Raj, Rāj: 12 definitions


Raj means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

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In Hinduism

Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Rāj (राज्) refers to a “sovereign (vowel)”, according to the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—Accordingly, [verse 2.28cd-33]—“Now, I shall explain the limbs of the mantra, with which, tied together, he achieves perfection. The hṛdayamantra, [which] confers all perfections, is the letter that terminates in the middle [j], followed by the fifth sovereign vowel (svara-rāj) [u], and summits with the conclusion of wind []. The śiras is terminal soma [v] joined with that from anala [y] and yoked with oṃ. [...]”.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Wisdom Library: Local Names of Plants and Drugs

Raj [राज] in the Nepali language is the name of a plant identified with Ilex dipyrena Wall. from the Aquifoliaceae (Holly) family having the following synonyms: Ilex dentonii. For the possible medicinal usage of raj, you can check this page for potential sources and references, although be aware that any some or none of the side-effects may not be mentioned here, wether they be harmful or beneficial to health.

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This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Rāj (राज्).—1 U. (rājati-te, rājita)

1) (a) To shine, glitter, appear splendid or beautiful, be eminent; रेजे ग्रहमयीव सा (reje grahamayīva sā) Bhartṛhari 1.17; तस्याः प्रविष्टा नतनाभिरन्ध्रं रराज तन्वी नवलोमराजिः (tasyāḥ praviṣṭā natanābhirandhraṃ rarāja tanvī navalomarājiḥ) Kumārasambhava 1.38; राजन् राजति वीरवैरिवनितावैधव्यदस्ते भुजः (rājan rājati vīravairivanitāvaidhavyadaste bhujaḥ) K.P.1; R.3.7; Kirātārjunīya 4.24;11.6. (b) To appear or look (like), shine (like); तोयान्तर्भास्करालीव रेजे मुनिपरंपरा (toyāntarbhāskarālīva reje muniparaṃparā) Ku. 6.49.

2) To rule, govern.

3) To direct, regulate.

4) To be the first or chief, be at the head. -Caus. (rājayati-te) To cause to shine, illuminate, brighten.

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Rāj (राज्).—m.,

-rājaḥ 1 A king, chief, prince.

2) Anything best of its kind; सोऽम्बुजो हरिणाध्मातः सर्वप्राणेन शङ्खराट् (so'mbujo hariṇādhmātaḥ sarvaprāṇena śaṅkharāṭ) Rām.7.7.1; (adjective also in this sense).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Rāj (राज्).—[(ṛ,) rājṛ] r. 1st cl. (rājati-te or irregularly rejate) To shine: With nir prefixed, To overcome, to subdue. Caus. (rājayati-te) With nisa 1. To adorn, to illuminate. 2. To wave light before an idol or a king, (as an act of worship.)

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Rāj (राज्).—m. (-rāṭ) A king, a monarch or prince. E. rāj to shine, aff. kvip .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Rāj (राज्).—i. 1, [Parasmaipada.] Atm. 1. To shine, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] [distich] 160; to beam, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 1, 32; Chr. 25, 52 (rājatam, anomal. instead of rājantam). 2. ved. To govern (akin to ṛj, originally raj). [Causal.] rājaya, To illuminate. Ptcple. of the pf. pass. rājita. 1. Illuminated. 2. Adorned, [Kirātārjunīya] 5, 9.

— With abhi abhi, To shine, Mahābhārata 3, 10960.

— With upa upa, [Causal.] uparājita, Illuminated, [Pañcatantra] v. [distich] 12.

— With nis nis, nīrājita, Shining, [Uttara Rāmacarita, 2. ed. Calc., 1862.] 150, 12.

— With pari pari, To be very resplendent, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 49, 3.

— With vi vi, 1. To shine forth, [Pañcatantra] v. [distich] 2. 2. To shine, ib. i. [distich] 373; [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 52, 25. [Causal.] To cause to beam, [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 26, 2. virājita, 1. Illuminated, splendid, [Kirātārjunīya] 5, 4; [Nala] 5, 3. 2. Manifested.

— With abhivi abhi-vi, To shine, to beam, [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 26, 10.

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Rāj (राज्).—latter part of comp. nouns, I. adj. Shining. Ii. curtailed for rājan, m. A king, [Hiḍimbavadha] 1, 13.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Raj (रज्).—rañj, rajyati, rajyata, [participle] rakta (q.v.) be coloured or red, be exited or agitated, be affected with a strong feeling, [especially] be delighted with, fond of, be in love with or have pleasure in ([locative]). [Causative] rañjayati (rajayati), [participle] rañjita colour, redden; brighten, illumine; rejoice, delight, please, satisfy.

