Vinaya Pitaka (3): Khandhaka

by I. B. Horner | 2014 | 386,194 words | ISBN-13: 9781921842160

The English translation of the Khandhaka: the second book of the Pali Vinaya Pitaka, one of the three major ‘baskets’ of Therevada canonical literature. It is a collection of various narratives. The English translation of the Vinaya-pitaka (third part, khandhaka) contains many Pali original words, but transliterated using a system similar to the I...

Kd.1.27.1 Now at that time those who shared cells did not conduct themselves properly towards their preceptors. Those who were modest monks looked down upon, criticised, spread it about, saying: “How can those who share cells not conduct themselves properly towards their preceptors?” Then these monks told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Is it true, as is said, monks, that those who share cells do not conduct themselves properly towards their preceptors?”

“It is true, Lord.”

The enlightened one, the Lord rebuked them, saying:

“How, monks, can those who share cells not conduct themselves properly towards their preceptors?”

Having rebuked them, having given reasoned talk, the Lord addressed the monks, saying: Monks, Vin.1.54 those who share cells should not not conduct themselves properly towards their preceptors. Whoever should not conduct himself properly, there is an offence of wrong-doing.

Kd.1.27.2 Even so, they did not conduct themselves properly. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow you, monks, to dismiss[1] one who does not conduct himself properly. And thus, monks, should he be dismissed: If he, saying: ‘I dismiss you’ or ‘Do not come back here’ or ‘Bring back your bowl and robe’ or ‘I am not to be waited upon by you’, makes this understood by gesture, if he makes this understood by voice, if he makes this understood by gesture and by voice, the one who shares the cell comes to be dismissed. If he does not make this understood by gesture, if he does not make this understood by voice, if he does not make this understood by gesture and by voice, the one who shares the cell does not come to be dismissed.


Kd.1.27.3 Now at that time those who shared a cell and who were dismissed did not apologise. They told this matter to the BD.4.70 Lord. He said: “I allow (them), monks, to apologise.” Even so, they did not apologise. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Monks, one who is dismissed is not not to apologise. Whoever should not apologise, there is an offence of wrong-doing.


Kd.1.27.4 Now at that time preceptors, on being apologised to, did not forgive. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow you, monks, to forgive.” Even so, they did not forgive. And those who shared a cell departed and they left the Order and they went over to (other) sects. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Monks, when you are being apologised to you should not not forgive. Whoever should not forgive, there is an offence of wrong-doing.


Kd.1.27.5 Now at that time preceptors dismissed those who were conducting themselves[2] properly, they did not dismiss those who were not conducting themselves properly. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Monks, one who is conducting himself properly is not to be dismissed. Whoever should dismiss him, there is an offence of wrong-doing. And, monks, one who is not conducting himself properly is not not to be dismissed. Whoever should not dismiss him, there is an offence of wrong-doing.

Kd.1.27.6 “Monks, if one who shares a cell is possessed of five qualities he may be dismissed: if there does not come to be much affection for his preceptor, if there does not come to be much faith (in him), if there does not come to be much sense of shame (towards him), if there does not come to be much respect (for him), if there does not come to be much development[3] (under him). Monks, if one who shares a cell is possessed of these five qualities he may be dismissed. Monks, if one who shares a cell is possessed of five qualities he should not be dismissed: if there comes to be much affection for his preceptor … if there comes to be much development. Monks, if one who shares a cell is possessed of these five qualities he should not be dismissed.

Kd.1.27.7 “Monks, if one who shares a cell is possessed of five qualities BD.4.71 it is suitable[4] to dismiss him: Vin.1.55 if there does not come to be much affection for his preceptor … if there does not come to be much development. Monks, if one who shares a cell is possessed of these five qualities, it is suitable to dismiss him. Monks, if one who shares a cell is possessed of five qualities it is not suitable to dismiss him: if there comes to be much affection for his preceptor … if there comes to be much development. Monks, if one who shares a cell is possessed of these five qualities it is not suitable to dismiss him.

Kd.1.27.8 “Monks, if one who shares a cell is possessed of five qualities, a preceptor, in not dismissing him, becomes one who has gone too far; in dismissing him, he does not become one who has gone too far: if there does not come to be much affection for his preceptor… if there does not come to be much development. Monks, if one who shares a cell is possessed of these five qualities, a preceptor, in not dismissing him, becomes one who has gone too far; in dismissing him he does not become one who has gone too far. Monks, if one who shares a cell is possessed of five qualities, the preceptor, in dismissing him, becomes one who has gone too far; in not dismissing him, he does not become one who has gone too far: if there comes to be much affection for the preceptor … if there comes to be much development. Monks, if one who shares a cell is possessed of these five qualities, a preceptor, in dismissing him, becomes one who has gone too far; in not dismissing him, he does not become one who has gone too far.”


