Vinaya Pitaka (4): Parivara

by I. B. Horner | 2014 | 150,781 words | ISBN-13: 9781921842160

The English translation of the Khandhaka: the second book of the Pali Vinaya Pitaka, one of the three major ‘baskets’ of Therevada canonical literature. It analyses the rules from various points of view. The English translation of the Vinaya-pitaka (fourth part, parivara) contains many Pali original words, but transliterated using a system similar...

As To Graduation (5. Pentads)

  1. Prv.7.5.1 Five offences.[1]
  2. Five classes of offence.[2]
  3. Five matters that are trained in.[3]
  4. Five deeds whose fruit comes with no delay.[4]
  5. Five individuals who are certain.[5]
  6. Five offences involving cutting down.[6]
  7. In five ways does one fall into an offence.[7]
  8. Five offences due to lying speech.[8]
  9. In five ways does it not BD.6.205 become a (formal) act: either one does not carry out a (formal) act by oneself, or one does not look about for another (monk), or one does not give consent or complete purity, or one protests when a (formal) act is being carried out,[9] or when there is the view that a (formal) act that has been carried out is not legally valid.
  10. In five ways does it become a (formal) act: either one carries out a (formal) act by oneself, or one looks about for another (monk), or one gives consent or complete purity, or one does not protest when a (formal) act is being carried out, or when there is the view that a (formal) act that has been carried out is legally valid.
  11. Five things are allowable to a monk who is an almsfood-eater[10]: walking for alms without having asked for permission to do so,[11] a group-meal,[12] an out-of-turn-meal,[13] no determining upon,[14] no assigning.[15]
  12. A monk who is possessed of five qualities,[16] Vin.5.129 whether he be a depraved monk or one who is steady[17] in morality is mistrusted and suspected if his resort (for alms) is among prostitutes, or among widows, or among grown girls, or among eunuchs, or among nuns.
  13. Five oils[18]: sesamum oil, oil of mustard seed, oil from the “honey-tree”,[19] oil from the castor-oil plant, oil from tallow.
  14. Five tallows: tallow from bears, tallow from fish, tallow from alligators, tallow from swine, tallow from donkeys.[20]
  15. Five losses: loss of relations, loss of possessions … by illness … in moral habit, loss in (right) view.[21]
  16. Five prosperities: prosperity in relations … possessions BD.6.206 … health … moral habit, prosperity in (right) view.[22]
  17. Five nullifications of guidance from a preceptor: when preceptor has gone away or left the Order or died or gone over to another side (of the Order), and command is the fifth.[23]
  18. Five persons should not be ordained: one lacking the full age,[24] a one lacking a limb,[25] one who has fallen away from the matter,[26] one who is a karaṇadukkaṭaka,[27] one who is not complete.[28]
  19. Five refuse-rag-robes[29]: (rags thrown down) in a charnel-ground, outside a shop, gnawn by rats, gnawn by white ants scorched by fire. And five further refuse-rag-robes: (those) gnawn by cattle, gnawn by goats, a robe from a shrine, one from a (king’s) consecration, one worn going to or coming from (a charnel-ground).
  20. Five carryings-away[30]: a carrying-away by theft[31] … by force … by stratagem … by concealment, a carrying-away at a casting of the kusa-grass.[32]
  21. Five great thieves are found in the world.[33]
  22. Five things not to be disposed of.[34]
  23. Five things not to be divided up.[35]
  24. Five offences originate by means of body, not by speech, not by thought.[36]
  25. Five offences originate by means of body and by means of speech, not by means of thought.[37]
  26. Five offences lead on to confession.[38]
  27. Five Orders.[39]
  28. Five (ways for) the recital of the Pātimokkha.[40]
  29. Ordination may be conferred by a group with a Vinaya expert as the fifth (member) in all border districts.[41]
  30. Five advantages in the formal making of the kaṭhina-cloth.[42]
  31. Five (formal) acts.[43]
  32. Five offences (for which the offender may be admonished) up BD.6.207 to the third time.[44]
  33. There is an offence involving Defeat for in five ways taking something that has not been given.[45]
  34. There is a grave offence for … There is an offence of wrong doing for in five ways taking something that has not been given.
  35. Five unallowable things should not be made use of: what has not been given, and what is not known about, and what is not allowable, and what has not been formally accepted, and what has not been made “left over”.[46]
  36. Five allowable things may be made use of: what has been given … and what has been made “left over”.
  37. Five unmeritorious gifts are considered by the world to be meritorious[47]: a gift of intoxicants, a gift for a festival, a gift of women, a gift of bulls, a gift of pictures.[48]
  38. Five arisen things are hard to drive away[49]: attachment that has arisen is hard to drive away, hatred … confusion … garrulousness[50] … a mind that wanders[51] when it has arisen is hard to drive away.
  39. There are five advantages in brooms[52]: one calms one’s own mind, one calms the mind of others, devas are glad, Vin.5.130 one accumulates kamma that is conducive to what is pleasant, at the breaking up of the body after dying one arises in a good bourn, a heaven world.
  40. Five further advantages in brooms: one calms one’s own mind … devas are glad, the Teacher’s instruction is carried out, people coming after fall into the way of (right) views.[53]
  41. If he is possessed of five qualities an expert on Discipline is reckoned as ignorant: if he does not put a limit to his own speech, if he does not put a limit to the speech of another (person), if, not having put a limit to his own speech, not having BD.6.208 put a limit to the speech of another (person), he has a (form act carried out not according to the rule, not with (his) acknowledgement.
