixed or permanent condition of mind, a lasting or permanent feeling; (these feelings being said to give rise to the different rasas or sentiments in poetry, each rasa having its own Sthāyibhāva); they are eight or nine; रतिर्हासश्च शोकश्च क्रोधोत्साहौ भयं तथा । जुगुप्सा विस्मयश्चेत्थमष्टौ प्रोक्ताः शमोऽति च (ratirhāsaśca śokaśca krodhotsāhau bhayaṃ tathā | jugupsā vismayaścetthamaṣṭau proktāḥ śamo'ti ca) S. D.26; cf. व्यभिचारिभाव, भाव, विभाव (vyabhicāribhāva, bhāva, vibhāva) also.
Derivable forms: sthāyibhāvaḥ (स्थायिभावः).
Sthāyibhāva is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms sthāyin and bhāva (भाव).(Source): DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
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Search found 6 books and stories containing Sthayibhava, Sthāyibhāva or Sthayin-bhava. You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Sri Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī)
Verse 4.3.50 < [Part 3 - Chivalry (vīrya-rasa)]
Verse 2.4.3 < [Part 4 - Transient Ecstatic Disturbances (vyābhicāri-bhāva)]
Verse 2.4.13 < [Part 4 - Transient Ecstatic Disturbances (vyābhicāri-bhāva)]
Shri Gaudiya Kanthahara (by Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati)
Nectar of Devotion (by A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada)
Brihad Bhagavatamrita (by Śrīla Sanātana Gosvāmī)
The Natyashastra (by Bharata-muni)
A History of Indian Philosophy Volume 4 (by Surendranath Dasgupta)