Arana, Āraṇa, Araṇa, Ārana: 21 definitions


Arana means something in Buddhism, Pali, Jainism, Prakrit, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Araṇā (अरणा) or Araṇāsamādhi refers to the “power to prevent the arising of passion in others”, according to  the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter 1.—Note: The bibliography for this subject is in Saṃgraha, p. 53. – Subhūti is the foremost of the araṇavihārins (Aṅguttara, I, p. 24); see M. Walleser, Die Streitlosigkeit des Subhūti, Heidelberg, 1917.

Source: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Araṇa (अरण) refers to “freedrom from depravity”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, as Bodhisattva Gaganagañja explains to Bodhisattva Ratnaśrī what kind of concentration should be purified: “[...] (37) [when the Bodhisattvas attain] the concentration called ‘Entering into appearance’, all objective supports will be purified; (38) [when the Bodhisattvas attain] the concentration called ‘Being free from depravity’ (araṇa-samādhi), they will transcend all objective supports; (39) [when the Bodhisattvas attain] the concentration called ‘Stainless wheel’, the wheel of the dharma will be purified; [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Buddhist Door: GlossaryIt means a place of stillness, which is to practice pure conduct and to cultivate without the attachment of self and the Four Marks.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

Āraṇa (आरण) refers to a heavenly abode (kalpa) inhabited by Kalpopapanna gods, according to Jain cosmological texts in both the Śvetāmbara and Digambara tradition. The Kalpopapannas (‘those born in the heavens’) represent a sub-species of the Vaimānika gods, which in turn represents the fourth main classification of devas (gods). This kalpa is also known as Āraṇakalpa. In this specific kalpa, instead of bodily coition, a more and more refined sort of sexual satisfaction takes its place. The associated leśyā is white. There are ten such kalpas being ruled over by sixty-four Indras (heavenly kings).

In Jain iconography, the associated animal symbol of the Āraṇa-kalpa is a bull (prakrit: vasaha, sanskrit: vāha, varāha or vaṃsaga). These animals are depicted in a cosmological text of the Śvetāmbara tradition known as the Saṃgrahaṇīratna (“jewel of the compilation”), also known as the Trailokyadīpikā (“illumination of the triple world”), written by Śrīcandra in the 12th century.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 4: The celestial beings (deva)

Āraṇa (आरण) refers to one of the sixteen heavens (kalpa) hosting the sixteen classes of empyrean celestial beings (vaimānika), according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 4.19. The living beings residing in the vimānas are called the empyrean gods (vaimānika) and represents one of the four classes of Devas.

What is the number of layers in Āraṇa and Acyuta heaven pairs? There are three layers there. Which thought-colourations are there in Ānata-Prāṇata and Āraṇa-Acyuta gods? They have white thought colouration. What is the maximum lifespan of deities in Āraṇa-Acyuta kalpas? It is twenty two ocean-measured-periods (sāgara) for both.


General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

1) Arana in India is the name of a plant defined with Toona ciliata in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Cedrela kingii C. DC. (among others).

2) Arana is also identified with Polyalthia longifolia It has the synonym Uvaria altissima Pennant, nom. illeg. (etc.).

3) Arana in Papua New Guinea is also identified with Flemingia strobilifera It has the synonym Moghania fruticulosa (Benth.) Mukerjee (etc.).

4) Arana in Sierra Leone is also identified with Triclisia patens.

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Hort. Bengal (1814)
· Synopsis Plantarum (1807)
· Kaiserliche Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien. MathematischNaturwissenschaftliche Klasse. (1920)
· The Flora of British India (1876)
· Fragmenta Phytographiae Australiae (Mueller) (1858)
· Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien (1897)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Arana, for example extract dosage, pregnancy safety, chemical composition, diet and recipes, side effects, health benefits, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
context information

This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

araṇa : (adj.) peaceful; passionless.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

1) Araṇa, 2 (nt.) (a + raṇa) quietude, peace Nett 55 (+ tāṇa), 176 (or as adj. = peaceful) ThA. 134 (+ saraṇa); Vbh. 19 sq. (opp. saraṇa). See saraṇa2.

2) Araṇa, 1 (adj. -n.) (Vedic araṇa fr. *ara √, which as Abl. ārā is used as adv. far from, cp. P. ārakā. Orig. meaning “removed from, remote, far”. See also arañña). (adj.) living in solitude, far from the madding crowd M. III, 237 (°vibhaṅga-sutta); S. I, 44, 45; J. I, 340 (tittha°?). (Page 76)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Araṇa (अरण).—a. (-ṇī f.) Ved.

1) Departed, gone away; belonging to others, strange, unusual, foreign; distant, remote (opp. sva, nitya or amā); (Sāy. grieved, sorry duḥkhita, aramamāṇa); inimical, hostile, (with whom one is not on speaking terms).

2) Not fighting.

-ṇam 1 Moving, going.

2) Entering into, being inserted.

3) A refuge; विभेति यस्मादरणं ततो नः (vibheti yasmādaraṇaṃ tato naḥ) Bhāgavata 6.9.21.

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Āraṇa (आरण).—Ved.

1) Depth, abyss.

2) A precipice; याभिरन्तकं जसमानमारणे (yābhirantakaṃ jasamānamāraṇe) Ṛgveda 1.112.6.

-jāḥ Name of a class of Jaina deities.

