Vinaya Pitaka (1): The Analysis of Monks’ Rules (Bhikkhu-vibhanga)

by I. B. Horner | 2014 | 345,334 words | ISBN-13: 9781921842160

The English translation of the Bhikkhu-vibhanga: the first part of the Suttavibhanga, which itself is the first book of the Pali Vinaya Pitaka, one of the three major ‘baskets’ of Therevada canonical literature. It is a collection of rules for Buddhist monks. The English translation of the Vinaya-pitaka (first part, bhikkhu-vibhanga) contains many...

Monks’ Formal Meeting (Saṅghādisesa) 5

Vin.3.135BD.1.229 Bu-Ss.5.1.1 … at Sāvatthī in the Jeta Grove in Anāthapiṇḍika’s park. At that time the venerable Udāyin was dependent on families at Sāvatthī, and he approached many families. When he saw a youth not (yet) a husband, or a young girl without a husband, he spoke in praise of the girl in the presence of the youth’s parents, saying: “The young girl of that family is beautiful, good to look upon, lovely, she is learned, accomplished, wise, clever, energetic. This young girl is suitable for that youth.”

These said: “They do not know us, honoured sir, nor who we are, nor to whom we belong. If, honoured sir, the master will induce them to give, we might convey this girl to this youth.”

He spoke in praise of the youth in the presence of the girl’s parents, saying: “The youth of that family is beautiful, good to look upon, lovely, he is learned, accomplished, wise, clever, energetic. That young girl is suitable for this youth.”

They said: “They do not know us, honoured sir, nor who we are, nor to whom we belong, nor in what, as it were, is the girl’s property.[1] But if, honoured sir, the master would beg, we might give this girl to that youth.”

By this means he brought about the leading[2] of the bridegroom (to the bride’s home), he brought about the BD.1.230 leading away[3] (from the bride’s home), he caused marriages[4] to take place.


Bu-Ss.5.1.2 Now at that time the daughter of a certain woman who was formerly a courtesan was beautiful, good to look upon, lovely. Some disciples of Naked Ascetics coming from a distant village, said to the courtesan: “Lady, give this girl to our boy!”

She said: “Masters, I do not know you, nor who these are, nor to whom he belongs; and I will not give my only daughter to go to a distant village.”

Some people said to these disciples of Naked Ascetics: “Masters, why did you come?”[5]

“Now we, masters, begged that courtesan for her daughter for our son; and she said, ‘But, masters, I do not know you, nor who these are, nor to whom he belongs, and I will not give my only daughter to go to a distant village.’”

“Master, why did you beg the courtesan for her daughter? Certainly master Udāyin should be told, master Udāyin will induce her to give (her daughter).”

Then these Vin.3.136 disciples of Naked Ascetics approached the venerable Udāyin, and having approached him, they said to the venerable Udāyin: “Now, honoured sir, we begged that courtesan … ‘distant village.’ It would be good, honoured sir, if the master could induce this courtesan to give her daughter to our boy.”

Then the venerable Udāyin approached that courtesan, and having approached, he said to that courtesan: “Why did you not give your daughter to these (people)?”

“But, master, I do not know them, nor who they are, nor to whom he belongs, and I will not give my only daughter to go to a distant village.”

BD.1.231 “Give her to them, I know them.”

“If, honoured sir, the master knows them, I will give (her),” she said. Then this courtesan gave her daughter to these disciples of Naked Ascetics.


Bu-Ss.5.1.3 Then these disciples of Naked Ascetics, taking the young girl, for a month made use of her according to her lot as a daughter-in-law[6]; then afterwards they made use of her according to her lot as a female slave.[7] Then this young girl dispatched a messenger to her mother, saying: “I am wretched, I am miserable, I get no happiness. For a month they made use of me according to my lot as a daughter-in-law, now after that they are making use of me according to my lot as a female slave. Let my mother come for me, let her take me away.”

Then the courtesan came up to the disciples of Naked Ascetics, and having come up, she said to these disciples of Naked Ascetics, “Masters, do not make use of this young girl according to her lot as a female slave, make use of this young girl according to her lot as a daughter-in-law.”

They said: “We do not want anything to do with you,[8] we want to have to do (only) with a recluse. You go away, we do not know you.”

