Vinaya Pitaka (3): Khandhaka

by I. B. Horner | 2014 | 386,194 words | ISBN-13: 9781921842160

The English translation of the Khandhaka: the second book of the Pali Vinaya Pitaka, one of the three major ‘baskets’ of Therevada canonical literature. It is a collection of various narratives. The English translation of the Vinaya-pitaka (third part, khandhaka) contains many Pali original words, but transliterated using a system similar to the I...

Kd.22.1.1 BD.5.407 Now at that time, a century after the Lord had attained nibbāna, monks who were Vajjis of Vesālī[1] promulgated ten points at Vesālī, saying:

  1. “The practice concerning a horn for salt[2] is allowable;
  2. the practice as to two finger-breadths is allowable;
  3. the practice concerning ‘among the villages’ is allowable;
  4. the practice concerning residences is allowable;
  5. the practice concerning assent is allowable;
  6. the practice concerning what is customary is allowable;
  7. the practice concerning unchurned butter-milk is allowable;
  8. it is allowable to drink unfermented toddy;
  9. a piece of cloth to sit upon that has no border is allowable;
  10. gold and silver are allowable.”

Now at that time the venerable Yasa, the son of Kākaṇḍakā,[3] walking on tour among the Vajjis, arrived at Vesālī.[4] Then the venerable Yasa, the son of Kākaṇḍakā, stayed there at Vesālī in the Great Grove in the Hall of the Gabled Roof. Now at that time the monks who were Vajjis of Vesālī, having on that Observance day filled a bronze pot with water, having set it in the midst of the Order of monks, spoke thus to lay-followers of Vesālī who came: “Give, sirs, a kahāpaṇa[5] for the Order and half a pāda[6] and a stamped māsaka;[7] there will be something to be done for the Order in respect of requisites.”

When they had spoken thus, the venerable Yasa,[8] the son of Kākaṇḍakā, spoke thus to the lay-followers of Vesālī: “Do BD.5.408 not, sirs, give kahāpaṇas and stamped māsakas to the Order: gold and silver are not allowable to recluses, sons of the Sakyans.[9] The recluses, sons of the Sakyans do not consent (to accept) gold and silver, the recluses, sons of the Sakyans do not receive gold and silver, the recluses, sons of the Sakyans do not use jewels and refined gold,[10] they have done with gold and silver.”[11] Then the lay-followers of Vesālī, being spoken to thus by the venerable Yasa, the son of Kākaṇḍakā, nevertheless gave kahāpaṇas … and stamped māsakas to the Order. Then the monks who were Vajjis or Vesālī, having towards the end of that night arranged those gold coins,[12] distributed portions according to the number of monks.[13] Then the monks who were Vajjis of Vesālī spoke thus to the venerable Yasa, the son of Kākaṇḍakā: Vin.2.295

“This portion of gold coins is for you, reverend Yasa.”

“I have no need of a portion of gold coins, sirs, I do not consent (to accept) gold coins.”

Kd.22.1.2 Then the monks who were Vajjis of Vesālī, saying: “This reverend Yasa, the son of Kākaṇḍakā, is reviling and abusing[14] lay-followers who are faithful and believing; come, let us carry out a (formal) act of reconciliation[15] for him,” carried out a (formal) act of reconciliation for him. Then the venerable Yasa, the son of Kākaṇḍakā spoke thus to the monks who were Vajjis of Vesālī:

“It was laid down by the Lord, your reverences, that a companion messenger should be given to a monk for whom a (formal) act of reconciliation has been carried out.[16] Your reverences, give me a monk as companion messenger.”

Then the monks who were Vajjis of Vesālī, having agreed upon one monk, gave him to the venerable Yasa, the son of Kākaṇḍakā, as a companion messenger. Then the venerable Yasa, the son of Kākaṇḍakā, having entered Vesālī together BD.5.409 with the monk who was his companion messenger, spoke thus to the lay-followers of Vesālī:

“It is said that I revile and abuse the venerable lay-followers[17] who are faithful and believing, and that I afford little satisfaction in that I speak of not-dhamma as not-dhamma; in that I speak of dhamma as dhamma, in that I speak of not-discipline as not-discipline, in that I speak of discipline as discipline.

