Marma: 9 definitions

Introduction

Marma means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Marma is a medical term used in Ayurveda referring to the "vital parts".

Source: archive.org: Kalarippayattu (Ayurveda)

Marma (मर्म).—In Suśruta-saṃhitā, the sixth chapter under Śārīrasthāna section is devoted to identification of marma points, their vitality and the consequences of damaged marmas. The Kalari tradition acknowledges the identification of marmas asfound in Suśruta-saṃhitā. Accordingly, it is said that there are 107 marma points and they are divided broadly into five categories as marmas of the muscular, vascular, ligament, bone and joints. Suśruta then points out the number of marmas under each of these categories. Suśruta highlights the importance of marma by identifying four typesof blood vessels (sirā) that are generally situated in the marmas that maintain the body by nourishing the ligaments, bones, muscles and joints.

Vāgbhaṭṭa following the tradition of Suśruta takes up the discussionof marmas in the fourth chapter titled Marmavibhāga of Śārīrasthāna section in his Aṣṭāṅgahṛdaya. In the Sanskrit commentary to Aṣṭāṅgahṛdaya, titled ‘Sarvāṅgasundara ’ by Aruṇadatta the word marma is derived etymologically as that place when affected (severely) causes death. Some of the names of marmas as found described in Aṣṭāṅgahṛdaya are kṣipra, kūrcaśira, gulpha, indrabasti, jānu, āṇi, urvi, lohitākṣa, viṭapa, guda etc.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: The India Center: Architecture (Vastu Shastra)

A Mandala (architectural plan which represents the cosmos) has certain points known as Marma which are vital energy spots on which nothing should be built. They are determined by certain proportional relationships of the squares and the diagonals.

Vastushastra book cover
context information

Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Dhanurveda (science of warfare)

Source: archive.org: Kalarippayattu

Marma (मर्म).—The Kalari tradition acknowledges the identification of marmas asfound in Suśruta-saṃhitā. The Northern Kalari tradition follows the manna based on Suśruta and Vāgbhaṭṭa. However, the names of the marmas are given in Malayalam like chumayan, kazhuttukochi, kirikoḍam etc. The Kalari tradition identifies 64 marma points called abhyāsa-marma, of which 32 points can be aimed at during a combat and other 32 points can be aimed at when the opponent is immobilized and these points are aimed at unexpectedly. Again, 12 points aimed at by vaḍi or katti results in death and other 6 points aimed at by hand leads to immediate death.

Source: Knowledge Traditions & Practices of India: Martial Arts Traditions: A Survey

Marma (मर्म) refers to the ‘vital points’, as defined according to ancient Indian martial arts (dhanurveda).—The final stage of Kalarippayattu training involves Ayurvedic treatments for body and mind, techniques of marma (vital points) and therapeutic massages. The student learns how to treat injuries and diseases resulting from trauma. After the training, the kalari expert also becomes a healer.

Dhanurveda book cover
context information

Dhanurveda (धनुर्वेद) refers to the “knowledge of warfare” and, as an upaveda, is associated with the Ṛgveda. It contains instructions on warfare, archery and ancient Indian martial arts, dating back to the 2nd-3rd millennium BCE.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Marma (मर्म) refers to the “vulnerable points”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.28. Accordingly as Śiva said to Satī:—“[...] people wounded with arrows by enemies are not so pained as when their vulnerable points (marma) are hit by the taunting words of kinsmen. O beloved, the wicked people do not observe that their own status is being hit when they attack good men endowed with the six qualities of learning”.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

marma (मर्म).—n (S) Secret quality; the latent power, property, or virtue of. Ex. sarva padārthāmadhyēṃ jīṃ īśvarānēṃ marmēṃ ṭhēvilīṃ āhēta tīṃ kōṇhāsa samajatāta? 2 A vital member or organ; a mortal spot. Hence fig. A vulnerable point; a sore or tender place; a secret failing or foible. 3 The secret meaning or purpose (of a passage, a speech &c.); the point, sting, bearing, aim, drift. 4 The art, trick, secret, mystery; the hidden skill or appropriate mode (of a contrivance, a process, a business). Ex. ghaḍyāḷāntalēṃ marma samajata nāhīṃ; adyāpi ślōka lāvaṇyācēṃ marma tulā samajalēṃ nāhīṃ. 5 The enemy or antidote; the corrective; the thing of opposite and counteracting qualities. Ex. kēḷācēṃ marma tūpa; gaṃvhācēṃ marma kāṅkaḍī.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

marma (मर्म).—n Secret quality. A vital member. The secret meaning. The secret. The antidote, corrective. Ex. kēḷyācēṃ marma tūpa gavhācēṃ marma kākaḍī.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Marma (मर्म):—[from marman] in [compound] for marman.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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