  42. If he is possessed of five qualities an expert on Discipline is reckoned as clever: if he puts a limit to his own speech … has a (formal) act carried out according to the rule, with (his) acknowledgement.
  43. And if he is possessed of five further qualities the expert on Discipline is reckoned as ignorant: if he does not know what is an offence,[54] if he does not know what is the root of an offence,[55] if he does not know the arising of an offence,[56] if he does not know the stopping of an offence,[57] if he does not know the course leading to the stopping of an offence.[58]
  44. If he is possessed of five qualities an expert on Discipline is reckoned as clever: if he knows what is an offence … if he knows the course leading to the stopping of an offence.
  45. And if he is possessed of five further qualities an expert on Discipline is reckoned as ignorant: if he does not know what is a legal question … the root[59] … the arising[60] … the stopping[61] … the course leading to the stopping of a legal question.[62]
  46. If he is possessed of five qualities … reckoned as clever: If he knows … the course leading to the stopping of a legal question.
  47. And if he is possessed of five further qualities an expert on Discipline is reckoned as ignorant: if he does not know the subject[63] … the provenance[64] … the laying down[65] … the supplementary laying down, if he does not know the BD.6.209 sequence of the connecting words.[66]
  48. If he is possessed of five qualities an expert on Discipline is reckoned as clever: if he knows the subject … the sequence of the connecting words.
  49. And if he is possessed of five further qualities an expert on Discipline is reckoned as ignorant: if he does not know what is a motion, if he does not know the carrying out of the motion,[67] if he is not skilled in what comes first,[68] if he is not skilled in what comes afterwards,[69] and if he is one who is unknowing of the (right) time.[70]
  50. If he is possessed of five qualities an expert on Discipline is reckoned as clever: if he knows what is a motion … if he is skilled in what comes afterwards, if he is one who is knowing of the (right) time.
  51. And if he is possessed of five further qualities an expert on Discipline is reckoned as ignorant: if he does not know what is an offence and what is not an offence, if he does not know what is a slight and what a serious offence, if he does not know what is an offence that can be done away with and one that cannot be done away with,[71] if he does not know what is a very bad offence and one that is not very bad, if he has not learnt properly from a succession of teachers, has not attended properly, has not reflected on properly.
  52. If he is possessed of five qualities an expert on Discipline is reckoned as clever: if he knows what is an offence and what is not an offence … if he has learnt properly from a succession of teachers, has attended properly, has reflected on properly.
  53. And if he is possessed of five further qualities an expert on Discipline is reckoned as ignorant: if he does not know what is an offence and what is not an offence, if he does not know what is a slight and what a serious offence, if he does not know what is an offence that can be done away with and one that cannot be done away with, if he does not know what is a very bad offence and one that is not very bad, Vin.5.131 and if the two Pātimokkhas have not been properly handed down to him in detail, not properly sectioned, not BD.6.210 properly regulated, not properly investigated clause by clause and in respect of the linguistic form.[72]
  54. If he is possessed of five qualities … clever: if … the two Pātimokkhas have been properly handed down to him in detail, properly section a properly regulated, properly investigated clause by clause and in respect of the linguistic form.
  55. And if he is possessed of five further qualities an expert on Discipline is reckoned as ignorant if he does not know what is an offence and what is not an offence … if he does not know what is a very bad offence and one that is not very bad, and if he is not skilled in investigating[73] a legal question. If he is possessed of five qualities … clever: … and if he is skilled in investigating a legal question.
  56. Five forest-dwellers[74]: one is a forest-dweller from stupidity from confusion; one of evil desires, filled with covetousness is a forest-dweller; one is a forest-dweller from madness, from a deranged mind; one is a forest-dweller at the thought, “It is praised by Buddhas and disciples of Buddhas”; one is a forest-dweller because he is of few wishes, because of contentment, because of subduedness, because of aloofness, because this is of good avail.
  57. Five almsfood-eaters …
  58. Five refuse-rag-wearers …
  59. Five tree-root-dwellers …
  60. Five charnel-ground-dwellers …
  61. Five open-air-dwellers …
  62. Five three-robe-wearers …
  63. Five house-to-house-seekers …
  64. Five who are sitters …
  65. Five who use any bed …
  66. Five eaters at one session …
  67. Five refusers of food later …
  68. Five who eat bowl-food: … one is a bowl-food-eater from stupidity … because this is of good avail.
  69. A monk who is possessed of five qualities should not live independently[75]: if he does not know the Observance, if he does not know the (formal) acts for Observance,[76] if he does not know the Pātimokkha, if he does not know the recital of the Pātimokkha,[77] if it is less than five years (since his ordination).
  70. A monk who is possessed of five qualities may live independently: if he knows the Observance … if it is five years or more than five years (since his ordination).[78]