Kd.22.1.3 “Friends, the Lord was once staying at Sāvatthī in the Jeta Grove in Anāthapiṇḍika’s monastery. There, friends, the Lord addressed the monks, saying: ‘Monks,[18] there are these four stains of the moon and the sun, stained by which stains the moon and the sun burn not, shine not, blaze not. What are the four? Dense cloud, monks, is a stain of the moon and the sun, stained by which stain the moon and the sun … blaze not. A snow-cloud[19] … Smoke and dust … Rāhu,[20] monks, is a stain of the moon and the sun, stained by which stain the moon and the sun burn not, shine not, blaze not. These, monks, are the four stains of the moon and the sun, stained by which stains the moon and the sun burn not, shine not, blaze not.

“‘Even so, monks, there are four stains of recluses and brahmins, stained by which stains some recluses and brahmins burn not, shine not, blaze not. What are the four? There are, monks, some recluses and brahmins who drink fermented liquor, who drink spirits,[21] abstaining not from drinking fermented liquor and spirits. This, monks, is the first stain of recluses and brahmins, stained by which stain some recluses and brahmins burn not, shine not, blaze not. And again, monks, some recluses and brahmins Vin.2.296 indulge in sexual intercourse,[22] abstaining not from sexual intercourse. This, monks, is the second stain … And again, monks, some recluses and brahmins consent (to accept) gold and silver BD.5.410 abstaining not from accepting gold and silver.[23] This, monks, is the third stain … And again, monks, some recluses and brahmins earn a living by a wrong mode of livelihood, abstaining not from a wrong mode of livelihood.[24] This, monks, is the fourth stain, stained by which stain some recluses and brahmins … blaze not. These, monks, are the four stains of recluses and brahmins, stained by which stains some recluses and brahmins burn not, shine not, blaze not.’ Friends, the Lord said this; the Well-farer having said this, the Teacher further spoke thus:

“Some recluses[25] and brahmins are stained
By lust and ill-will. Clothed in ignorance,
Beings delight in pleasure-giving shapes;
Liquor fermented and distilled they drink;
They follow sexual lust; by folly blinded
Some recluses and brahmins take gifts
Of gold and silver and live wrongfully.

These are called “stains” by the Awakened One,
The kinsman of the Sun. Tainted by these
Some recluses and brahmins burn not,
They shine not, tarnished, dust-soiled, utter fools,
Shrouded in darkness; slaves of craving they,
Led by the cord of craving, and they swell
The dreadful charnel-field[26] and take on again-becoming.’

“It is for speaking thus that it is said that I am reviling and abusing the venerable lay followers who are faithful and believing, and that I afford little satisfaction in that I speak of not-dhamma as not-dhamma, in that I speak of dhamma as dhamma, in that I speak of not-discipline as not-discipline, and in that I speak of discipline as discipline.

Kd.22.1.4 “Friends, the Lord was once staying at Rājagaha in the BD.5.411 Bamboo Grove at the squirrels’ feeding place. Now at that time,[27] friends, in the king’s private quarters this conversation arose among the king’s assembly as they were gathered together and sitting down: ‘Gold and silver are allowable for the recluses, sons of the Sakyans; the recluses, sons of the Sakyans consent (to accept) gold and silver; the recluses, sons of the Sakyans receive gold and silver.’ Now at that time, friends, a village headman, Maṇicūḷaka, was sitting down in that assembly. Then, friends, Maṇicūḷaka, the village headman, spoke thus to that assembly: ‘Do not, masters, speak thus. Gold and silver are not allowable to recluses, sons of the Sakyans; the recluses, sons of the Sakyans do not consent (to accept) gold and silver; the recluses, sons of the Sakyans do not receive gold and silver; Vin.2.297 the recluses, sons of the Sakyans do not use gold and silver, they have done with gold and silver.’ And, friends, Maṇicūḷaka, the village headman, was able to convince that assembly. Then, friends, Maṇicūḷaka the village headman, having convinced that assembly approached the Lord; having approached, having greeted the Lord, he sat down at a respectful distance. As he was sitting down at a respectful distance, Maṇicūḷaka the village headman, spoke thus to the Lord: ‘Now, Lord, in the king’s private quarters … [28] I was able, Lord, to convince that assembly. I hope[29] that I, Lord, maintaining thus, am one who asserts (fairly) what has been affirmed, and am not misrepresenting the Lord by what is not fact, but am maintaining a doctrine which conforms to his doctrine, and that no one who is a fellow dhamma-man, a holder of (his) views, comes to a position incurring blame.’

