Vinaya Pitaka (4): Parivara

by I. B. Horner | 2014 | 150,781 words | ISBN-13: 9781921842160

The English translation of the Khandhaka: the second book of the Pali Vinaya Pitaka, one of the three major ‘baskets’ of Therevada canonical literature. It analyses the rules from various points of view. The English translation of the Vinaya-pitaka (fourth part, parivara) contains many Pali original words, but transliterated using a system similar...

As To Graduation (10. Decades)

  1. Prv.7.10.1 Ten occasions for ill-will.[1]
  2. Ten (ways of) averting ill-will.[2]
  3. Ten matters that are trained in.
  4. A wrong view founded on ten (tenets).[3]
  5. A right view founded on ten (tenets).[4]
  6. Ten (ways of) taking up an extreme view.[5]
  7. Ten wrongnesses.[6]
  8. Ten rightnesses.[7]
  9. Ten ways of unskilled action.[8]
  10. Ten ways of skilled action.[9]
  11. Ten distributions of voting tickets are not legally valid.[10]
  12. Ten distributions of voting tickets are legally valid.[11]
  13. Ten rules of training for novices.[12]
  14. If he is possessed of ten qualities a novice should be expelled.[13]
  15. BD.6.224 If he is possessed of ten qualities an expert on Discipline is reckoned as ignorant: if he does not put a limit to his own speech, if he does not put a limit to the speech of another (person), if, not having put a limit to his own speech, to the speech of another (person), he has a (formal) act carried out not according to rule, not with his acknowledgement,[14] if does not know what is an offence, if he does not know what is the root of an offence, if he does not know the arising … the stopping … the course leading to the stopping of an offence.
  16. If he is possessed of ten qualities an expert on Discipline is reckoned as clever: if he puts a limit to his own speech … if he knows what is an offence … the course leading to the stopping of an offence.
  17. And if he is possessed of ten further qualities an expert on Discipline is reckoned as ignorant: if he does not know what is a legal question … the root of a legal question … the arising … the stopping … the course leading to the stopping of a legal question, if he does not know the subject … the provenance … the laying down … the supplementary laying down … the sequence of the connecting words.[15]
  18. If he is possessed of ten qualities an expert on Discipline is reckoned as clever: if he knows what is a legal question … the sequence of the connecting words.
  19. And if he is possessed of ten further qualities Vin.5.139 an expert on Discipline is reckoned as ignorant: if he does not know what is a motion, if he does not know the carrying out of a motion, if he is not skilled in what comes first, if he is not skilled in what comes afterwards, and if he is one unknowing of the (right) time, if he does not know what is an offence and what is not an offence, if he does not know a slight and a serious offence, if he does not know what is an offence that can be done away with and one that cannot be done away with, if he does not know what is a very bad offence and one that is not very bad, if he has not learnt properly from a succession of teachers, has not attended properly, has not reflected on properly.[16]
  20. If he is possessed of ten qualities an expert on, Discipline is reckoned as clever: if BD.6.225 he knows what is a motion … if he has learnt properly from a succession of teachers, has attended properly, has reflected on properly.
  21. And if he is possessed of ten further qualities an expert on Discipline is reckoned as ignorant: if he does not know what is an offence and what is not an offence, if he does not know a slight and a serious offence, if he does not know what is an offence that can be done away with and one that cannot be done away with, if he does not know what is a very bad offence and one that is not very bad, and if the two Pātimokkhas in full have not been properly handed down to him, not properly sectioned, not properly regulated, not properly investigated clause by clause and in respect of the linguistic form, if he does not know what is an offence and what is not an offence … if he does not know what is a very bad offence and one that is not very bad, and if he is not skilled in investigating a legal question.[17]
  22. If he is possessed of ten qualities … clever: if he knows what is an offence … and if he is skilled in investigating a legal question.
  23. A monk possessed of ten qualities may be agreed upon for a referendum.[18]
  24. Dependent on ten reasons a rule of training for disciples is laid down by the Tathāgata.[19]
  25. Ten perils in entering a king’s women’s quarters.[20]
  26. Ten objects as (alms-) gifts.[21]
  27. Ten gems.[22]
  28. A tenfold Order of monks.[23]
  29. One may ordain through a group of ten (monks).[24]
  30. Ten refuse-rag-robes.[25]
  31. Wearers of ten colours for robes.[26]
  32. One may wear an extra robe for at most ten days.[27]
  33. Ten (colours of) semen.[28]
  34. Ten (kinds of) women.[29]
  35. Ten (kinds of) wives.[30]
  36. Ten points promulgated at Vesālī.[31]
  37. Ten individuals who are not to be greeted.[32]
  38. Ten ways of cursing.[33]
  39. One brings slander in BD.6.226 ten ways.[34]
  40. Ten lodgings.[35]
  41. They asked for ten boons.[36]
  42. Ten suspensions of the Pātimokkha are not legally valid.[37]
  43. Ten suspensions of the Pātimokkha are legally valid.[38]
  44. Ten advantages from conjey.[39]
  45. Ten (kinds of) flesh are not allowed.[40]
  46. Ten “at mosts”.[41]
  47. An experienced competent monk who is of ten years’ standing may let go forth,[42] may ordain,[43] may give guidance,[44] a novice may attend him.[45]
  48. An experienced competent nun who is of ten years’ standing[46] may let go forth … a woman novice may attend her.[47]
  49. Agreement to ordain[48] may be accepted by an experienced competent nun who is of ten years’ standing.
  50. Training should be given to a girl who has been married for ten years.[49]
  51. Concluded are the Decades