Then this courtesan, being reproached by these followers of the Naked Ascetics, returned again to Sāvatthī. A second time this young girl dispatched a messenger to her mother, saying: “I am wretched … take me away.” Then the courtesan approached the venerable Udāyin, and having approached him, she said to the venerable Udāyin:

“Honoured sir, it is said that the young girl is wretched, miserable, she gets no happiness. For a month they BD.1.232 made use of her according to her lot as a daughter-in-law, and now after that they are making use of her according to her lot as a female slave. Honoured sir, do say: ‘Masters, do not make use of this young girl according to her lot as a female slave, make use of this young girl according to her lot as a daughter-in-law.’”

Then the venerable Udāyin approached these disciples of the Naked Ascetics, and having approached them, he said to these disciples of the Naked Ascetics:

“Masters, do not make use of this young girl according to her lot as a female slave, make use of this young girl according to her lot as a daughter-in-law.”

They said: “We do not want anything to do with you; we want to have to do (only) with the courtesan. A recluse should be without occupation,[9] Vin.3.137 the recluse will become a model recluse.[10] You go away, we do not know you.”

Then the venerable Udāyin having been reproached by these disciples of Naked Ascetics, returned again to Sāvatthī. For a third time the young girl dispatched a messenger to her mother, saying: “I am wretched, take me away.” For a second time the courtesan approached the venerable Udāyin … “… Do say: ‘Masters … as a daughter-in-law.’”

He said: “When I went before, I was reproached by these disciples of the Naked Ascetics. Go yourself. I will not go.”


Bu-Ss.5.1.4 Then the courtesan became annoyed, vexed, angry and said: “May this master Udāyin be wretched, may this master Udāyin be miserable, may this BD.1.233 master Udāyin not find happiness, even as my girl is wretched, miserable, and finds no happiness because of her evil mother-in-law, because of her evil father-in-law, because.of her evil husband.” And then the young girl became annoyed, vexed, angry, saying: “May this master Udāyin be wretched, may this master Udāyin be miserable, may this master Udāyin not find happiness, even as I am wretched, miserable and find no happiness because of my evil mother-in-law, because of my evil father-in-law, because of my evil husband.”

Even other women, unhappy with their mothers-in-law, unhappy with their fathers-in-law, unhappy with their husbands, denounced[11] him, thus: “May … be wretched … even as we are wretched, miserable, and find no happiness because of our evil mothers-in-law, because of our evil fathers-in-law, because of our evil husbands.”

But those women who were happy with their mothers-in-law, with their fathers-in-law, and with their husbands, these prayed to[12] him thus: “May this master Udāyin be happy, may this master Udāyin be blest[13], may this master Udāyin prosper,[14] even as we are happy, blest and do prosper because of our good mothers-in-law, because of our good fathers-in-law, because of our good husbands.”


Bu-Ss.5.1.5 The monks heard some women denouncing, some women praying. Then those who were modest monks became annoyed, vexed, angry and said: “How can the venerable Udāyin act as a go-between?”[15] Then these monks told this matter to the lord. Then the lord on this occasion, for this reason, having had the company of monks convened, questioned the venerable Udāyin, saying:

BD.1.234 “Is it true, as is said, Udāyin, that you acted as a go-between?”

“It is true, lord,” he said.

Then the enlightened one, the lord, rebuked him, saying: “How could you, foolish man, act as a go-between? That is not, foolish man, for the benefit of unbelievers … Thus, monks, this course of training should be set forth: Vin.3.138

“Whatever monk should act as a go-between for a woman with a man in mind or for a man with a woman in mind, whether as a wife or as a mistress, that is an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order.”


Bu-Ss.5.2.1 At one time many men of abandoned life[16] who were amusing themselves in a pleasure grove, sent a messenger to a harlot to say, “Come, we will enjoy ourselves in the pleasure grove.”

She said: “Masters, I do not know you, nor who you are, nor to whom you belong; and I have many goods, I am well-to-do, and I will not go outside the city.”[17] Then the messenger told this matter to the men of abandoned life. A certain man said to these men of abandoned life:

“Masters, why do you beg this harlot? Surely master Udāyin should be told. Master Udāyin will procure (her for you).”

When he had spoken thus, a certain lay-follower said to that man: “Do not speak like that, master; it is not right for recluses, sons of the Sakyans, to act like that. Master Udāyin will not do it.”