“‘Certainly you, village headman, maintaining thus, are one who asserts (fairly) what I have affirmed, and are not misrepresenting me by what is not fact, but are maintaining a doctrine which conforms to my doctrine, and no one who is a fellow dhamma-man, a holder of (my) views, comes to a position incurring blame. For, village headman, gold and silver are not allowable to recluses, sons of the Sakyans; the BD.5.412 recluses, sons of the Sakyans do not consent (to accept) gold and silver; the recluses, sons of the Sakyans do not receive gold and silver; the recluses, sons of the Sakyans do not use gold and silver, they have done with gold and silver. To whoever, village headman, gold and silver are allowable to him also are allowable the five strands of sense-pleasures; to whoever the five strands of sense-pleasures are allowable, certainly you may understand, village headman, (this to be) not the dhamma of recluses,[30] not the dhamma of sons of the Sakyans. Although I, village headman, spoke thus: Grass may be looked about for by one who needs grass; wood may be looked about for by one who needs wood; a wagon may be looked about for by one who needs a wagon; a man may be looked about for by one who needs a man[31]—yet I, village headman, have never said in any way that gold and silver may be consented to or looked about for.’ It is for speaking thus that it is said that I am reviling and abusing venerable lay-followers who are faithful and believing, and that I afford little satisfaction in that I speak of not-dhamma as not-dhamma, in that I speak of dhamma as dhamma, in that I speak of not-discipline as not-discipline, in that I speak of discipline as discipline.

Kd.22.1.5 “Once, friends, when the Lord was in Rājagaha, as before, he objected in connection with Upananda, the son of the Sakyans, to gold and silver and laid down a rule of training.[32] It is for speaking thus that it is said that I am reviling and abusing venerable lay-followers who are faithful and believing, and that I afford little satisfaction in that I Vin.2.298 speak of not-dhamma as not-dhamma, in that I speak of dhamma as dhamma, in that I speak of not-discipline as not-discipline, in that I speak of discipline as discipline.”

Kd.22.1.6 When he had spoken thus the lay-followers of Vesālī spoke thus to Yasa, the son of Kākaṇḍakā: “Honoured sir, master Yasa, the son of Kākaṇḍakā, is alone a recluse, a son of the Sakyans; these, one and all, are not recluses, not sons of the Sakyans. Honoured sir, let master Yasa, the son of Kākaṇḍakā, stay in Vesālī and we will make an effort in regard to BD.5.413 the requisites of robes, almsfood, lodgings, medicines for the sick.”

Then the venerable Yasa, the son of Kākaṇḍakā, having convinced the lay-followers of Vesālī, went to a monastery together with the monk who was his companion messenger.

Kd.22.1.7 Then the monks who were Vajjis of Vesālī asked the monk who was the companion messenger, saying: “Your reverence, have the lay-followers of Vesālī been asked for forgiveness by Yasa, the son of Kākaṇḍakā?”

“Your reverences, evil has been done to us; Yasa, the son of Kākaṇḍakā, is alone regarded as[33] a recluse, a son of the Sakyans; we, one and all, are regarded as not recluses, not sons of the Sakyans.”

Then the monks who were Vajjis of Vesālī, saying: “Your reverences, this Yasa, the son of Kākaṇḍakā, not agreed upon by us, has given information[34] to householders. Come, let us carry out a (formal) act of suspension[35] against him.” And these gathered together desirous of carrying out a (formal) act of suspension against him. Then the venerable Yasa, the son of Kākaṇḍakā, having risen above the ground, reappeared at Kosambī. Then the venerable Yasa, the son of Kākaṇḍakā, sent a messenger to the monks of Pāvā[36] and (to those) of the southern region of Avantī,[37] saying:

“Let the venerable ones come, we must attend to this legal question before what is not dhamma shines forth and dhamma is withheld, (before) what is not discipline shines forth and discipline is withheld, before those who speak what is not dhamma become strong and those who speak dhamma become feeble, (before) those who speak what is not discipline become strong and those who speak discipline become feeble.”[38]


Kd.22.1.8 Now at that time the venerable Sambhūta,[39] a wearer of BD.5.414 coarse hempen cloth,[40] was staying on Ahogaṅgā mountain slope Then the venerable Yasa, the son of Kākaṇḍakā, approached Ahogaṅgā mountain slope and the venerable Sambhūta, the wearer of coarse hempen cloth; having approached, having greeted the venerable Sambhūta, the wearer of coarse hempen cloth, he sat down at a respectful distance. As he was sitting down at a respectful distance the venerable Yasa, the son of Kākaṇḍakā, spoke thus to the venerable Sambhūta, the wearer of coarse hempen cloth:

“Honoured sir, these monks, Vajjis of Vesālī, are promulgating ten points:[41] the practice concerning a horn for salt is allowable; the practice as to two finger-breadths is allowable; the practice concerning ‘among the villages’ is allowable; the practice concerning residences is allowable; the practice concerning assent is allowable; the practice concerning what is customary is allowable; the practice concerning unchurned buttermilk is allowable; it is allowable to drink unfermented toddy; a piece of cloth to sit upon that has no border is allowable; gold and silver are allowable. Vin.2.299 Come, honoured sir, we must attend to this legal question before what is not dhamma shines forth and dhamma is withheld, (before) what is not discipline shines forth and discipline is withheld, before those who speak what is not dhamma become strong and those who speak dhamma become feeble, (before) those who speak what is not discipline become strong and those who speak discipline become feeble.”

“Very well, your reverence,” the venerable Sambhūta, the wearer of coarse hempen cloth, answered the venerable Yasa, the son of Kākaṇḍakā in assent. Then as many as sixty monks of Pāvā, all forest-dwellers, all almsmen, all rag-robe wearers, all wearers of the three robes,[42] one and all men perfected,[43] gathered together on Ahogaṅgā mountain slope; and as many as eighty-eight monks of the southern region of Avantī, mostly forest-dwellers, mostly almsmen, mostly rag-robe wearers, mostly wearers of the three robes, and one and all men perfected, gathered together on Ahogaṅgā mountain slope.

Kd.22.1.9 BD.5.415 Then as these monks who were elders were considering, it occurred to them: “Now, this legal question is hard and troublesome. How can we acquire a faction through which we could be stronger in regard to this legal question?” Now at that time the venerable Revata[44] was staying in Soreyya. He had heard much, he was one to whom the tradition had been handed down, he was an expert in dhamma, expert in discipline, expert in the headings; wise, experienced, clever; conscientious, scrupulous, desirous of training.[45] Then it occurred to the monks who were elders:

“This venerable Revata is staying in Soreyya. He has heard much … desirous of training. If we could acquire the venerable Revata for the faction, thus could we be stronger in regard to this legal question.”

Then the venerable Revata, through the condition of deva-like hearing which was purified, surpassing that of men, heard these monks who were elders as they were considering. And having heard them, it occurred to him: ‘This legal question is hard and troublesome, yet it is not suitable for me to hold back from a legal question like this. But these monks are coming now. I will get no comfort crowded up by them. Suppose that I should go away beforehand?’

Then the venerable Revata went from Soreyya to Saṃkassa. Then the monks who were elders, having arrived at Soreyya, asked: “Where is the venerable Revata?” They spoke thus: “The venerable Revata has gone to Saṃkassa.” Then the venerable Revata went from Saṃkassato Kaṇṇakujja. Then the monks who were elders, having arrived at Saṃkassa, asked: “Where is the venerable Revata?” They spoke thus: “This venerable Revata has gone to Kaṇṇakujja.” Then the venerable Revata went from Kaṇṇakujja to Udumbara. Then the monks who were elders, having arrived at Kaṇṇakujja, asked: “Where is the venerable Revata?” They spoke thus: “This venerable Revata has gone to Udumbara.” Vin.2.300 Then the venerable Revata went from Udumbara to Aggaḷapura. Then the monks who were elders, having arrived at Udumbara, asked: “Where is the venerable Revata?” They spoke BD.5.416 thus: “This venerable Revata has gone to Aggaḷapura.” Then the venerable Revata went from Aggaḷapura to Sahajāti. Then the monks who were elders, having arrived at Aggaḷapura, asked: “Where is the venerable Revata?” They spoke thus: “This venerable Revata has gone to Sahajāti.” Then the monks who were elders met the venerable Revata at Sahajāti.

Kd.22.1.10 Then the venerable Sambhūta, the wearer of coarse hempen cloth, spoke thus to the venerable Yasa, the son of Kākaṇḍakā: “Your reverence, this venerable Revata has heard much, he is one to whom the tradition has been handed down, he is an expert in dhamma, expert in discipline, expert in the headings; wise, experienced, clever; conscientious, scrupulous, desirous of training. If we were to ask the venerable Revata a question, the venerable Revata would be capable of spending a whole night over just the one question. But now the venerable Revata will call upon a monk who is a pupil and a plain-song repeater.[46] Do you, when that monk has completed the plain-song intonation, having approached the venerable Revata, ask him about these ten points.”