    Its Summary

    Vin.5.140 Ill-will, averting, matters,
    wrong (view), and right (view), taking up an extreme (view),
    And wrongnesses too, rightnesses,
    unskilled, and also skilled, /
    Not legally valid, and legally valid tickets,
    novices, and expelling,
    Speech, and legal question too,
    motion, and slight too, /
    Slight (and) serious these:
    discriminate between the dark and the bright,
    BD.6.227 And referendum, and training,
    and women’s quarters, objects, /
    Gems, and tenfold,
    likewise ordination,
    Refuse-rags, and wearers,
    ten days, semen, women, /
    Wives, ten points, not to be greeted,
    and about cursing,
    And slander too, and lodgings,
    and boons, not legally valid, /
    Legally valid, conjey, and flesh,
    “at mosts,” monk, nun,
    Ordination, married girl:
    the Decades are well proclaimed.

Footnotes and references:

1.

AN.v.150.

2.

AN.v.150.

3.

N’atthi dinnaṃ, etc. according to Vin-a.1343; found frequently, e.g. at DN.i.55, AN.i.268f.

4.

E.g. AN.i.269.

5.

antaggāhikā diṭṭhi, mentioned at Vin.1.172, see BD.4.226, n. These views begin with sassato loko according to Vin-a.1343, and occur frequently in the Pali Canon, e.g. at AN.v.193, MN.i.157, though not under the title of antaggāhikā diṭṭhi.

6.

Add wrong or right knowledge, ñāṇa, and freedom, vimutti, to the eight factors of the Way, e.g. AN.v.240.

7.

Add wrong or right knowledge, ñāṇa, and freedom, vimutti, to the eight factors of the Way, e.g. AN.v.240.

8.

DN.iii.269.

9.

DN.iii.269.

14.

These five clauses form one pentad at Vin.5.130, and the next five another pentad.

15.

As at Vin.5.130, two pentads.

16.

As at Vin.5.130f., again two pentads.

17.

Forming two pentads at Vin.5.131.

19.

Given e.g. at Vin.3.21.

21.

Food, drink, etc., as at DN.iii.258, MN.iii.205, AN.iv.239, AN.v.271.

22.

ratana, taken by Vin-a.1344 to be those given at Vin.2.238. Uttaravinicchaya 281 takes the view that the ten are drink, food, clothes and so on.

25.

See the two pentads at Vin.5.129.

26.

See e.g. Vin.1.306, Vin.2.267 where seven colours are mentioned for robes. Vin-a.1344 says “ten colours according to the Kurundiya. But the Mahā-aṭṭhkathā says that to the nine allowable robes add the bathing cloth, or the vest (for nuns)”.

35.

senāsanāni. The ten, or rather eleven, as given at Vin-a.1344 should be compared with the ten items given in a definition of seyyā at Vin.4.41 of which eight are in common.

36.

Vin-a.1344 says Visākhā asked for eight (see Vin.5.137: “the woman lay disciple asked for eight boons”), King Suddhodana for one (Vin.1.82f.) and Jīvaka for one (Vin.1.280).

41.

See the list at Vin-a.1340.

42.

(?).

46.

At Vin.4.329 it is said that no nun should ordain while she is of less than twelve years’ standing.

47.

Not traced.

48.

vuṭṭhāpana, ordination by nuns only. See BD.3, Introduction, p.xlivff., BD.3, Introduction, p.liii. See also Nuns’ Bi-Pc.75, though here again the nun has to be of twelve, not ten years’ standing.

49.

See Nuns’ Bi-Pc.65, Bu-Pc.66. Again both these rules speak of twelve years, and not of ten.