Kd.1.28.1 Now at that time a certain brahmin, having approached (some) monks, asked for the going forth. The monks did not want to let him go forth, and because he could not obtain the going forth among the monks, he became lean, wretched, of a bad colour, very yellow, his veins standing out all over his body.[5] The Lord saw this brahmin, lean … all over his body, and seeing him, he addressed the monks, saying: “How is it, monks, that this brahmin is lean … all over his body?”

“Lord, this brahmin asked the monks for the going forth. The monks did not want to let him go forth, and because he could not obtain the going forth among the monks, he is lean … all over his body.”

Kd.1.28.2 BD.4.72 Then the Lord addressed the monks, saying: “Now, monks, who remembers a service[6] done by this brahmin?” When he had spoken thus the venerable Sāriputta spoke thus to the Lord: “I, Lord, remember a service done by this brahmin.”

“Now, what help (given) by this brahmin, Sāriputta, do you remember?”

“Lord, as I was walking for almsfood here in Rājagaha this brahmin had spoon-alms[7] bestowed upon me. This, Lord, is the service done by this brahmin Vin.1.56 which I remember.”

Kd.1.28.3 “Good, Sāriputta, it is good. Indeed those who are truly men,[8] Sāriputta, are thankful and grateful.[9] Because of this do you, Sāriputta, let this brahmin go forth (and) ordain him.”

“How, lord, do I let this brahmin go forth, how do I ordain him?”

Then the Lord, on this occasion, having given reasoned talk, addressed the monks, saying:

“From this day forth, monks, I abolish that ordination by going to the three refuges which I allowed. I allow you, monks, to ordain by a (formal) act consisting of a motion and a resolution put three times.[10]

Kd.1.28.4 “And thus, monks, should one ordain: The Order should be informed by an experienced, competent monk, saying: ‘Honoured sirs, let the Order hear me. This (person) so and so wishes for ordination from the venerable so and so. If it seems right to the Order, the Order may ordain so and so, through the preceptor so and so. This is the motion.

Kd.1.28.5‘Honoured sirs, let the Order hear me. This person so and so … may ordain so and so. The Order is ordaining so and so through the preceptor so and so. If the ordination of so and so through the preceptor so and so is pleasing to the venerable ones let them be silent; he to whom it is not pleasing should speak. And a second time I speak forth this matter … should speak.

Kd.1.28.6 BD.4.73‘And a third time I speak forth this matter … should speak. So and so is ordained by the Order through the preceptor so and so. It is pleasing to the Order, therefore they are silent. Thus do I understand this.’


Kd.1.29.1 Now at that time a certain monk immediately after he was ordained indulged in bad habits. Monks spoke thus: “Do not, your reverence, do that, it is not allowed.”[11] He spoke thus: “But indeed, I did not ask the venerable ones saying, ‘Ordain me’. Why did you ordain me without being asked (to do so)?” They told this matter to the Lord. Vin.1.57 He said: “Monks, you should not ordain without being asked (to do so). Whoever should (so) ordain, there is an offence of wrong-doing. I allow you, monks, to ordain when you have been asked (to do so).

Kd.1.29.2 “And thus, monks, should one ask (for it): That one who wishes for ordination, having approached the Order, having arranged his upper robe over one shoulder, having honoured the monks’ feet, having sat down on his haunches, having saluted with joined palms, should speak thus to it: ‘Honoured sirs, I ask the Order for ordination; honoured sirs, may the Order raise me up,[12] out of compassion.’ And a second time should he ask … And a third time should he ask …

Kd.1.29.3 “The Order should be informed by an experienced, competent monk, saying: ‘Honoured sirs, let the Order hear me. This (person) so and so wishes for ordination from the venerable so and so. So and so asks the Order for ordination through the preceptor so and so. If it seems right to the Order the Order may ordain so and so through the preceptor so and so. This is the motion.

Kd.1.29.4‘Honoured sirs, let the Order hear me. This (person) so and so wishes for ordination from the venerable so and so. So and so asks the Order for ordination through the preceptor so and so. If the ordination of so and so through the preceptor so BD.4.74 and so is pleasing to the venerable ones, let them be silent; he to whom it is not pleasing should speak. And a second time I speak forth this matter … And a third time I speak forth this matter … So and so is ordained by the Order through the preceptor so and so. It is pleasing to the Order, therefore they are silent. Thus do I understand this.’


Kd.1.30.1 Now at that time in Rājagaha a succession of meals of sumptuous foods came to be arranged.[13] Then it occurred to a certain brahmin: “Now, these recluses, sons of the Sakyans, are pleasant in character, pleasant in conduct; having eaten good meals they lie down on beds sheltered from the wind.[14] What now if I should go forth among these recluses, sons of the Sakyans?” Then that brahmin, having approached (some) monks, asked for the going forth. The monks allowed him to go forth (and) they ordained him.

Kd.1.30.2 The succession of meals dwindled away[15] after he had gone forth. Monks spoke thus: “Come along now, your reverence, we will walk for almsfood.” He spoke thus: “Your reverences, I did not go forth for this—that I should walk for almsfood. If you will give to me, I will eat, but if you will not give to me, I will leave the Order.”

