Mushti, Muṣṭi: 26 definitions


Mushti means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Muṣṭi can be transliterated into English as Musti or Mushti, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

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In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Muṣṭi (मुष्टि, “fist”) refers to a gesture (āṅgika) made with a ‘single hand’ (asaṃyuta), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 8. The hands (hasta) form a part of the human body which represents one of the six major limbs (aṅga) used in dramatic performance. With these limbs are made the various gestures (āṅgika), which form a part of the histrionic representation (abhinaya).

(Instructions of Muṣṭi): Fingers have their ends [bent] into the palm and the thumb [is set] upon them.

(Uses of Muṣṭi): It is used to represent beating, exercise exit, pressing, shampooing, grasping sword and holding spears and clubs.

Source: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)

One of the Twenty-eight Single Hands (hasta):—Muṣṭi (fist): the four fingers are bent into the palm, and the thumb set on them. Usage: steadiness, grasping the hair, holding things, wrestling.

According to another book: the thumb placed on the middlefinger, and the fingers closed. It originates from Viṣṇnu, whoused this hand when he fought with Madhu. Its sage is Indra,colour indigo, race Śūdra, patron deity the moon. Usage: grasping,waist, fruit, agreement, saying “Very well”, sacrificial offerings,greeting common people, carrying away, strong hold, holding a book, rimning, lightness, wresthng, holding a shield,holding the hair, fisticuffs, grasping a mace or spear, indigocolour, Śūdra caste.

Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana (natya)

Muṣṭi (मुष्टि) refers to one of the twenty-two Asaṃyuktahastas or “single hand gestures” (in Indian Dramas), according to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, an ancient Sanskrit text which (being encyclopedic in nature) deals with a variety of cultural topics such as arts, architecture, music, grammar and astronomy.—The hasta-mudrās (lit. “hand-gestures”) are very essential to denote some particular action or state in dancing and these mudrās are formed with the help of hands and fingers.—The word muṣṭi denotes the clenched hand. According to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, in muṣṭi posture, the fingers are bent towards the palm and the thumb is set on them. This hasta is used in some activities like striking, hard press of the breast, holding sword, stick and spear etc.

In the Abhinayadarpaṇa also, the muṣṭi posture is said to be used in holding things. It speaks that to do the fight with hand this postured is adopted. In the Śabdakalpadruma also, the meaning of the word muṣṭi as a technique of fight has been used.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (śilpa)

Muṣṭi (मुष्टि) or Muṣṭihasta refers to “weapon-hold, fist” and represents one of the twenty-four gestures with a single hand, as defined according to texts dealing with śilpa (arts and crafs), known as śilpaśāstras.—Accordingly, pratimā-lakṣaṇa (body postures of the icons) is comprised of hand gestures (hasta, mudrā or kai-amaiti), stances/poses (āsanas) and inflexions of the body (bhaṅgas). There are thirty-two types of hands [viz., muṣṭi-hasta] classified into two major groups known as tolirkai (functional and expressive gestures) and elirkai (graceful posture of the hand).

Shilpashastra book cover
context information

Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Local Names of Plants and Drugs

Mushti [ముష్టి] in the Telugu language is the name of a plant identified with Strychnos nux-vomica L. from the Loganiaceae (Logania) family. For the possible medicinal usage of mushti, you can check this page for potential sources and references, although be aware that any some or none of the side-effects may not be mentioned here, wether they be harmful or beneficial to health.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Muṣṭi (मुष्टि) refers to “fists”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.44 (“Menā regains consciousness”).—Accordingly, after Pārvatī spoke to her mother Menā: “On hearing these words of Pārvatī, Menā, the beloved of the lord of mountains lamented much. She became angry. She caught hold of Pārvatī and thrashed her with fists (muṣṭi), elbows gnashing her teeth. She was greatly agitated and furious. O dear one, O sage, you and other sages who were there, separated her from the mother and took her far off. Menā then rebuked them again and again. She hurled harsh repulsive words at all of them”.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

Muṣṭi (मुष्टि) refers to “one’s first”, according to the the Amanaska Yoga treatise dealing with meditation, absorption, yogic powers and liberation.—Accordingly, as Īśvara says to Vāmadeva: “[...] [Just as Arjuna's] fist [aimed his bow] upwards (ūrdhva-muṣṭi) [at the Yantra], [yet] his gaze was [on Rādhā’s reflection in a bowl of oil] below; his piercing [of the target] was above, [yet] his head was [tilted] down, [just so the yogin practises Śāmbhavī Mudrā.] He will become liberated while alive by [this] method of [gazing down at] Rādhā and [aiming upwards at the] Yantra. [...]”.

