Shrimad Bhagavad-gita

by Narayana Gosvami | 2013 | 327,105 words

The Bhagavad-gita Verses 12.13-14, English translation, including the Vaishnava commentaries Sarartha-varsini-tika, Prakashika-vritti and Rasika-ranjana (excerpts). This is verse Verses 12.13-14 from the chapter 12 called “Bhakti-yoga (Yoga through Pure Devotional Service)”

Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration, Word-for-word and English translation of verses 12.13-14:

अद्वेष्टा सर्व-भूतानां मैत्रः करुण एव च निर्ममो ।
निरहङ्कारः सम-दुःख-सुखः क्षमी ॥ १३ ॥
सन्तुष्टः सततं योगी यतात्मा दृढ-निश्चयः ।
मय्य् अर्पित-मनो-बुद्धिर् यो मद्-भक्तः स मे प्रियः ॥ १४ ॥

adveṣṭā sarva-bhūtānāṃ maitraḥ karuṇa eva ca nirmamo |
nirahaṅkāraḥ sama-duḥkha-sukhaḥ kṣamī
|| 13 ||
santuṣṭaḥ satataṃ yogī yatātmā dṛḍha-niścayaḥ |
mayy arpita-mano-buddhir yo mad-bhaktaḥ sa me priyaḥ || 14 ||

adveṣṭā–non-envious; sarva-bhūtānām–towards all living beings; maitraḥ–has friendship for the devotees; karuṇaḥ eva ca–and merciful (to the spiritually impoverished); nirmamaḥ–free from feelings of possessiveness (towards children, relatives, etc.); nir-aham-kāraḥ–free from false egoism (in relation to the body); sama-duḥkha-sukhaḥ–even-minded in happiness and distress (considering them the fruits of past actions, prārabdha-karma); kṣamī–tolerant; santuṣṭaḥ–fully satisfied; satatam–always; yogī–who is linked-up in bhakti-yoga; yata-ātmā–sense-controlled; dṛḍha-niścayaḥ–firmly determined (to exclusive devotional service); mayi–to Me; arpita–offered; mano-buddhiḥ–mind and intelligence (remembering and contemplating); yaḥ–who; mat-bhaktaḥ–My devotee; saḥ–he; me–to Me; priyaḥ–dear.

My devotee, who is non-envious, compassionate and friendly toward all living beings, free from feelings of possessiveness for sons and family members, devoid of false ego and even-minded in both happiness and distress, who is forgiving, ever-content, endowed with bhakti-yoga, in control of his senses, resolute in determination and dedicated to Me in both mind and intelligence, is very dear to Me.

Commentary: Sārārtha-Varṣiṇī Ṭīkā

(By Śrīla Viśvanātha Cakravartī Ṭhākura; the innermost intention of the commentary named ‘the shower of essential meanings’)

“What is the nature of the devotees who have attained the afore-mentioned stage of peace?” Expecting this question from Arjuna, Śrī Bhagavān is explaining in eight verses the various qualities of His different types of devotees, the first of which begins with the word adveṣṭā. A person who is not envious of one who envies him, but instead maintains a friendly attitude toward him, is called adveṣṭā. Desiring that such a discontented person should not become degraded or fall down due to his envious attitude, the devotee feels only compassion for him. If someone questions how and with what type of discrimination one can show friendship and compassion toward an envious person, the answer is that this happens without discrimination. “Because My devotee is nirmamaḥ–devoid of a feeling of possessiveness for son, wife and so forth, having no false identification with the body–he is free from envy of anyone.” Furthermore, why should he discriminate when he can avoid the misery arising from envy by not doing so? One may wonder if he would feel any bodily pain if another person ran at him to punch him or beat him with a shoe. In response Bhagavān says, “sama-duḥkha-sukhaḥ–he remains even-minded both in happiness and in misery.”

As Candrārdha Śekhara (Lord Śiva) says in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (6.17.28): “nārārayaṇa-parah sarve na…–those who are devoted to Śrī Nārāyaṇa are never afraid in any circumstances, because they see the heavenly planets, liberation and hell as equal.” To see happiness and distress as equal is called sama-darśitva. Moreover, devotees of Śrī Nārāyaṇa think that any misery coming to them is the result of their past actions that are now manifesting (prārabdha-karma), so it must be faced. Becoming equipoised, they endure all misery with great tolerance. To convey this, Śrī Bhagavān says that they are forgiving (kṣamī). The root word kṣam is used in the sense of tolerance.

If the question is raised as to how such devotees maintain their lives, the response is santuṣṭaḥ; they remain satisfied with whatever eatables they get by the will of providence or with little endeavour. Arjuna asked, “But earlier You said that they are even-minded both in misery and happiness, satisfied even if they face the hardship of not getting any food, so how can it be that they feel satisfaction when attaining food for themselves? This seems contradictory.” In response Śrī Bhagavān says satataṃ yogī. “Being endowed with bhakti-yoga, they want to maintain their bodies simply to attain perfection in bhakti.”