“But, did you, your reverence, go forth for your belly’s sake?” Vin.1.58

“Yes, your reverences.”

Kd.1.30.3 Those who were modest monks looked down upon, criticised, spread it about, saying: “How can this monk go forth in this dhamma and discipline which are well taught for his belly’s sake?” These monks told this matter to the Lord. He said:

“Is it true, as is said, that you, monk, went forth for your belly’s sake?”

“It is true, Lord.”

The enlightened one, the Lord rebuked him, saying:

“How can you, foolish man, go forth in this dhamma and discipline which are well taught for your belly’s sake? It is not foolish man, for pleasing those who are not (yet) pleased, BD.4.75 nor for increasing (the number of) those who are pleased.” Having rebuked him, having given reasoned talk, he addressed the monks, saying:

Kd.1.30.4 “I allow you, monks, when you are ordaining, to explain four resources[16]: that going forth is on account of meals of scraps; in this respect effort is to be made by you for life. (These are) extra acquisitions: a meal for an Order, a meal for a special person, an invitation, ticket-food, (food given) on a day of the waxing or waning of the moon, on an Observance day, or the day after an Observance day.[17] That going forth is on account of rag-robes; in this respect effort is to be made by you for life. (These are) extra acquisitions: (robes made of) linen, cotton, silk, wool, coarse hemp, canvas.[18] That going forth is on account of a lodging at the root of a tree; in this respect effort is to be made by you for life. (These are) extra acquisitions: a dwelling-place, a curved house,[19] a long house,[20] a mansion,[21] a cave.[22] That going forth is on account of ammonia as a medicine; in this respect effort is to be made by you for life. (These are) extra acquisitions: ghee, fresh butter, oil, honey, molasses.[23]

Told is the Fifth Portion for Repeating: on what is due to a Preceptor.

Footnotes and references:

1.

paṇāmetuṃ.

2.

For use of singular, where we should use the plural, cf. BD.3.364, BD.3.367, BD.3.369. Here the meaning is that each of several preceptors dismissed the particular monk who shared his cell.

3.

bhāvanā. Vin-a.982 explains by mettabhāvanā, development of amity.

4.

alaṃ, enough.

6.

adhikāra.

7.

kaṭacchubhikkhā, alms given with a ladle to a monk (cf. Thag.934, Mil.9); contrasted with ticket-food and the gifts of robes, etc., at Dhp-a.1.379, and with a “great gift”, mahādāna, given to a body of monks at Pv.2.9.56–Pv.2.9.58.

8.

sappurisa. Cf. Vin.3.7.

9.

Cf. SN.ii.272.

10.

ñatticatuttha. See Kd.9.3.4–Kd.9.3.9, and Dutt, Early Buddhist Monachism, p.150.

12.

ullumpatu, meaning according to Vin-a.984 “having made me arise from what is bad may they establish me in what is good; or, having raised me from the status of a novice may they establish me in the status of a monk ”. Cf. below, BD.4.122, and Vin-a.1033. See also A.K. Coomaraswamy, Some Pali Words, Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, Vol.4, No.2, p.145, where he takes ullumpatu as meaning “extract” (me from all evil).

15.

Khīyittha; cf. khīyanti at BD.2.236, n.1, n.2.

16.

nissaya, cf. Vin.1.96. Nissaya is something which you depend upon, which supplies you, a source of supply. Not to be confused with the formal act called nissaya, referred to at Vin.1.49 (BD.4.66, above), which is an act placing someone under guidance, giving him help.

17.

For last four, cf. BD.2.313–BD.2.314 and notes.

18.

See BD.2.7, BD.2.143 and notes.

19.

aḍḍhayoga. Commentaries speak of it as supaṇṇavaṅkageha (see Pali-English Dictionary), as garuḷasaṇṭhānapāsāda (see Critical Pali Dictionary), and as suvaṇṇavaṅgageha (see Vinaya Texts i.173, n.1). It is possible that the curve refers only to the roof, curved upwards perhaps at the ends, like some forms of domestic architecture in present-day India, and this is the reason for the aḍḍha, half: that in some respect the building is half and not entirely curved. At Vin.2.172 it is said that repairs may be made to an aḍḍhayoga during a period of seven or eight years.

20.

pāsāda, see BD.2.16, n.5.

21.

hammiya, see BD.2.16, n.6.

22.

guha. These five are the five lenāni, abodes, allowed at Vin.2.146; allowed at Vin.1.107, as the site for an uposatha hall; at Vin.1.239 as the site for kappiyabhūmi, a place for what is allowable, an outhouse; at Vin.1.284 as the site for a store-room—in the last three cases the sites are to be agreed upon by the Order.

23.

Cf. BD.1.133, BD.2.342. At BD.2.131 these five medicines may be used by ill monks.

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