  71. And a monk who BD.6.211 is possessed of five further qualities should not live independently: if he does not know the Invitation, if he does not know the (formal) acts for Invitation,[79] if he does not know the Pātimokkha, if he does not know the recital of the Pātimokkha, if it is less than five years (since his ordination).
  72. A monk who is possessed of five qualities may live independently: … if it is five years or more than five years (since his ordination).
  73. And a monk who is possessed of five further qualities should not live independently: if he does not know what is an offence and what is not an offence, if he does not know what is a slight and what a serious offence, if he does not know what is an offence that can be done away with and one that cannot be done away with, if he does not know what is a very bad offence and one that is not very bad, if it is less than five years (since his ordination).
  74. A monk who is possessed of five qualities may live independently: if he knows … what is and what is not a very bad offence, if it is five years or more than five years (since his ordination).
  75. A nun who is possessed of five qualities should not live independently: if she does not know the Observance, if she does not know the (formal) acts for Observance, if she does not know the Pātimokkha, if she does not know the recital of the Pātimokkha, if it is less than five years (since her ordination). Vin.5.132
  76. A nun who is possessed of five qualities may live independently … or more than five years (since her ordination).
  77. And a nun who is possessed of five further qualities should not live independently … the same paragraphs as above repeated for nuns … if she knows what is and what is not a very bad offence, and if it is five years or more than five years (since her ordination).
  78. Five perils for one of unpleasing (actions)[80]: the self upbraids the self, and the wise, having adjudicated,[81] blame him, an evil Rumour spreads abroad (about him), he does his time while he is confused, at the breaking up of the body after dying he arises in a sorrowful way, a bad bourn, the Downfall, Niraya.
  79. Five advantages for one of pleasing (actions)[82]: the self does BD.6.212 not upbraid the self, and the wise, having adjudicated, praise him, a lovely rumour spreads abroad (about him), he does his time while he is unconfused, at the breaking up of the body after dying he arises in a good bourn, a heaven world.
  80. And five further perils for one of unpleasing (actions)[83]: non-believers are not pleased, there is wavering among some believers the Teacher’s instruction is not carried out, people coming after fall[84] into the way of wrong views,[85] his mind is not pleased.
  81. Five advantages for one of pleasing (actions)[86]: non-believers are pleased, there is increase of believers, the Teacher’s instruction is carried out, people coming after do not fall[87] into the way of wrong views, his mind is pleased.
  82. Five perils for one who is dependent on families[88]: he falls into (the offence of) walking for alms without having asked for permission,[89] he falls into (the offence of) sitting down in private,[90] he falls into (the offence of sitting down) on a concealed seat,[91] he falls into (the offence of) teaching Dhamma to women in more than five or six sentences,[92] and he lives full of aspirations after sense-pleasures.
  83. Five perils for a monk who is dependent on families: living in too much association with families there is a constant seeing of the women-folk, if there is seeing there is contact,[93] if there is contact there is intimacy, if there is intimacy there is desire, if his mind (is affected by) desire this may be expected for the monk: either he will fare the Brahma-faring dissatisfied or he will fall into some defiling[94] offence or, disavowing the training, he will revert to the secular life.[95]
  84. Five kinds of propagation[96]: propagation from roots … from stems … from joints … from cuttings, and fifthly propagation from seeds.
  85. Fruit that is in five ways allowable to recluses may be made use of[97]: if it is damaged[98] by fire, damaged by a knife, damaged by (one’s) nail, if it is seedless, BD.6.213 and the fifth is if the seeds have been discharged.
  86. Five purifications[99]: having recited the provenance, the rest may be announced as though it had been heard (already): this is the first purification; having recited the provenance, having recited the four offences involving Defeat, the rest may be announced as though it had been heard (already): this is the second purification; having recited the provenance, having recited the four offences involving Defeat, having recited the thirteen offences entailing a Formal Meeting of the Order, the rest may be announced as though it had been heard (already): this is the third purification; having recited the provenance … offences involving Defeat … entailing a Formal Meeting of the Order, Vin.5.133 having recited the two Undetermined Offences, the rest may be announced as though it had been heard (already): this is the fourth purification; recital in full is the fifth.
  87. And five further purifications: recital of the rules,[100] Observance when there is entire purity,[101] Observance when there is determination,[102] Invitation, and the fifth is Observance with “being all together”.
  88. Five advantages for an expert in Discipline[103]: his own body of moral habit is well guarded.well protected; he is a shelter for those who are affected by scruples; confidently he lives in the midst of an Order; with Dhamma he restrains adversaries (of the Teaching)[104] from one who is well restrained; he is one who practises for the stability of True Dhamma.
  89. Five suspensions of the Pātimokkha are not legally valid.[105]
  90. Five suspensions of the Pātimokkha are legally valid.[106]
  91. Concluded are the Pentads

