Vinaya Pitaka (3): Khandhaka

by I. B. Horner | 2014 | 386,194 words | ISBN-13: 9781921842160

The English translation of the Khandhaka: the second book of the Pali Vinaya Pitaka, one of the three major ‘baskets’ of Therevada canonical literature. It is a collection of various narratives. The English translation of the Vinaya-pitaka (third part, khandhaka) contains many Pali original words, but transliterated using a system similar to the I...

Allowance for the first seat, etc.

Kd.16.6.1 Then the Lord, having stayed at Vesālī for as long as he found suiting,[1] set out on tour for Sāvatthī. Now at that time monks who were pupils of the group of six monks, having gone BD.5.225 along in front of the Order of monks with the Awakened One at its head, took possession of dwelling-places, they took possession of sleeping places, saying: “This will be for our preceptors, this will be for our teachers, this will be for us.” Then the venerable Sāriputta, having gone along close behind the Order of monks with the Awakened One at its head, not being able to get a sleeping place—the dwelling-places being taken possession of, the sleeping places being taken possession of—sat down at the root of a certain tree. Then the Lord, getting up during the night towards morning, coughed. The venerable Sāriputta also coughed.

“Who is there?”

“It is I, Lord, Sāriputta.”

“Why are you, Sāriputta, sitting here?” Then the venerable Sāriputta told this matter to the Lord.[2]

Kd.16.6.2 Then the Lord on this occasion, in this connection, having had the Order of monks convened, questioned the monks, saying: “Is it true, as is said, monks, Vin.2.161 that monks who are pupils … ‘… this will be for us’?”

“It is true, Lord.” The Awakened One, the Lord rebuked them, saying:

“How, monks, can these foolish men, having gone along in front of … saying ‘… this will be for us’? It is not, monks, for pleasing those who are not (yet) pleased …” And having rebuked them, having given reasoned talk, he addressed the monks, saying:

“Who, monks, is worthy of the best seat, the best water[3] (for washing), the best alms?” Some monks spoke thus: “Whoever, Lord, has gone forth from a noble family, he is worthy of the best … alms.” Some monks spoke thus: “Whoever, Lord, has gone forth from a brahmin family … from a householder’s family … Whoever, Lord, knows the suttantas[4] … is an expert on discipline … is a teacher of dhamma … is possessed of the first meditation[5] … is possessed of the second meditation … is possessed of the third meditation … is possessed of the fourth meditation BD.5.226 … is a stream winner … a once-returner … a non-returner … one perfected … a threefold wisdom man … a sixfold superknowledge man, he is worthy of the best seat, the best water (for washing), the best alms.”

Kd.16.6.3 Then the Lord addressed the monks, saying: “Formerly,[6] monks, there used to be a large banyan on a slope of the Himalayas. Three friends lived near it: a partridge, a monkey and a bull-elephant. These lived courteous, deferential, polite[7] to one another. Then, monks, it occurred to these friends: ‘Now let us find out which of us is the eldest by birth. We should respect, revere, reverence, honour him, and we should abide by his advice.’ Then, monks, the partridge and the monkey asked the bull-elephant: ‘You, friend, what long-ago thing do you remember?’

“‘When I, friends, was young I used to pass over this banyan keeping it between my thighs, and the topmost shoots brushed against my belly. This, friends, is a long-ago thing that I remember.’

“Then, monks, the partridge and the bull-elephant asked the monkey: ‘You, friend, what long-ago thing do you remember?’

“‘When I, friends, was young, having sat down on the ground, I used to eat the topmost shoots of this banyan. This, friends, is a long-ago thing that I remember.’

“Then, monks, the monkey and the bull-elephant asked the partridge: ‘You, friend, what long-ago thing do you remember?’

“‘Friends, in a certain open space there was a great banyan. I, having eaten one of its fruits, relieved myself in that open space, and this banyan has grown from that. So I, friends, am the eldest by birth’. Vin.2.162

“Then, monks, the monkey and the bull-elephant spoke thus to the partridge: ‘You, friend, are the eldest of us by birth. We will respect, revere, reverence, honour you and we will abide by your advice.’

“Then, monks, the partridge caused the monkey and the bull-elephant to undertake the five moral habits and himself followed the observance of the five moral habits. They, BD.5.227 having lived courteous, deferential, polite to one another, at the breaking up of the body after dying arose in a happy bourn, a heaven world. This, monks, came to be known as the ‘Partridge Brahma-faring.’[8]

“Those who reverence the old—
those men are skilled in dhamma,
Worthy of praise here and now
and a happy bourn here-after.