Yoga book cover
context information

Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism

Muṣṭi (मुष्टि) refers to the “breadth of the clenched fist”.

Source: The Amanaska Yoga

Muṣṭi (मुष्टि):—Dr Awasthi believes the word ‘muṣṭi’ refers to mūlabandha, but he provides no evidence for this. Muṣṭi literally means a ‘clenched hand or fist’, and the verse implies that the Yogī is holding such a fist above the direction of his gaze. If this fist were the clenched hands held behind the head in a classical headstand and if the Yogī were gazing on the space between the eyebrows, then his clenched hands would feel as though they are above the direction of his gaze.

In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Muṣṭi (मुष्टि) [=Muṣṭitā?] refers to “secrecy (of teachers)”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, “How then, son of good family, does the Bodhisattva who has attained memory never forget? Son of good family, the Bodhisattva attains memory (dhāraṇī) by purifying his memory. What then is the purification of memory? Son of good family, there are thirty-two purifications of memory. What are the thirty-two? [...] (13) no secrecy of teachers (anācārya-muṣṭi) concerning religion; (14) giving the gift of religion without a view to profit; (15) hearing on the basis of the root of insight; (16) practicing fundamentally according to the dharma; [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Muṣṭi.—(IE 8-6), a handful. Cf. eka-muṣṭyā (LP), ‘at the same time’. Note: muṣṭi is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

Musti in India is the name of a plant defined with Strychnos nux-vomica in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Strychnos ligustrina Blume (among others).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Species Plantarum (1753)
· Taxon (1980)
· Mémoires de la Société Botanique de France (1910)
· Rumphia (1836)
· Lloydia (1973)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Musti, for example diet and recipes, health benefits, pregnancy safety, extract dosage, chemical composition, side effects, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
context information

This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

muṣṭi (मुष्टि).—f m (S) The fist. 2 A fistful. 3 A hilt, haft, or handle.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

muṣṭi (मुष्टि).—f The fist. A fistful. A hilt.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Muṣṭi (मुष्टि).—m., f. [muṣ-ktic]

1) The clenched hand, fist; कर्णान्तमेत्य विभिदे निबिडोऽपि मुष्टिः (karṇāntametya vibhide nibiḍo'pi muṣṭiḥ) R.9.58;15.21; Śiśupālavadha 1.59.

2) A handful, fistful; श्यामाकमुष्टिपरिवर्धितकः (śyāmākamuṣṭiparivardhitakaḥ) Ś4.14; R.19.57; Kumārasambhava 7.69; Meghadūta 7.

3) A handle or hilt.

4) A particular measure (= pala).

5) A measure of capacity equal to one handful.

6) The penis.

7) Stealing (only f.).

8) A compendium, abridgment.

9) A measure used in checking the account of the income and expenditure of a country; 'जनपदायव्ययशोधको मुष्टिः (janapadāyavyayaśodhako muṣṭiḥ)' Bhūṣaṇā मुष्टिमर्धमुष्टिं वाऽभ्यन्तरीकृत्य कृत्स्नमायव्ययजातम् (muṣṭimardhamuṣṭiṃ vā'bhyantarīkṛtya kṛtsnamāyavyayajātam) Dk. 2.8.