    Its Summary

    Offence, classes of offence,
    trained in, and with no delay,
    Individuals, and also cutting down,
    and he falls, due to, /
    And it does not become, it becomes,
    allowable, mistrusted, oil,
    Tallow, loss, prosperity,
    nullification, and as to a person, /
    BD.6.214 Charnel-ground, and gnawn by cattle,
    theft, and he is called a thief,
    Not to be disposed of, not to be divided up,
    from body from body and speech, /
    Confession, an Order, recital,
    bordering, and about kaṭhina
    (Formal) acts, up to the third time,
    defeat, grave, wrong-doing, /
    Unallowable, and allowable,
    unmeritorious, hard to drive away,
    Brooms, and a further (five),
    speech, and also about an offence, /
    Legal question, subject,
    motion, offence, and the two,
    These are slight (and) they are strong[107]:
    distinguish between the dark and the bright; /
    Forest, and almsfood-eater,
    refuse-rag, tree, charnel-ground-dwellers,
    In the open air, and robe,
    house-to-house, a sitter, /
    Bed, refusers of food later,
    and too the bowl-food-eater,
    Observance, Invitation,
    and also an offence and what is not an offence,
    And similarly these dark and bright items are for nuns too, /
    Unpleasing (person), pleasing,
    likewise a further two,
    Dependent on families, too much,
    propagation, and allowable to recluses, /
    Purification, and a further too,
    Discipline, and not legally valid,
    Likewise legally valid is spoken of:
    concluded are the fair Pentads.