When he had spoken thus, they said, “Will he do it, or won’t he do it?” and they made a bet. Then these men of abandoned life approached the venerable Udāyin, and having approached him they said to the venerable Udāyin:

BD.1.235 “Now we, honoured sir, amusing ourselves in the pleasure grove, sent a messenger to some harlot, saying, ‘Come, we will enjoy ourselves in the pleasure grove’ She said: ‘Masters, I do not know you, nor who you are, nor to whom you belong; and I have many goods, I am well-to-do, and I will not go outside the city.’ It would be good, honoured sir, if the master would procure this harlot (for us).”

Then the venerable Udāyin went up to this harlot, and having come up he said to this harlot: “Why do you not go among these (men)?”

“Master, I do not know them … I will not go outside the city.”

“Go among them,” he said, “I know them.”

“If, honoured sir, the master knows them, I will go.”

Then these men of abandoned life, taking this harlot, went to the pleasure grove.


Bu-Ss.5.2.2 Then that lay-follower became annoyed, vexed, angry, saying: “How can master Udāyin act as a go-between for a temporary wife?”[18] The monks heard that lay-follower who was annoyed, vexed, angry. Those who were modest monks became annoyed, vexed, angry, saying: “How can the venerable Udāyin act as a go-between for a temporary wife?” Then these monks Vin.3.139 told this matter to the lord.

“Is it true, as they say, Udāyin, that you acted as a go-between for a temporary wife?”

“It is true, lord,” he said.

The enlightened one, the lord, rebuked him, saying: “How can you, foolish man, act as a go-between for a temporary wife? It is not, foolish man, for the benefit of unbelievers … Thus, monks, this course of training should be set forth:

Whatever monk should act as a go-between for a woman with a man in mind, or for a man with a woman BD.1.236 in mind whether as a wife or as a mistress or even as a temporary wife, there is an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order.”


Bu-Ss.5.3.1 Whatever means: he who …

Monk means: … thus monk is to be understood in this meaning.

Should act as a go-between means: either sent by a woman he goes into a man’s presence, or sent by a man he goes into a woman’s presence.

For a woman with a man in mind means: he tells to a woman the mind of a man.

For a man with a woman in mind means: he tells to a man the mind of a woman.

As a wife[19] means: You will become a wife.

As a mistress means: You will become a mistress.

Even as a temporary wife[20] means: You will become a wife for the moment.

Offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order … because of that it is called an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order.


Bu-Ss.5.4.1 Ten (kinds of) women: protected by the mother, protected by the father, protected by the parents, protected by the brother, protected by the sister, protected by the relations, protected by the lineage, protected by dhamma, with protection, protected by a stick.[21]

BD.1.237 Ten (kinds of) wives: one bought with money, one kept for passion, a kept woman, one who receives clothes, one who provides water, one who takes off the pad (for the burden she carries on the head), the slave and wife, the servant and wife,[22] the flag-brought,[23] the wife for the moment.


Bu-Ss.5.4.2 Protected by the mother means: the mother protects,[24] guards,[25] wields supremacy,[26] has her under control.[27]

Protected by the father means: the father … has her under control.

Protected by the parents means: the parents … have her under control.

Protected by the brother means: the brother … has her under control.

Protected by the sister means: the sister … has her under control.

Protected by the relations means: the relations … have her under control.

Protected by the lineage means: her own clans-people … have her under control.

Protected by dhamma[28] means: those regarding dhamma … have her under control.

With protection means: she is appropriated in the womb saying: “She is mine,” even if she is betrothed.

Protected by the stick means: the stick is put by some BD.1.238 people, and whoever goes to such-and-such a woman says: “What a stick.”[29] Vin.3.140


Bu-Ss.5.4.3 Bought with money means: having bought (her) with money, he makes her stay.

Kept for passion[30] means: the dear one makes the dear one stay.[31]

A kept woman means: giving her wealth, he makes her stay.[32]

One who receives clothes means: giving a garment, he makes her stay.[33]

One who provides water means: having handled a bowl of water, he makes her stay.[34]

One who takes off the pad (for burdens she carries on the head) means: taking down the pad he makes her stay.[35]

A slave means: she is a slave and a wife.