Derivable forms: āraṇam (आरणम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Araṇa (अरण).—(a-raṇa), adj. and subst. nt., also araṇā subst. f. (= Pali a-raṇa, adj. and subst. nt.; araṇā not in Pali unless, by em. m.c., in Pv iv.1.33 for text araṇa-vihārī, see Critical Pali Dictionary s.v.; neg. of Pali, [Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit] raṇa, q.v., = kleśa, Pali kilesa), (1) adj., free from depravity, passion, impurity, = Tibetan ñon moṅs pa (also = kleśa) med pa: Divyāvadāna 395.30 parvataguhānilayam araṇaṃ vairaparāṅmukhaṃ praśa- mayuktam; on Avadāna-śataka ii.130.2 see s.v. araṇya; Rāṣṭrapālaparipṛcchā 16.3 (verse), text araṇya-vividhaprānta sevamāno, read araṇa (required by meter; for °ṇaṃ) vivi°; in some cpds. seemingly adjec- tival, as araṇāśaya- (misprinted araṇaśaya), passionless heart, Daśabhūmikasūtra. g. 7(343).7, which suggests that for the corrupt text maitrapeśi raṇvanāśayo (!) ghanaḥ Gaṇḍavyūha 482.25 (verse) we must read maitra peśir araṇāśayo (°aṇva° is unmetrical(ly)!) ghanaḥ; probably also Mahāvyutpatti 617 araṇa-samavasaraṇa, name of a samādhi, cited from Śatasāhasrikā-prajñāpāramitā 1414.17 where saraṇa is added after araṇa; Mahāvyutpatti 618, cited from same place; also araṇa- [Page065-a+ 71] samādhi, passionless samādhi, Mahāvastu i.164.15, or having… ([bahuvrīhi]), Mahāvyutpatti 1125 (note that Pali uses araṇa as adj. with samādhi); (2) °ṇa, subst. nt., freedom from passion or depravity, non-passion, etc. Mahāvastu i.165.5 (verse) sukhaṃ sa- mādhiṃ araṇāni sevato; in cpds., araṇa-bhāvanayā Samādhirājasūtra 19.4 (prose; compare 3, below), by bringing to pass freedom from kleśas; araṇavihārin (= Pali id.), dwelling in a passionless state, Mahāvyutpatti 6366 (here araṇā-vihārin, below, seems to indicate that araṇa is substantival in force); (3) araṇā, subst. f. (on Pali see above), in [Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit] seems = araṇa nt.; as separate word, in AbhidhK, see below, and Bodhisattvabhūmi 89.1 yā ca tathāgatasyāraṇā; in composition, araṇā-vihārin = araṇa-v°, above; sometimes ā could be m.c., as Divyāvadāna 401.4; but in prose in the rest; Subhūti is the first of ara- ṇāvihārin, Aṣṭasāhasrikā-prajñāpāramitā 20.8; Vajracchedikā 26.12; Avadāna-śataka ii.131.5—6; AdP, Konow MASI 69, 13.33; other cpds., pratisamvid-araṇā- praṇidhi-jñānādīnāṃ (contains a four-member dvandva) guṇānāṃ Bodhisattvabhūmi 207.22; araṇā-bhāvanayā Samādhirājasūtra 8.16 (prose, = araṇa-bh°, above, in a closely parallel passage); araṇā-saṃpannā(ḥ) Mahāvastu ii.292.17; in Lalitavistara 428.13 read with v.l. araṇā-dharma-supratilabdha for text araṇya°. La Vallée-Poussin, AbhidhK vii.86—88 defines araṇā as le pouvoir d'empêcher la naissance de la passion d'autrui; but in my texts it seems to be much less complicated, a simple equivalent of araṇa. Did it start in verses, m.c. (compare Pali, above, Pv iv.1.33), and somehow come thence into prose? Or (more likely) was araṇā orig. adj. (to 1, above) with a fem. noun (samāpatti? compare AbhidhK LaV.-P. iv. 121; or maitrā, Pali mettā?). See also Renou. JA 1939, 369 note 1.

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Araṇā (अरणा).—see araṇa.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Āraṇa (आरण).—An abyss, Chr. 296, 6 = [Rigveda.] i. 112, 6.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Araṇa (अरण).—[feminine] ī distant, strange.

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Āraṇa (आरण).—[neuter] depth, abyss.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Araṇa (अरण):—1. araṇa mf(ī)n. (√), foreign, distant, [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa]

2) n. (only for the [etymology] of araṇi) the being fitted (as a piece of wood), [Nirukta, by Yāska]

3) a refuge, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

4) [=a-raṇa] 2. a-raṇa mfn. without fighting (as death id est. natural death), [Bhaṭṭi-kāvya]

5) Arāṇa (अराण):—[Aorist] p. q.v.

6) Āraṇa (आरण):—n. (probably connected with araṇa) depth, abyss, precipice, [Ṛg-veda i, 112, 6 and viii, 70, 8.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Araṇa (अरण):—(ṇaṃ) 1. n. A refuge.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Araṇa (अरण) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Araṇa, Āraṇa.

[Sanskrit to German]

Arana in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Aranā (अरना) [Also spelled arna]:—(nm) a wild buffallo.

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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

1) Araṇa (अरण) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Araṇa.

2) Āraṇa (आरण) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Āraṇa.

3) Āraṇa (आरण) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Āraṇa.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Araṇa (ಅರಣ):—[noun] a marriage gift.

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Araṇa (ಅರಣ):—[noun] the cow-dung.

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Arana (ಅರನ):—[noun] (dial.) a steel tool with a rough, ridged surface for smoothing, grinding down; a file.

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Āraṇa (ಆರಣ):—

1) [noun] a division in the Vēdas.

2) [noun] (Jain.) one of the sixteen heavens.

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Āraṇa (ಆರಣ):—[noun] six haṇas (an old Indian currency coin).

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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Nepali dictionary

Source: unoes: Nepali-English Dictionary

Ārana (आरन):—n. anvil; forge; smithy;

context information

Nepali is the primary language of the Nepalese people counting almost 20 million native speakers. The country of Nepal is situated in the Himalaya mountain range to the north of India.

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