Footnotes and references:

4.

See Vin.2.193.

5.

Or “fixed”. They are the ones who do a deed whose fruition comes once. See Vin.5.115.

7.

Vin-a.1334: through conscientiousness, ignorance, a scrupulous nature, one thinks that something is allowable when it is not, or that something allowable when it is.

8.

See Vin.5.193. Commentary lists Bu-Pj.4, grave offence (Vin.3.99), one of wrong-doing (Vin.1.104, Vin.3.100f. and Bu-Pj.4), Bu-Ss.8, Bu-Pc.1, also Bu-Pj.2.7.12, Bu-Pj.2.7.45, and Bu-Pj.4).

9.

Bu-Pc.79, Nuns’ Bi-Ss.4.

10.

Begging for almsfood is one of the ascetic practices, see Vism.60, Vism.66.

11.

Cf. Vin.1.254.

14.

Vin-a.1334 refers to Bu-Pc.32 by saying “It is said ‘in a group-meal except at the right time’ (Vin.4.73f.) means having determined on a right time there is determination for a meal”. The word adhiṭṭhāna does not occur in Bu-Pc.32.

15.

avikappanā, referring to Bu-Pc.33 (Vin.4.78).

16.

This pentad is at Vin.1.70 (in another context) and at AN.iii.128 as above,

17.

Reading is pāpabhikkhu pi akuppadhammo pi, with variant readings. See GS.iii.98, n.1. Slightly different reading at AN.iii.128. Vin-a.1334 says since he is steady (not liable to anger?) and since he is one whose cankers are destroyed, he must avoid therefore what are not resorts (for alms).

18.

Oil is one of the five general medicines allowed, e.g. Bu-NP.23. These five occur also at MN-a.2.344, SN-a.ii.294.

19.

madhuka-tela. Madhuka is the tree Bassia latifolia.

20.

Allowed at Vin.1.200 if used with oil.

21.

DN.iii.235, AN.iii.147, and three at Vin.4.277. See Vin.5.194. It is difficult to decide on suitable renderings for vyasana and its opposite sampadā. The former is loss, deficiency, reverse; the latter blessing, good fortune, success, gain.

22.

DN.iii.235, AN.iii.147. See Vin.5.194.

24.

addhānahīna, referring to Bu-Pc.65; see Vin.5.117.

25.

See Kd.1.71 (not to go forth).

26.

vatthuvipanna.

27.

See Vin.5.117.

28.

See Vin.5.117.

29.

List of 23 given at Vism.62, not in the above order. This list does not include the second item in the next pentad.

30.

Mentioned at DN-a.71, also at Atthasālinī 98 (which mentions Smp.by name). Vin-a.375ff. explains each term.

36.

Vin.5.94: the first origination of offences.

37.

Vin.5.95: the third origination of offences.

38.

See also among the Units. Vin-a.1334 says: leaving aside Defeat and Formal Meeting—the remainder.

42.

There will be five allowable things when the kaṭhina cloth is made up, Vin.1.154.

44.

From Vin-a.1334 these are to be identified as: Nuns’ Bi-Pj.7, the offences being Defeat, grave, wrong-doing (Vin.4.218f.); Monk’s Bu-Ss.10, Bu-Pc.68. There are of course several more sikkhāpadā requiring admonishment up to the third time.

45.

Bu-Pj.2, as at Vin.3.54.

47.