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Rāj (राज्).—1. rājati rājate rāṣṭi reign, rule, direct, be master of ([genetive]); shine, glitter, be illustrious or eminent, distinguish one’s self, appear as (iva). [Causative] rājayati, te rule, govern.

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Rāj (राज्).—2. ([nominative] rāṭ) [masculine] sovereign, king.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Raj (रज्):—a See √rañj.

2) b or rañj [class] 1. 4. [Ātmanepada] [Parasmaipada] ([Dhātupāṭha xxiii, 30; xxvi, 58]) rajati, te (only [grammar]; -rañjati, [Rāmāyaṇa vii, 99, 11]) or rajyati, te ([grammar] also [perfect tense] [Parasmaipada] rarañja, 3rd [dual number] rarajatuḥ or rarañjatuḥ; [Ātmanepada] rarañje; [Aorist] arāṅkṣīt, araṅkta; Prec. rajyāt, raṅkṣīṣṭa; [future] raṅktā; raṅkṣyati, te; [infinitive mood] raṅktum; [indeclinable participle] raktvā or raṅktvā),

2) —to be dyed or coloured, to redden, grow red, glow, [Atharva-veda; Kāvya literature];

2) —to be affected or moved, be excited or glad, be charmed or delighted by ([instrumental case]), be attracted by or enamoured of, fall in love with ([locative case]), [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.;

2) — (rajati, te), to go, [Naighaṇṭuka, commented on by Yāska ii, 14] :—[Causal] rajayati (only [Atharva-veda]) and rañjayati, te ([Aorist] arīrajat or ararañjat; [Passive voice] rajyate; [Aorist] arañji or arāñji),

2) —to dye, colour, paint, redden, illuminate, [Atharva-veda] etc. etc.;

2) —to rejoice, charm, gratify, conciliate, [Maitrī-upaniṣad; Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.;

2) —to worship, [Naighaṇṭuka, commented on by Yāska iii, 14] (rajayati mṛgān = ramayati mṛgān, [Pāṇini 6-4, 24], [vArttika] 3, [Patañjali]) :—[Desiderative] riraṅkṣati, te [grammar]:—[Intensive] rārajīti ([grammar] also rārajyate and rāraṅkti), to be greatly excited, exult, [Ṛg-veda ix, 5, 2] (others ‘to shine bright’). cf. [Greek] ρ῾έζω, ‘to dye’, ρ῾εγεύς, ‘dyer.’

3) Rāj (राज्):—1. rāj ([probably] originally two roots; cf.raj rañj, ṛñj) [class] 1. [Ātmanepada] [Parasmaipada] ([Dhātupāṭha xix, 74]) rājati, te ([Vedic or Veda] also rāṣṭi, rāṭ; [perfect tense] rarāja; rarāje or reje, 2. sg. [Parasmaipada] rarājitha or rejitha, [Mahābhārata] etc.; [Aorist] arājiṣuḥ, [Ṛg-veda]; arājiṣṭa [grammar]; [future] rājitā, rājiṣyati, [ib.]; [infinitive mood] rājase, [Ṛg-veda]),

—to reign, be king or chief, rule over ([genitive case]), direct, govern ([accusative]), [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.;

—to be illustrious or resplendent, shine, glitter, [ib.];

—to appear as or like (iva), [Kumāra-sambhava vi, 49] :

—[Causal] rājayati, te ([Aorist] ararājat), to reign, rule, [Atharva-veda; Mahābhārata];

—to illuminate, make radiant (cf. rājita) :—[Desiderative] rirājiṣati, te [grammar]:—[Intensive] rārājyate, rārāṣṭi, [ib.][For cognate words See under rājan.]

4) 2. rāj mfn. (ifc.) shining, radiant etc.

5) m. (rāj) ([nominative case] rāṭ) a king, sovereign, chief (in later language only ifc.), [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.

6) anything the best or chief of its kind (cf. śaṅkha-r)

7) Name of an Ekāha, [???]

8) a kind of metre, [Ṛgveda-prātiśākhya]

9) f. Name of a goddess (explained by rājamānā), [Taittirīya-brāhmaṇa]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Rāj (राज्):—(ṅa, ṛ) rājate, rejate 1. d. To shine. With nira to overcome.

2) (ṭ) 5. m. A king.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Rāj (राज्) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Aggha, Chajja, Raya, Rāya, Saha.