Kd.16.6.4 “Well then, monks, if animals, breathers, can live courteous, deferential, polite to one another, so do you, monks, let your light shine forth here so that you, gone forth in this dhamma and discipline which are well taught, live likewise courteous, deferential, polite to one another. It is not, monks, for pleasing those who are not (yet) pleased …” Having given reasoned talk, he addressed the monks, saying:

“I allow, monks, greeting, rising up for, joining the palms in salutation, proper homage, the best seat, the best water (for washing), the best alms according to seniority. But, monks, what belongs to an Order should not be reserved according to seniority. Whoever should (so) reserve it, there is an offence of wrong-doing.

Persons not to be bowed to

Kd.16.6.5 “Monks, there are these ten who are not to be greeted: one ordained later is not to be greeted by one ordained earlier; one not ordained is not to be greeted; one belonging to a different communion (even) if he is more senior (yet) speaks what is not-dhamma is not to be greeted; a woman is not to be greeted; a eunuch … one under probation[9] … one who deserves to be sent back to the beginning[10] … one who deserves mānatta … one undergoing mānatta … one deserving rehabilitation is not to be greeted. These, ten, monks, are not to be greeted. These three, monks, are to be greeted: one ordained earlier is to be greeted by one ordained later; one belonging to a different communion if he is more senior and speaks what is dhamma is to be greeted; and, monks, a Truth-finder, a perfected one, a fully Self-awakened one[11] is to be greeted in the world with its devas, with its Māras, with its BD.5.228 Brahmās, by creatures with recluses and brahmins, with devas and mankind. These three, monks, are to be greeted.”

Rejection of reserved seating

Kd.16.7.1 Now at that time people prepared sheds for an Order, they prepared rugs, they prepared open spaces. Vin.2.163 Monks who were pupils of the group of six monks,[12] saying: “Only what belongs to an Order is not allowed according to seniority by the Lord, not what is made on purpose for it,” having gone along in front of the Order of monks with the Awakened One at its head, took possession of the sheds, took possession of the rugs, took possession of the open spaces, thinking: “This will be for our preceptors, this will be for our teachers, this will be for us.” Then the venerable Sāriputta, having gone along close behind the Order of monks with the Awakened One at its head, not having a chance to get an open space—the sheds being taken possession of, the rugs being taken possession of, the open spaces being taken possession of—sat down at the root of a certain tree. Then the Lord, getting up during the night towards morning, coughed. The venerable Sāriputta also coughed.

“Who is there?”

“It is I, Lord, Sāriputta.”

“Why are you, Sāriputta, sitting here?” Then the venerable Sāriputta told this matter to the Lord. Then the Lord on this occasion, in this connection, having had the Order of monks convened, questioned the monks, saying: “Is it true, as is said, monks, …?” … Having rebuked them, having given reasoned talk, he addressed the monks, saying:

Monks, even what is made on purpose for an Order should not be reserved according to seniority. Whoever should (so) reserve it, there is an offence of wrong-doing.

Allowance for what is displayed by householders

Kd.16.8.1 Now at that time in a refectory inside a house people appointed high and broad things to recline upon, that is to say:[13] a sofa,[14] a divan, a long-haired coverlet, a many-coloured coverlet, a white coverlet, a wool coverlet besprent with flowers, BD.5.229 a cotton quilt, a wool coverlet decorated with animals forms, a wool covering with hair on the upper side, a wool covering with hair at one side, a silken sheet studded with jewels, a sheet made with silk thread and studded with jewels, a dancer’s carpet, an elephant rug, a horse rug, a chariot rug, rugs of black antelope skins, a splendid sheeting of the hide of the kadali-deer, a sheet with an awning above, a couch with a red cushion at either end. Monks, being scrupulous, did not sit down on them.[15] They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow you, monks, except for the three: a sofa, a divan, a cotton quilt, to sit down on what is displayed by householders, but not to lie down on it.[16]


Now at that time in a refectory inside a house people appointed a couch and a chair, both covered up with cotton.[17] Monks, being scrupulous, did not sit down on them. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow you, monks, to sit down on what is displayed by householders, but not to lie down on it.