Reading pañca dānāni apuññāni puññasammatāni lokassa. Mil.278f., in enumerating ten gifts, of which the first five are as above, reads however dasa … dānāni loke adānasammatāni, ten gifts are considered in the world as not-gifts. See too AN.iv.185 which gives four of the above but in a different order and omits the last, cittakammadāna.

48.

Cf. Vin.4.298 cittāgāra, picture-gallery.

49.

As at AN.iii.184f.

50.

paṭibhāna, wordiness, desire to talk.

51.

gamiyacitta.

52.

No comparable passage has been traced so far. Vin-a.1335ff. gives a story explanation of each clause except the final one. Brooms are allowed to at Vin.2.130.

53.

One might Cf. Vin.2.108, AN.iii.256.

54.

Vin-a.1337 says he thinks it is a Defeat or a Formal Meeting and does not know the difference between the seven classes of offence.

55.

He does not know the two roots: body and speech.

56.

The six originations of offences.

57.

It is stopped and allayed by confessing.

58.

He does not know the seven decidings.

59.

Vin-a.1338: there are thirty-three roots: twelve for legal questions concerned with disputes, fourteen for those concerned with censure, six for those concerned with offences, one for those concerned with obligations.

60.

For dispute there are the eighteen ways connected with schism; for censure the four fallings away; for offence the seven classes of offence, obligation the four obligations of an Order.

61.

He cannot achieve a firm opinion through Dhamma, Vinaya, the Teacher’s instruction.

62.

He does not know that the legal questions are settled by two, four, three, one decidings respectively. See Vin.5.101ff., in the Samatha Section.

63.

The subject of the seven classes of offence.

64.

Of the seven provenances (see Vin.5.144) he does not know that this rule of training was laid down here, that one there.

65.

The first laying down of each rule of training.

66.

anusandhivacanapatha. Vin-a.1338 says he does not know the subject to the sequence of meaning in the talk and in the thought.

67.

There is carrying out a motion on nine occasions beginning with “restoration”, osāraṇā; see Vin.1.322 and Vin-a.1031.

68.

He does not know that the motion should come first and not afterwards.

69.

He does not know that the motion should come first and not afterwards.

70.

He speaks unasked, unbidden, and does not know the time, the field (khetta) or the occasion (okāsa) for a motion; Vin-a.1338f.

71.

See Vin.5.115.

72.

As at Vin.1.65, Vin.4.51, etc. Cf. Vin.5.134, BD.6.191.

73.

vinicchaya.

74.

As at Vin.5.193. AN.iii.219 gives ten of these thirteen ascetic practices in a slightly different order. This varies too at Vism.59.

75.

The five qualities given at Vin.1.80f. are not repeated here.

77.

The four items to here are at Vin.1.116, Vin.1.119.

80.

AN.iii.255. Vin-a.1339 says apāsādikan ti kāyaduccaritādi akusalakammaṃ vuccati.

81.

anuvijja; AN.iii.255 reads anuvicca.

82.

AN.iii.255.

83.

AN.iii.255f.

84.

Text reads nāpajjati; AN.iii.256 āpajjati.

85.

Clause also at Vin.2.108.

86.

AN.iii.256.

87.

Text reads āpajjati as does AN.iii.256.

88.

AN.iii.258f. “Dependent on families”, kulūpaka, as at Vin.3.131, Vin.3.135.

89.

anāmantacāra as at Vin.1.254.

93.

Cf. Bu-Ss.2.

94.

Vin-a.1339, such as the very bad offence of coming into physical contact.

95.

Cf. Vin.3.23f. (in Bu-Pj.1).

98.

Reading here is parajita; at Vin.2.109 paracita.

99.

Also Vin.5.189. At Vin.1.112 these are called the five ways of reciting Pātimokkha.

100.

As at Vin.5.123, in the Triads.

101.

As at Vin.5.123, in the Triads.

102.

As at Vin.5.123, in the Triads.

104.

paccatthike saha dhammena suniggahitaṃ niggaṇhāti.

107.

lahukathamakā, no doubt reading °thamakā for °thāmakā metri causa.