A servant means: she is a servant and wife.[36]

Flag-brought means: a woman taken in a raid.[37]

A temporary wife means: a wife for a moment.


Bu-Ss.5.4.4 A man sends a monk saying: “Go, honoured sir, to such a one protected by the mother, and explain: ‘He BD.1.239 says become the wife of such a one bought for money.’”If he accepts, examines and brings back, it is an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order.

A man … protected by the father, explain: … protected by a stick, explain … a formal meeting of the Order.

The steps in the composition

A man sends a monk saying: “Go, sir, to such and such a one protected by the mother, protected by the father and say: ‘He says, become the wife of so-and-so bought with money.’” If he accepts … formal meeting of the Order.

A man … protected by the mother and protected by the parents … protected by the mother and protected by a stick … formal meeting of the Order.

A portion of the series

A man … “protected by the father and protected by the parents … protected by the father and protected by the mother” … formal meeting of the Order.

Told is the beginning of the contracted series

A man …“protected by a stick and protected by the mother … protected by a stick and with protection …” … formal meeting of the Order.

Told is that beginning with one

That beginning with two and that beginning with three up to that beginning with nine should be done in the same way. This is that beginning with ten:

A man sends a monk saying: “Go, sir, to such a one protected by the mother and protected by the father … and protected by a stick, and explain: ‘He says, become …’” … a formal meeting of the Order.

Told is the series about women bought with money


Bu-Ss.5.4.5 A man sends a monk, saying: “Go, honoured sir, to such a one protected by the mother, and explain: ‘He says, become the wife kept for passion of such a man … the kept woman … the temporary wife.’”If he accepts … a formal meeting of the Order.

A man sends a monk, saying: “Go, honoured sir, to such a BD.1.240 woman Vin.3.141 protected by the mother and protected by the father … and protected by a stick, and explain: ‘… a temporary wife.’” If he accepts … formal meeting of the Order.

Told is the series on the woman who is a temporary wife


Bu-Ss.5.4.6 A man sends a monk saying: “Go, honoured sir, explain to so-and-so protected by the mother: ‘He says, become the wife bought by money of such and such a man,’” If he accepts, examines her, brings back, it is an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order.

A man … ‘the wife kept for passion’ … ‘the kept woman’ … ‘the temporary wife’ … formal meeting of the Order.

The steps of composition

This is that beginning with ten:

A man sends a monk, saying: “Go, honoured sir, explain to so-and-so protected by a stick: ‘He says, become the wife of so-and-so, bought by money, and kept for passion and … and the temporary wife’” … formal meeting of the Order.


Bu-Ss.5.4.7 A man sends a monk saying: “Go, honoured sir, explain to so-and-so protected by the mother: ‘It is said, become the wife bought by money of so-and-so.’” … a formal meeting of the Order.

A man … “to so-and-so protected by the mother and protected by the father, explain: ‘It is said, become the wives and so-and-so, bought by money and kept for passion, and …’” … a formal meeting of the Order.

A man … “to so-and-so protected by the mother and protected by the father and protected by the parents, and explain: ‘He says, become the wives of so-and-so, bought with money, and kept for passion, and the kept woman and …’” … a formal meeting of the Order.

Increase from both (ends) is to be made thus:

A man sends a monk saying: “Go, honoured sir, to so-and-so protected by the mother and protected by the father and … and protected by a stick and explain: ‘He says, become the wives of so-and-so, bought by money, and kept for passion … and temporary wives.’” … a formal meeting of the Order.

Told is the increase from both (ends)


Bu-Ss.5.4.8 BD.1.241 The mother of a man sent a monk … the father of a man sent a monk … the parents of a man sent a monk … the brother of a man sent a monk … the sister of a man sent a monk … the relations of a man sent a monk … the clansmen of a man sent Vin.3.142 a monk … the co-religionists of a man sent a monk.


Bu-Ss.5.4.9 The mother of (a girl) protected by the mother sent a monk, saying: “Go, honoured sir, explain to so-and-so: ‘Let her be the wife, bought by money, of so-and-so …’” … formal meeting of the Order.

The mother of (a girl) protected by the mother sent a monk, saying: “Go, honoured sir … be the wife kept for passion … the temporary wife …” … a formal meeting of the Order.