Derivable forms: muṣṭiḥ (मुष्टिः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Muṣṭi (मुष्टि).—f. (used in Sanskrit of the handle or grasping- point of a weapon), (1) = muṣṭi-bandha, q.v., grip, a manner of grasping (the bow): (bhagavatā, or maye, mayā, spoken by the Buddha) cirapraṇaṣṭā Śāk(i)ya- muṣṭi jñātā Mahāvastu ii.77.2, 3; 82.2, the long-lost (bow-)grip of the Śākyas was known; referring to the young Bodhi- sattva's exploit of wielding the bow of his grandfather Siṃhahanu, which no one else could wield; (2) see s.v. ācārya-muṣṭi; (3) since rikta-muṣṭi, q.v., is used in lists of things empty and delusive, the word muṣṭi alone is, according to text Śikṣāsamuccaya 261.8, used in the same sense: evaṃ cakṣuś cendriyaṃ ca rikte (app. dual) muṣṭisadṛśam (but read rikta-muṣṭi-sadṛśam?) alīkam asadbhūtaṃ etc.; note that after rikte the epithets are (at least mostly; but see moṣadharma) singular, which makes the dual rikte suspicious, depite the double subject; and the standard use of riktamuṣṭi, occurring actually in the preceding line of Śikṣāsamuccaya, makes the em. seem called for.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Muṣṭi (मुष्टि).—mf. (-ṣṭiḥ-ṣṭī) 1. The fist, the closed hand. 2. The hilt or handle of a sword, etc. 3. A handful or Pala, the initiatory measure in the tables of the measures of grain. 4. The penis. 5. Filching, stealing. E. muṣ to steal or take, aff. ktic .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Muṣṭi (मुष्टि).—m. and f. 1. The fist, Rām a, 15, 17; [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 203. 2. A handful, [Pañcatantra] 215, 1. 3. The handle of a sword.

— Cf. perhaps [Anglo-Saxon.] fyst.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Muṣṭi (मुष्टि).—[feminine] fist, handful; handle, esp of a sword.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Muṣṭi (मुष्टि):—[from muṣ] mf. stealing, filching, [Horace H. Wilson]

2) [v.s. ...] the clenched hand, fist (perhaps [originally] ‘the hand closed to grasp anything stolen’), [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.

3) [v.s. ...] a handful, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa] etc. etc.

4) [v.s. ...] a [particular] measure (= 1 Pala), [Śārṅgadhara-saṃhitā]

5) [v.s. ...] a hilt or handle (of a sword etc.), [Kāvya literature; Kathāsaritsāgara]

6) [v.s. ...] a compendium, abridgment, [Sarvadarśana-saṃgraha]

7) [v.s. ...] the penis (?), [Mahīdhara on Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā xxiii, 24.]

8) Muṣṭī (मुष्टी):—[from muṣ] in [compound] for muṣṭi.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Muṣṭi (मुष्टि):—(ṣṭiḥ) 2. m. f. The fist; the hilt; filching.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Muṣṭi (मुष्टि) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Muṭṭhi.

[Sanskrit to German]

Mushti in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Muṣṭi (मुष्टि):—(nf) a fist; fist-blow; also ~[kā; -prahāra] a fist-blow; -[yuddha] boxing, pugilism.

context information


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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Muṣṭi (ಮುಷ್ಟಿ):—

1) [noun] the tree Strychnos nux-vomica of Loganiaceae family.

2) [noun] its poisonous nut containing strychnine, brucine and other alkaloids; nux-vomica.

3) [noun] the plant Argyreia nervosa ( = A. speciosa) of Convolvulaceae family.

4) [noun] another plant Argyreia malabarica of the samily.

5) [noun] the grass Panicum italica of Poaceae family.

--- OR ---

Muṣṭi (ಮುಷ್ಟಿ):—

1) [noun] a hand with the fingers closed into the palm; a fist.

2) [noun] a thrusting blow with the fist.

3) [noun] that much quantity which can be held in the palm with fingers closed over it.

4) [noun] that part of a weapon, which is to be held by the user; the handle.

5) [noun] that part of the bow where it is held by the user.

6) [noun] the length of a fist, used as a unit of measurement.

7) [noun] food given or received as charity; alms.

8) [noun] the act or an instance of stealing; theft.

9) [noun] the male gonad or reproductive gland, either of two oval glands located in the scrotum; the testicle.

10) [noun] a mystical hymn that is chanted before discharging an arrow for special or more disastrous effects.

11) [noun] (dance) a single-hand gesture in which the thumb is firmly pressed over other four fingers closed into the palm.

12) [noun] ಮುಷ್ಟಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ಇಟ್ಟುಕೊಂಡಿರು [mushtiyalli ittukomdiru] muṣṭiyalli iṭṭukonḍiru (fig.) to keep someone or something (as power) under one’s control.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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