“Very well, honoured sir,” the venerable Yasa, the son of Kākaṇḍakā, answered the venerable Sambhūta, the wearer of coarse hempen cloth, in assent. Then the venerable Revata called upon the monk who was a pupil and a plain-song repeater. Then when that monk had completed the plain-song intonation, the venerable Yasa, the son of Kākaṇḍakā, approached the venerable Revata; having approached, having greeted the venerable Revata, he sat down at a respectful distance. As he was sitting down at a respectful distance, the venerable Yasa, the son of Kākaṇḍakā, spoke thus to the venerable Revata:

“Honoured sir, is the practice concerning a horn for salt allowable?”

“What, your reverence, is this practice concerning a horn for salt?”

“Honoured sir, is it allowable to carry about salt in a horn, thinking, ‘I will enjoy whatever may be unsalted’?”

“Your reverence, it is not allowable.”

“Honoured sir, is the practice concerning two finger-breadths allowable?”

BD.5.417 “What, your reverence, is this practice concerning two finger-breadths?”

“Honoured sir, is it allowable to eat a meal at the wrong time when the shadow has passed beyond two finger-breadths?”

“Your reverence, it is not allowable.”

“Honoured sir, is the practice concerning ‘among the villages’ allowable?”

“What, your reverence, is this practice concerning ‘among the villages’?”

“Honoured sir, is it allowable, thinking, ‘I will go now among the villages,’ having eaten, being satisfied, to eat a meal that is not left over?”[47]

“Your reverence, it is not allowable.”

“Honoured sir, is the practice concerning residences allowable?”

“What, your reverence, is this practice concerning residences?”

“Honoured sir, is it allowable for several residences belonging to the same boundary to carry out various Observances?”

“Your reverences, it is not allowable.” Vin.2.301

“Honoured sir, is the practice concerning assent allowable?”

“What, your reverence, is this practice concerning assent?”

“Honoured sir, is it allowable for an incomplete Order to carry out a (formal) act, thinking, ‘We will advise monks who arrive’?”

“Your reverence, it is not allowable.”

“Honoured sir, is the practice concerning what is customary[48] allowable?”

“What, your reverence, is this practice concerning what is customary?”

“Honoured sir, is it allowable, thinking, ‘This is habitually done[49] by my preceptor, this is habitually done by my teacher,’ to conduct oneself according to that?”

“Your reverence, the practice concerning what is customary is sometimes allowable, sometimes not allowable.”

“Honoured sir, is the practice concerning unchurned buttermilk allowable?”

BD.5.418 “What, your reverence, is this practice concerning unchurned buttermilk?”

“Honoured sir, is it allowable, having eaten, being satisfied, to drink whatever is milk that is not left over but which has passed the stage of being milk (although) it has not arrived at the stage of being curds?”

“Your reverence, it is not allowable.”

“Honoured sir, is it allowable to drink unfermented toddy?”

“What, your reverence, is this toddy?”

“Honoured sir, is it allowable to drink whatever is fermented liquor[50] (but) which has not fermented and has not arrived at the stage of being strong drink?”[51]

“Your reverence, it is not allowable.”

“Honoured sir, is a piece of cloth to sit upon that has no border[52] allowable?”

“Your reverence, it is not allowable.”

“Honoured sir, are gold and silver allowable?”

“Your reverence, they are not allowable.”

“Honoured sir, these monks who are Vajjis of Vesālī are promulgating these ten points in Vesālī. Come, honoured sir, we must attend to this legal question before what is not dhamma shines forth and dhamma is withheld, (before) what is not discipline shines forth and discipline is withheld, before those who speak what is not dhamma become strong and those who speak dhamma become feeble (before) those who speak what is not discipline become strong and those who speak discipline become feeble.”

“Very well, your reverence,” the venerable Revata answered the venerable Yasa, the son of Kākaṇḍakā in assent.

The First Portion for Repeating.

Footnotes and references:

1.

As at Kd.17.4.1.

2.

The terms of the ten points are explained below, Kd.22.1.10; Kd.22.2.8.

3.

I take this parent to be his mother. This Yasa is mentioned at DN-a.525; Mbvs.96; Mbvs.iv.57.

4.

This passage is quoted at Vin-a.i.34.

6.

On pāda, see BD.1.71, n.2. Although the reading above is aḍḍhaṃ pi pādaṃ pi, as though aḍḍha and pāda were separate mediums of exchange, in taking the phrase as meaning “half a pāda” I am following Vv-a.77 = Dhp-a.iii.108 which gives the descending line: kahāpaṇa, aḍḍhapāda, māsaka. Vinaya Texts iii.387 takes aḍḍha as half a kahāpaṇa, but the justification for its being half a pāda is greater.

