Vinaya Pitaka (1): The Analysis of Monks’ Rules (Bhikkhu-vibhanga)

by I. B. Horner | 2014 | 345,334 words | ISBN-13: 9781921842160

The English translation of the Bhikkhu-vibhanga: the first part of the Suttavibhanga, which itself is the first book of the Pali Vinaya Pitaka, one of the three major ‘baskets’ of Therevada canonical literature. It is a collection of rules for Buddhist monks. The English translation of the Vinaya-pitaka (first part, bhikkhu-vibhanga) contains many...

Monks’ Expiation (Pācittiya) 15

Bu-Pc.15.1.1 BD.2.243 Vin.4.41 … at Sāvatthī in the Jeta Grove in Anāthapiṇḍika’s monastery. Now at that time the group of seventeen monks were companions. Staying, they just stayed together, setting forth, they just set forth together. These, spreading[1] a sleeping-place in a certain dwelling belonging to the Order, setting forth, neither removed it nor had it removed, (but) set forth without having asked (for permission). The lodging became eaten by white ants. Those who were modest monks … spread it about, saying:

“How can this group of seventeen monks, spreading a sleeping-place in a dwelling belonging to the Order, setting forth, neither remove it nor have it removed, (but) set forth without having asked (for permission, so that) the lodging is eaten by white ants?” Then these monks told this matter to the lord … He said:

“Is it true, as is said, monks, that the group of seventeen monks … belonging to the Order, setting forth neither removed it … eaten by white ants?”

“It is true, lord.”

The enlightened one, the lord, rebuked them, saying:

“How, monks, can these foolish men … eaten by white ants? It is not, monks, for pleasing those who are not (yet) pleased … And thus, monks, this rule of training should be set forth:

Whatever monk, spreading a sleeping-place or having it spread in a dwelling belonging to the Order, setting forth, should neither remove it nor have it removed, or should go away without asking (for permission), there is an offence of expiation.”


Bu-Pc.15.2.1 BD.2.244 Whatever means: … is monk to be understood in this case.

Belonging to the Order means: it comes to be given to the Order, handed over to it.[2]

Sleeping-place[3] means: a mattress,[4] a carpet,[5] a bed-cover, a ground-covering, a straw mat, an animal’s skin,[6] a piece of cloth for sitting on,[7] a sheet,[8] a grass-mat,[9] a leaf mat.

Spreading means: himself spreading.[10]

Having spread means: making another spread.[11]

Setting forth, should neither remove it means: should not himself remove it.[12]

Nor have it removed means: should not make another remove it.[13]

Or should go away without asking (for permission) means: not asking a monk or a novice or Vin.4.42 a monastery-attendant (for permission), if he goes further than the fence of a fenced-in monastery, there is an offence of expiation; if he goes further than the precincts[14] of a monastery not fenced-in, there is an offence of expiation.


Bu-Pc.15.2.2 If he thinks that it belongs to the Order[15] when it belongs to the Order, spreading a sleeping-place or having it spread, setting forth should neither remove it nor have it removed, or should go away without asking (for permission) there is an offence of expiation. If he is in doubt as to whether it belongs to the Order … without asking (for permission), there is an offence of expiation. If he thinks that it belongs to an individual BD.2.245 when it belongs to the Order, spreading a sleeping-place … or should go away without asking (for permission), there is an offence of expiation. If, spreading a sleeping-place or having it spread in the precincts of a dwelling-place[16] or in an assembly-room[17] or in a hut[18] or at the foot of a tree,[19] setting forth should neither remove it … or should go away without asking (for permission), there is an offence of wrong-doing.

If, spreading a couch or a chair or having it spread in a monastery or in the precincts of a monastery or in an assembly-room[20] or in a hut[21] or at the foot of a tree, setting forth should neither remove it … or should go away without asking (for permission), there is an offence of wrong-doing.[22] If he thinks that it belongs to the Order when it belongs to an individual, there is an offence of wrong-doing. If he is in doubt as to whether it belongs to an individual, there is an offence of wrong-doing. If he thinks that it belongs to an individual when it belongs to an individual (but) to another individual, there is an offence of wrong-doing; if it belongs to the individual himself, there is no offence.


Bu-Pc.15.2.3 There is no offence if, having removed it, he goes away; if, having caused it to be removed, he goes away; if, having asked (for permission), he goes away; if it comes to be taken possession of by something; if going with the expectation,[23] standing there, he asks (for BD.2.246permission); if he becomes taken possession of by something[24]; if there are accidents; if he is mad, if he is the first wrong-doer.[25]

The Fifth

Footnotes and references:

1.

santharitvā, see Introduction, BD.2.xxii.

2.

Cf. above, BD.2.161, BD.2.239.

3.

Another definition of seyyā given above, BD.2.196.

4.

Cf. above, BD.2.240.

5.

Cf. above, BD.2.241, for this and the next four words.

6.

Cf. above, BD.2.241, for this and the next four words.

7.

nisīdana. Defined at Vin.3.232, Vin.4.123, Vin.4.171.

8.

paccattharaṇa. Buddhaghosa at Vin-a.777 calls it pāvāro kojavo, a cloak (mantle?), a rug or cover with long hair.

9.

tiṇa-santhāra. Vin-a.777 says a mat of any grasses whatsoever; the same for a leaf-mat.

10.

Cf. above, BD.2.241.

11.

Cf. above, BD.2.241.

12.

Cf. above, BD.2.241.

13.

Cf. above, BD.2.241.

14.

upacāra.

16.

Vin-a.778 says that this means a cell, pariveṇa.

17.

upaṭṭhānasālā. Cf. above, BD.2.194, n.4. Vin-a.778 calls this pariveṇabhojanasālā, a refectory and cells.

18.

maṇḍapa. Cf. above, BD.2.239, n.4. Vin-a.778 says pariveṇa-maṇḍapo.

19.

Vin-a.778 says pariveṇarukkhamūla.

20.

Vin-a. 778 here merely says bhojanasālā, refectory.

21.

Vin-a.778 here says that it is maṇḍapa, whether covered or not, for the assembly of many people.

22.

Apparently not a pācittiya as there is not so much danger of the things being eaten by white ants if spread in these places, Vin-a.778.

23.

sāpekkho.

24.

Vin-a.780, by full rivers, robber chiefs, and is unable to return.