[Sanskrit to German]

Raj in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

1) Raj in Hindi refers in English to:—(nf) menstruation; dust; (nm) the second of the three [guna] characterising human nature (see [rajoguna]); an allomorph of [raja] (i.e. [rajavada]); ~[kana] dust particle..—raj (रज) is alternatively transliterated as Raja.

2) Raj in Hindi refers in English to:—(nm) a kingdom, realm; state; reign; an allomorph of '[raja]' which when prefixed or suffixed to numerous other words denotes of the king/state or excellence, supremacy, etc.; a builder, mason; ~[katha] the tale of a king’s exploits; ~[kanya] a princess; -[kara] statetax; ~[kaja] public affairs, affairs of the state; governance; ~[karya] see ~[kaja]; ~[kumara] a prince; ~[kumari] a princess; ~[kula] a dynasty, regal family; ~[kosha] fisc; public/state exchequer; treasury; ~[koshiya] fiscal; ~[kshama] amnesty; ~[gaddi] royal throne; ~[gira] a mason; ~[giri] masonry; ~[griha] a palace, regal mansion; ~[cinha] regalia, royal insignia; state emblem; ~[tamtra] monarchy, monarchical system of government; ~[tamtravadi] royalist(ic); ~[tamtriya] monarchical; ~[tilaka] coronation; annointing at the time of coronation; ~[damda] regal command; royal sceptre; punishment prescribed by law; ~[duta] an ambassador; ~[duta, asadharana] ambassador extraordinary; ~[dutavasa] an embassy; ~[droha] lese-majesty, sedition, treason; ~[droha, ghora] high treason; ~[drohapurna] seditious; ~[drohatmaka] seditious; ~[drohi] a seditionist; ~[dharma] state religion; royal duty; ~[patha] a highway; -[paddhati] royal system; polity; royal policy; ~[pata] reign, royal throne; •[saumpana] to hand over the reins of kingdom/governance; ~[pala] a governor; ~[putra] a prince; ~[putri] a princess; ~[purusha] a state employee/official; ~[puta] a class of kshatriyas known for their valour and bravery; ~[putana] the land of the Rajputs, Rajasthan; ~[prasada] a palace; ~[baha] a big canal; ~[bhakta] a loyalist; loyal to the ruler/state; ~[bhakti] loyalism, loyalty or allegiance to the ruler/state; ~[bhatta] privy purse; ~[mamdala] satellite states; chamber of princes; -[mamtri] a minister of a king; ~[marmajna] a statesman; ~[marmajnata] statesmanship; ~[mahala] a palace; ~[mahishi] a queen; ~[mudra] signet, royal seal; ~[yakshma] tuberculosis; ~[yoga] an auspicious combination of planets (in one’s horoscope) that forebodes elevation to royalty; —[yogya] befitting a king; -[roga] an incurable or long-lasting disease;tuberculosis; ~[lakshmi] regal majesty, royal grandeur, kingly prosperity and splendour; state goddess of prosperity; ~[vamsha] a dynasty; ~[vittiya] fiscal; ~[vidda] see [rajaniti; -vidroha] revolt, rebellion, insurrection; ~[vidrohi] a rebel, an insurgent; -[viplava] anarchy, revolt; ~[vritti] privy purse; ~[vaidya] physician of a king; an eminent physician; -[vyavastha] polity; ~[shri] royal grandeur / majesty, regal splendour and prosperity; see ~[lakshmi; -samskarana] de luxe edition; ~[satta] royal authority; monarchy; ~[sattatmaka] monarchical, pertaining to a system of government where authority is wielded by a ruler; ~[sabha] a royal court; ~[samaja] an assembly of princes, princely assembly; royal court; ~[suya] a typical sacrifice in olden times which, when successfully performed by a king, entitled him to the designation of an Emperor ([samrata); ~simhasana] the royal throne; ~[hasa] a kind of swan or goose (with red legs and bill sometimes compared to a flamingo); —[ulatana] to bring about a coup, to overthrow the esta blished administration; —[karana] to rule; to enjoy royal privileges/luxury; —[dena] to hand over the reins of kingdom; —[para baithana] to ascend the throne, to be installed as the ruler; —[rajana] to live in princely splendour, to live like a prince..—raj (राज) is alternatively transliterated as Rāja.

3) Raj in Hindi refers in English to:—(nm) a secret; ~[dam/dara] one who knows the secret; one who shares (somebody’s) secret, confidant; —[khola dena/-phasha karana] to let the cat out of the bag, to blow the gaff..—raj (राज) is alternatively transliterated as Rāja.

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