The steps in the composition

This is that beginning with ten:

The mother of (a girl) protected by the mother sent a monk, saying: “Go, honoured sir, explain to so-and-so: ‘Let her be the wife of so-and-so bought by money and the wife kept for passion and … and the temporary wife …’” … a formal meeting of the Order.


Bu-Ss.5.4.10 The father of (a girl) protected by the father sent a monk … the parents of (a girl) protected by the parents sent a monk … the brother of (a girl) protected by the brother sent a monk … the sister of (a girl) protected by the sister sent a monk … the relations of (a girl) protected by the relations sent a monk … the co-religionists of (a girl) protected by dhamma sent a monk … one who was appropriated with protection sent a monk … one who has put a stick, for protection with a stick, sent a monk, saying: “Go, honoured sir, explain to so-and-so: ‘Be the wife of so-and-so bought with money … be the wife of so-and-so bought with money and the wife kept for passion … and the temporary wife.’” … a formal meeting of the Order.


Bu-Ss.5.4.11 One protected by the mother sent a monk, saying: “Go, honoured sir, explain to so-and-so: ‘I am the wife bought by money for so-and-so …’” … a formal meeting of the Order.

One protected by the mother … ‘the wife kept for passion … the temporary wife’ … formal meeting of the Order.

The steps of composition

If one protected by a stick sends a monk, saying: “Go, sir, explain to so-and-so: ‘I am the wife for so-and-so, bought with BD.1.242 money … another wife kept for passion and and the temporary wife.’” If he accepts, examines, and brings back, it is an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order.

Told is the whole abbreviated series


Bu-Ss.5.4.12 If he accepts, examines, brings back, it is an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order. Vin.3.143 If he accepts, examines, but does not bring back, it is a grave offence. If he accepts, but does not examine and does not bring back, it is an offence of wrong-doing. If he does not accept, but examines and brings back, it is a grave offence. If he does not accept, but examines, yet does not bring back, it is an offence of wrong-doing. If he does not accept, and does not examine, but brings back, it is an offence of wrong-doing. If he does not accept, does not examine and does not bring back, it is not an offence.


Bu-Ss.5.4.13 If a man enjoins many monks, saying: “Go, honoured sirs, examine such and such a woman,” and if they all accept, all examine and all bring back, it is an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order for them all.

If a man … “… examine such and such a woman,” and if they all accept, all examine, but if one makes them bring back, it is an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order for them all.

If a man … “… examine such and such a woman,” if all accept, if one makes them examine her and if all bring back, it is an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order for them all.

If a man … “… examine such and such woman,” if all accept, but if one makes them examine, and if one makes them bring back, it is an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order for them all.


Bu-Ss.5.4.14 A man enjoins a monk: “Go, honoured sir, examine such and such a woman.” If he accepts, examines her and brings back, it is an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order.

A man enjoins a monk: “Go, honoured sir, examine such and such a woman.” If he accepts, examines her but makes a novice BD.1.243 bring back, it is an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order.

A man enjoins a monk: “… such and such a woman.” If he accepts, makes a novice examine, but himself brings back, it is an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order.

A man enjoins a monk: “… such and such a woman.” If he accepts, makes a novice examine her, and the novice having examined, brings back alone,[38] there is a grave offence for both.[39]


Bu-Ss.5.4.15 Going, he procures, coming back he deceives with words—it is a grave offence. Going he deceives with words, coming back he procures—it is a grave offence. Going he procures, coming back he procures—it is an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order.

Bu-Ss.5.4.16


There is no offence if it is for the Order,[40] or for a shrine,[41] or if he is ill;[42] if he is going on business, if he is mad, if he is a beginner.

Bu-Ss.5.5.1 Asleep, and dead, gone out,
unsexed woman, a female eunuch,
She was reconciled after having quarrelled,
and did go-between for a eunuch.

BD.1.244 At one time a certain man Vin.3.144 enjoined a certain monk: “Go, honoured sir, examine such and such a woman.” As he was going, he asked some people: “Where is so-and-so?”

“She is asleep, honoured sir,” they said. He was remorseful, and said: “What now if I have fallen into an offence requiring a formal meeting of the Order.” He told this matter to the lord. He said: “Monk, this is not an offence requiring a formal meeting of the Order; it is an offence of wrong-doing.”