7.

See BD.1.72, n.1, and Vin-a.689 where it is said that some māsakas have figures stamped on them.

8.

For the ten points and the Yasa episode see also Mahāvaṃsa iv.9ff., Dīpavaṃsa iv.45ff., Dīpavaṃsa v.23; Vin-a.i.33ff.

10.

suvaṇṇa. On this and hirañña see BD.1.28, n.

11.

All these phrases occur at SN.iv.325 as above; the last two are also used at MN.ii.51 in respect of the potter.

12.

hirañña.

13.

bhikkhaggena. Cf. seyyaggena, vihāraggena and pariveṇaggena at Kd.16.11.3.

14.

Both these terms are defined at Vin.4.309. They occur also at Vin.4.52.

15.

paṭisāraṇiyakamma. See Kd.11.18.5.

17.

āyasmante upāsake.

18.

As at AN.ii.53. Cf. Mil.273.

19.

mahikā; at AN.ii.53, mahiyā. Vin-a.1297 says it is a snow-cloud (himavatāhakā) at the time of snow-fall.

20.

He figures in the Indian myth of eclipses. See SN.i.50, SN.i.51 where the Moon and Sun devas were seized by Rāhu; they both invoked Gotama’s aid, and he told Rāhu to set the devas free.

21.

See Bu-Pc.51.

22.

See Bu-Pj.1.

23.

See Bu-NP.18, and DN.i.5

24.

At DN.i.9DN.i.12 many wrong modes of livelihood are enumerated.

25.

I follow translation at GS.ii.62–63, except that in the first line I have “stained” (Vinaya: parikkiliṭṭhā) instead of “snared” (Aṅguttara: paṭikkiṭṭhā), and in the last line I have “take on again-becoming” instead of “reap rebirth.”

26.

vaḍḍhenti kaṭasiṃ. Cf. Ud.6.8 icc’ ete ubho antā kaṭasivaḍḍhanā kaṭasiyo diṭṭhī vaḍḍhenti; also Thig.502 kaṭasiṃ vaḍḍhente; and the line above, from “they swell” to the end, with Thag.456 which however for our ādiyanti (take on) reads ācinanti (accumulate).

27.

As at SN.iv.325.

28.

The whole is repeated in the text.

29.

This speech occurs in almost identical terms at Kd.6.31.4; see also SN.iii.6, SN.iv.51, SN.iv.340, SN.iv.381; AN.i.161; cf. AN.ii.31, AN.iii.4, DN.i.161.

30.

samaṇadhamma, recluses’ dhamma, mentioned also at AN.iii.371.

31.

The Maṇicūḷa-sutta of SN.iv.325SN.iv.327 stops here.

33.

kata, literally made.

34.

pakāseti. Cf. Kd.17.3.2ff.

35.

ukkhepaniyakamma. See Kd.11.25.

36.

Mentioned at Vin.1.253, and called there and above Pāṭheyyakā. See BD.4.351, n. Vin-a.1105 calls Pāṭheyyaṃ (variant reading Pāveyyaṃ) a kingdom to the west of Kosala, which will no doubt account for the “western country” of Vinaya Texts iii.394.

38.

As at Kd.11.1.1.

39.

Verses at Thag.291Thag.294. See Thag-a.ii.122ff. Mentioned with Sāḷha, Revata, and Yasa as Ānanda’s pupils, Vin-a.34f.

40.

sāṇavāsin. On sāṇa see BD.2.143, n.3.

41.

As at Kd.22.1.1.

42.

For references to these four ascetic practices see notes at BD.4.351, n..

43.

They are not called this at Vin.1.253.

44.

See Mahāvaṃsa iv.57, Mahāvaṃsa iv.60; cf. Dīpavaṃsa iv.49, Vin-a.i.33f.

45.

Stock, as at Vin.1.127, Vin.2.8; cf. AN.i.117, AN.ii.147, AN.iii.179.

46.

sarabhāṇaka. See note above, BD.5.146.

47.

See Bu-Pc.35, and BD.2.328.

48.

āciṇṇakappa. Cf. Vin.1.79 (Kd.1.51.1). Dīpavaṃsa 4.47, Dīpavaṃsa 5.18.

49.

ajjhāciṇṇa, as at Kd.14.5.1.

50.

surā. Cf. Bu-Pc.51.

51.

majja. See BD.2.385, n.1.

52.

Cf. definition at Vin.3.232, Vin.4.123, Vin.4.171. See BD.2.87, n.5.

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