It is said, “One must endeavour to acquire food to maintain one’s life. Such maintenance of the body is proper, because only by keeping the body healthy can one think of the Absolute, and by specific knowledge of the Absolute, one can attain brahma (Bhagavān).” If, by the will of providence, such devotees do not get anything to eat, they remain undisturbed (yatātmā). And even if they have to face a situation that disturbs their minds, they do not engage in the practice of aṣṭāṅga-yoga to pacify it. For this reason, they are known as dṛḍha-niścayaḥ, for they never deviate from their sole duty of engaging in exclusive devotion to Bhagavān. They remain devoted to remembering and contemplating Bhagavān. “Such devotees give Me great pleasure and are therefore dear to Me.”

Commentary: Sārārtha-Varṣiṇī Prakāśikā-vṛtti

(By Śrīla Bhaktivedānta Nārāyaṇa Gosvāmī Mahārāja; the explanation that illuminates the commentary named Sārārtha-varṣiṇī)

In previous verses, after explaining the various types of sādhana practised by one-pointed and steadfast devotees, Śrī Bhagavān is explaining the qualities of those devotees, in the next seven verses.

Here, the word adveṣṭā means that they do not even envy those who envy them. They think that such envy is the result of their currently fructifying reactions (prārabdha-karma) as awarded by Parameśvara, and therefore they envy no one. Rather, they maintain a friendly attitude towards all, considering everyone as the dwelling place of Parameśvara. Upon seeing the misery of others, they try to remove it;therefore, they are compassionate. They consider the body and anything related to the body as transformations of material nature and different from their real self. Therefore, they feel no possessiveness, even for their own bodies, and while performing their activities, they remain free from bodily identification, which is a falsity. They are steady in both material happiness and distress, and so in either situation, they become neither elated nor disturbed. Because they are forgiving, they are also tolerant. Since they remain content in all situations–loss or gain, fame or infamy, and victory or defeat–they are yogīs and remain steadily fixed in the sādhana given to them by śrī gurudeva. The word yatātmā means ‘one who has control over the senses’. Since they cannot be disturbed by any logic based on falsity, their determination is firm. In this material world, no misery can make them deviate from devotion to the Supreme Lord. This is the special quality of exclusive devotees. They are endowed with the firm faith that ‘I am the servant of Bhagavān,’ and their mind, body and everything else is surrendered unto Śrī Bhagavān’s lotus feet. Therefore, such devotees are dear to Him.

In Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (11.11.29–32), Śrī Kṛṣṇa describes these qualities to His devotee Uddhava:

kṛpālur akṛta-drohas titikṣuḥ sarva-dehinām
satya-sāro’navadyātmā samaḥ sarvopakārakaḥ
kāmair ahata-dhīr dānto mṛduḥ śucir akiñcanaḥ
anīho mita-bhuk śāntaḥ sthiro mac-charaṇo muniḥ
apramatto gabhīrātmā dhṛtimāñ jita-ṣaḍ-guṇaḥ
amānī māna-daḥ kalyo maitraḥ kāruṇikaḥ kaviḥ
ājñāyaivaṃ guṇān doṣān mayādiṣṭān api svakān
dharmān santyajya yaḥ sarvān māṃ bhajeta sa tu sattamaḥ

Śrī Kṛṣṇa said, “O Uddhava, a saintly person is merciful and never harms others. Even if others are envious of him he is tolerant and forgiving toward all. He is fixed in the truth, he is free from all envy and jealousy, and his mind is equal in material happiness and distress. He dedicates himself to the welfare of all. His intelligence is never bewildered by material desires or false logic, and he has control over all his senses. His behaviour is always pleasing and exemplary, and he is free from feelings of possessiveness even towards his wife and children. He never endeavours in worldly activities, and he strictly controls his eating. He is always peaceful and steady. A saintly person accepts Me as his only shelter. Such a person is very firm in the execution of his duties, because he is steady and noble, even in a distressing situation. He has conquered over the six material qualities–namely hunger, thirst, lamentation, illusion, old age and death. He is free from all desire for prestige and offers all honour to others. He is expert in bringing others to Me and therefore never cheats anyone. Rather, he is a well-wishing friend to all and is most merciful. Such a saintly person must be considered the most learned of men. He perfectly understands that the religious duties prescribed by Me in various Vedic scriptures possess the power to purify the performer, and he knows that neglect of such duties constitutes a fault in the development of the ordinary persons. Having taken complete shelter at My lotus feet, however, a saintly person ultimately renounces all materialistic duties such as varṇāśrama and worships Me alone. He is thus considered to be the best of all.” *

Such devotees are also described in Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā (22.78–80).

kṛpālu, akṛta-droha, satya-sāra sama
nirdoṣa, vadānya, mṛdu, śuci, akiñcana
sarvopakāraka, śānta, kṛṣṇaika-śaraṇa
akāma, anīha, sthira, vijita-ṣaḍ-guṇa
mita-bhuk, apramatta, mānada, amānī
gambhīra, karuṇa, maitra, kavi, dakṣa, maunī

Devotees are always merciful, humble, truthful, equal to all, faultless, magnanimous, mild and clean. They are without material possessions, and they perform welfare work for everyone. They are peaceful, surrendered to Kṛṣṇa and free from desire. They are indifferent to material acquisitions and are fixed in devotional service. They completely control the six bad qualities, such as lust, anger and greed. They eat only as much as required, and they are not inebriated. They are respectful, grave, compassionate and without false prestige. They are friendly, poetic, expert and silent. *

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