Bu-Ss.5.5.2 At one time a certain man enjoined a certain monk, saying: “Go, honoured sir, examine such and such a woman.” As he was going he asked some people: “Where is so-and-so?” “She is dead, honoured sir,” they said … “She has gone out, honoured sir,” they said … “That is an unsexed woman, honoured sir.” … “That is a female eunuch,[43] honoured sir,” they said. He was remorseful …“offence of wrong-doing.”


Bu-Ss.5.5.3 At one time a certain woman, having quarrelled with her husband, went to her mother’s house. A monk, dependent on (her) family, effected a reconciliation. He was remorseful …

“Monk, is she not one to be told ‘enough’?”[44]

“She is not one to be told ‘enough,’ lord.”

“It is not an offence, monk, as she is not one to be told ‘enough’.”


Bu-Ss.5.5.4 BD.1.245 At one time a certain monk acted as a go-between for a eunuch. He was remorseful. “What now if I have fallen into an offence requiring a formal meeting of the Order?” He told this matter to the lord.

“Monk, it is not an offence requiring a formal meeting of the Order; it is a grave offence.”

Told is the Fifth Offence entailing a Formal Meeting of the Order

Footnotes and references:

1.

Or, taking vatthuṃ as wrong reading for vattuṃ: “we should be ashamed (kismiṃ viya, cf.Vin-a.552) to speak thus for the girl(’s sake).”

2.

āvāha, Vin-a.552, “The bringing of the youth from another family to the girl.”

3.

vivāha, Vin-a.553, “The sending out of the girl herself to another family.”

4.

vāreyāni, text; Vin-a.553, vāreyyan, with variant reading vāreyyāni. Vin-a.553, “begging: give your girl to our boy, or settling the day, lunar mansion, astronomic law.”

5.

kissa tumhe āgat’ attha? Here attha is second plural of atthi, from √as.

6.

I.e., Vin-a.553, they enjoyed what she cooked, and the meals she served.

7.

I.e., working in the fields, throwing out sweepings, fetching water, etc.

8.

Āhārūpahāro. Vin-a.553 says,“taking and offering, getting and giving, nothing is taken or offered by us, buying and selling with you is not our custom.”

9.

Avyāvaṭa, a rare word. Cf. Ja.3.65 and its variant readings ajhāvata, abyāvata; Ja.6.188; DN.ii.141. At Cnd.72 appossukha = abyāvata anapekkha.

10.

Samaṇena bhavitabbaṃ, avyāvaṭena samaṇo assa sumano. The word sumano has variant readings sumaṇo, susamaṇo; Vin-areads sussamaṇo. This explanation seems to show what is rare: that Oldenberg’s text is faulty. No doubt the text could be emended: samaṇena bhavitabbaṃ avyāvateṇa (avyāvaṭo) samaṇo assa sussamaṇo, but the elliptical construction is perhaps intentional, and shows a popular style, which does not, however, sound very well.

11.

oyācati and āyācati. For āyācati. cf. DN.i.240.

12.

oyācati and āyācati. For āyācati. cf. DN.i.240.

13.

sajjito, Vin-a.553 says, “endowed with all means of livelihood, beautifully adorned.”

14.

sukhamedho.

15.

sañcarittaṃ samāpajjati. For note on samāpajjati see BD.1.201, n.3.

16.

Vin-a.533 calls them “abandoned with women,” itthīdhutta, not necessarily leading the wild life of gambling or the wild life of drink—the other two of the three kinds of abandoned life.

17.

bahinagarañ ca gantabbaṃ nāhaṃ gamissāmi.

18.

Cf. Buddhaghosa, who says at Vin-a.553–554 that taṃkhaṇo here means “for a short time”; thus taṃkhaṇikā may mean “a temporary wife” as in this Saṅghādisesa rule. See below BD.1.236, for explanation of the Old Commentary.

19.

Vin-a.554, “Speaking to a woman with a man in mind he speaks of being a wife. Speaking to a man with a woman in mind, he speaks of being a mistress. Further, speaking to a woman with a man in mind he speaks of wifehood, of the sure state of being a wife, of the low livelihood of a mistress, but saying this, he also says, ‘they say you will become a wife.’ In speaking to a man with a woman in mind he says, ‘You will become a lord, a husband, you will become an adulterer.’”

20.

Taṃkhaṇikā and muhuttikā are practically synonymous.

21.

