Marma; 7 Definition(s)

Introduction

Marma means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Marma is a medical term used in Ayurveda referring to the "vital parts".

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Marma (मर्म).—In Suśruta-saṃhitā, the sixth chapter under Śārīrasthāna section is devoted to identification of marma points, their vitality and the consequences of damaged marmas. The Kalari tradition acknowledges the identification of marmas asfound in Suśruta-saṃhitā. Accordingly, it is said that there are 107 marma points and they are divided broadly into five categories as marmas of the muscular, vascular, ligament, bone and joints. Suśruta then points out the number of marmas under each of these categories. Suśruta highlights the importance of marma by identifying four typesof blood vessels (sirā) that are generally situated in the marmas that maintain the body by nourishing the ligaments, bones, muscles and joints.

Vāgbhaṭṭa following the tradition of Suśruta takes up the discussionof marmas in the fourth chapter titled Marmavibhāga of Śārīrasthāna section in his Aṣṭāṅgahṛdaya. In the Sanskrit commentary to Aṣṭāṅgahṛdaya, titled ‘Sarvāṅgasundara ’ by Aruṇadatta the word marma is derived etymologically as that place when affected (severely) causes death. Some of the names of marmas as found described in Aṣṭāṅgahṛdaya are kṣipra, kūrcaśira, gulpha, indrabasti, jānu, āṇi, urvi, lohitākṣa, viṭapa, guda etc.

Source: archive.org: Kalarippayattu (Ayurveda)
Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

A Mandala (architectural plan which represents the cosmos) has certain points known as Marma which are vital energy spots on which nothing should be built. They are determined by certain proportional relationships of the squares and the diagonals.

Source: The India Center: Architecture (Vastu Shastra)
Vastushastra book cover
context information

Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Dhanurveda (science of warfare)

Marma (मर्म).—The Kalari tradition acknowledges the identification of marmas asfound in Suśruta-saṃhitā. The Northern Kalari tradition follows the manna based on Suśruta and Vāgbhaṭṭa. However, the names of the marmas are given in Malayalam like chumayan, kazhuttukochi, kirikoḍam etc. The Kalari tradition identifies 64 marma points called abhyāsa-marma, of which 32 points can be aimed at during a combat and other 32 points can be aimed at when the opponent is immobilized and these points are aimed at unexpectedly. Again, 12 points aimed at by vaḍi or katti results in death and other 6 points aimed at by hand leads to immediate death.

Source: archive.org: Kalarippayattu

Marma (मर्म) refers to the ‘vital points’, as defined according to ancient Indian martial arts (dhanurveda).—The final stage of Kalarippayattu training involves Ayurvedic treatments for body and mind, techniques of marma (vital points) and therapeutic massages. The student learns how to treat injuries and diseases resulting from trauma. After the training, the kalari expert also becomes a healer.

Source: Knowledge Traditions & Practices of India: Martial Arts Traditions: A Survey
Dhanurveda book cover
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Dhanurveda (धनुर्वेद) refers to the “knowledge of warfare” and, as an upaveda, is associated with the Ṛgveda. It contains instructions on warfare, archery and ancient Indian martial arts, dating back to the 2nd-3rd millennium BCE.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

marma (मर्म).—n (S) Secret quality; the latent power, property, or virtue of. Ex. sarva padārthāmadhyēṃ jīṃ īśvarānēṃ marmēṃ ṭhēvilīṃ āhēta tīṃ kōṇhāsa samajatāta? 2 A vital member or organ; a mortal spot. Hence fig. A vulnerable point; a sore or tender place; a secret failing or foible. 3 The secret meaning or purpose (of a passage, a speech &c.); the point, sting, bearing, aim, drift. 4 The art, trick, secret, mystery; the hidden skill or appropriate mode (of a contrivance, a process, a business). Ex. ghaḍyāḷāntalēṃ marma samajata nāhīṃ; adyāpi ślōka lāvaṇyācēṃ marma tulā samajalēṃ nāhīṃ. 5 The enemy or antidote; the corrective; the thing of opposite and counteracting qualities. Ex. kēḷācēṃ marma tūpa; gaṃvhācēṃ marma kāṅkaḍī.

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

marma (मर्म).—n Secret quality. A vital member. The secret meaning. The secret. The antidote, corrective. Ex. kēḷyācēṃ marma tūpa gavhācēṃ marma kākaḍī.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Relevant definitions

Search found 22 related definition(s) that might help you understand this better. Below you will find the 15 most relevant articles:

Adhomarma
Adhomarma (अधोमर्म).—the anus; Pudendum Muliebre. Adhomarma is a Sanskrit compound consisting o...
Lohitaksha
Lohitākṣa (लोहिताक्ष).—red-eye, (1) (n. of a gem, not in Sanskrit dictionaries, but occurs in P...
Janu
Jānu (जानु, “knees”) refers to one of the nine “minor limbs” (pratyaṅga), which represents a di...
Guda
Guḍa (गुड) refers to “jaggery”, as defined in the Śivapurāṇa 1.15. Accordingly, “a charitable g...
Kshipra
Kṣipra (क्षिप्र).—a. [kṣip-rak] (compar. kṣepīyas; superl. kṣepiṣṭha)1) Elastic (as a bow); ऋतज...
Vitapa
Viṭapa (विटप).—(m.; in Sanskrit branch, also foliage; Sanskrit °paka and °pin,—tree; comp...
Urvi
Urvī (उर्वी) refers to “earth” and is mentioned in a list of 53 synonyms for dharaṇi (“earth”),...
Ani
Aṇi (अणि).—m.-ṇī [aṇati śabdāyate aṇ-in]1) The point of a needle.2) A linchpin, the pin or bolt...
Varma
Varmā (वर्मा).—In ancient days it was the custom to add the word 'Varmā' to the names of Kṣatri...
Gulpha
Gulpha.—(IE 7-1-2), ‘two’. Note: gulpha is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it ...
Padavinyasa
1) Padavinyāsa (पदविन्यास).—The padavinyāsa, placing (marking) of the plots and assigning deiti...
Shalyatantra
Śalyatantra (शल्यतन्त्र) is the name of an Āgama or Tantra mentioned in the Kakṣapuṭatantr...
Marmajna
Marmajña (मर्मज्ञ).—a., Marmajña is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms marman and jña ...
Marmika
Marmika (मर्मिक).—a.1) Knowing secrets or weak points.2) Very acute, intelligent; see मर्मज्ञ (...
Kanthanadi
Kaṇṭhanādi (कण्ठनादि) is a Sanskrit technical term translating to “wind-pipe”, and used in Ā...

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