MN.i.286 = MN.iii.46, gives the first five on this list, then sassāmikā, saparidaṇḍā antamaso mālāguḷaparikkhittā. AN.v.264 gives the first five, then dhammarakkhitā (with variant readings to insert gotta-rakkhitā), sassāmikā, etc., as at MN.i.286; MN.iii.46. Vv-a.72 follows the Vinaya reading. Cf. GS.5.177, n.2.

22.

For explanation see below, BD.1.238.

23.

For explanation see below, BD.1.238.

24.

Vin-a.555, “the mother lets her go nowhere.”

25.

Vin-a.555, “she puts her in a place so (well) guarded that other people cannot see (her).”

26.

Vin-a.555, “restrains her from living in lodgings of her own choice, and overrules her.”

27.

Vin-a.555, “Saying ‘do this, do not do that.’” Cf. MN.i.214, where the expression cittaṃ vasaṃ vatteti, “has his heart under control,” or, as at Further Dialogues of the Buddha 1.155, “is master of his heart.”

28.

Vin-a.555, “neither lineage nor dhamma protects her, but she is protected by her own clans-people and by those regarding dhamma who, on account of one teacher, have gone forth belonging to one company.” It is not the abstract but the concrete which protects her; people and not ideas, in fact, her co-religionists (sahadhammikā). This is an interesting heading as being a recognised kind together with nine others.

29.

etako daṇḍo.

30.

Vin-a.555, “kept for passion, means, he lives of his own free will for passion. Inasmuch as she is not only passionate, but a wife she is accepted by the man.”

31.

piyo piyaṃ vāseti.

32.

Vin-a.555, “A country-woman comes to be a wife, having received the household implements.”

33.

Vin-a.555, “receiving as much as a garment or cloak, a vagabond woman rises to be a wife.”

34.

Vin-a.555, plunging their two hands into one pot of water, he says: “Joined like this water, so let them not be divided.”

35.

Vin-a.555, “Someone who is a gatherer of firewood and so on, and taking the pad off her head, he keeps her in the house.” In India the women put a coiled pad of cotton or some material or grass on their head, and then balance their burdens: brass vessels, long bunches of firewood, big round baskets and so on, on the pad.

36.

Vin-a.555, “She works in the house for wages. Somebody lives a household life with her—not satisfied with his own wife.”

37.

Vin-a.556, “Having gone with the army erecting the flag, plundering another district, she is brought back. If anyone makes her his wife, she is called flag-brought.”

38.

bahiddhā, not telling his teacher, the monk.

39.

Vin-a.559, “A grave offence for both means: the accepting, and making over the examining is a grave offence with two parts for the teacher. The accepting and the bringing back is a grave offence with two parts for the novice.”

40.

Vin-a.599f., “It is not an offence if any hall for reciting the Pātimokkha belonging to the Order is left unfinished, and a lay-follower sends a monk to a female lay-follower in order to get food as wages for the workers, or if a female lay-follower goes to a lay-follower on business connected with the Order. It is the same for building a shrine.”

41.

I do not think a cetiya is necessarily a “tumulus, sepulchral monument, cairn,” as the Pali-English Dictionary defines it. The cetiyas at, e.g., the Caves of Ellora and Ajanta are certainly neither tumuli nor cairns, nor do they contain relics. Erected probably after the life-time of the Buddha, they were used as places for meditation, (√cet, to think), or for listening to discourses. See below, BD.1.266.

42.

“If he goes for the sake of medicine for an invalid, sent by a lay-follower into the presence of a female lay-follower, or sent by a female lay-follower into the presence of a male lay-follower.”

43.

Itthipaṇḍakā, may be name of a deformity. Cf. above, BD.1.217; and Vin.2.271 (°paṇḍikā).

44.

alaṃvacanīyā, a woman who has to be addressed with alaṃ (enough), perhaps the husband’s way of divorcing, and the wife returns to her parental home. That this woman did not return to the parental home, nālaṃvacanīyā, means, according to Buddhaghosa, Vin-a.561, “she was not abandoned (by her husband). For any woman who is abandoned according to the customs of diverse districts and thus ceases to be a wife, is called alaṃvacanīyā. But this woman was not one to be told ‘enough’ (perhaps = divorce) on account of some quarrel, so that here the lord said there was no offence.”