Appreciation for the Jetavana monastery

Kd.16.9.1 Then the Lord, walking on tour, in due course arrived at Sāvatthī. The Lord stayed there at Sāvatthī Vin.2.164 in the Jeta Grove in Anāthapiṇḍika’s monastery. Then the householder Anāthapiṇḍika approached the Lord; having approached, having greeted the Lord, he sat down at a respectful distance. As he was sitting down at a respectful distance the householder Anāthapiṇḍika spoke thus to the Lord: “Lord, may the Lord consent to a meal with me on the morrow together with the Order of monks.” The Lord consented by becoming silent. Then the householder Anāthapiṇḍika, having understood the Lord’s consent, rising from his seat departed keeping his right side towards him. Then the householder Anāthapiṇḍika, having had sumptuous foods, solid and soft, prepared towards the end of that night, had the time announced to the Lord, saying: “It is time, Lord, the meal is ready.” Then the Lord, having dressed in the morning, taking his bowl and robe, approached the dwelling of the householder Anāthapiṇḍika; BD.5.230 having approached, he sat down on the appointed seat together with the Order of monks. Then the householder Anāthapiṇḍika, having with his own hand served and satisfied the Order of monks with the Awakened One at its head with sumptuous foods, solid and soft, when the Lord had eaten and had withdrawn his hand from his bowl, sat down at a respectful distance. As he was sitting down at a respectful distance the householder Anāthapiṇḍika spoke thus to the Lord: “What line of conduct am I, Lord, to follow in regard to the Jeta Grove?”

“Well now, do you, householder, have the Jeta Grove prepared for (the use of) the Order of the four quarters,[18] present and to come.”

“Very well, Lord,” and the householder Anāthapiṇḍika, having answered the Lord in assent, had the Jeta Grove prepared for (the use of) the Order of the four quarters, present and to come.

Kd.16.9.2 Then the Lord thanked the householder Anāthapiṇḍika in these verses:[19]

“They ward off cold and heat and beasts of prey from there …
He, knowing that dhamma here, attains nibbāna, cankerless.” Vin.2.165

Then the Lord, having given thanks to the householder Anāthapiṇḍika in these verses, rising from his seat departed.

Reservation of a seat, etc.

Kd.16.10.1 Now at that time a certain chief minister who was a disciple of the Naked Ascetics had a meal for an Order. The venerable Upananda, the son of the Sakyans, having arrived after (the others) while the meal was yet unfinished, turned away the monk who was next to him,[20] and there was an uproar in the refectory. Then that chief minister … spread it about, saying: “How can these recluses, sons of the Sakyans, having arrived after (the others) turn away monks while a meal is yet unfinished so that there is an uproar in the refectory? Now, is it not possible, even sitting somewhere else, to eat BD.5.231 as much as one pleases?” Monks heard this chief minister as he … spread it about. Those who were modest monks … spread it about, saying: “How can the venerable Upananda, the son of the Sakyans, having arrived after (the others), turn away the monk who is next to him while the meal is yet unfinished so that there is an uproar in the refectory?” Then these monks told this matter to the Lord. He said:

“Is it true, as is said, that you, Upananda, having arrived … in the refectory?”

“It is true, Lord.” The Awakened One, the Lord rebuked him, saying:

How can you, foolish man, having arrived … in a refectory? It is not, foolish man, for pleasing those who are not (yet) pleased …” Having rebuked him, having given reasoned talk, he addressed the monks, saying:

Monks, a monk should not turn (another) away while a meal is yet unfinished. Whoever should turn (another) away, there is an offence of wrong-doing. If he turns (another) away who is invited (to the meal), he should be told, ‘Go and fetch water.’ If this is thus accomplished, that is good; if it is not accomplished, having swallowed lumps of boiled rice properly, his seat should be given to a senior monk. But this I say, monks: that not by any method should a seat be reserved for a senior monk. Whoever should reserve one, there is an offence of wrong-doing.


Kd.16.10.2 Now at that time the group of six monks turned ill monks away. The ill ones spoke thus: “We, your reverences, are not able to get up, we are ill.” Saying, “We will turn the venerable ones away,” having taken hold of them, having turned them away, they let go (of them) while they were standing. The ill ones, on being let go of, fell down. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Monks, one who is ill should not be turned away. Whoever should turn him away, there is an offence of wrong-doing.


Now at that time the group of six Vin.2.166 monks, saying: “We are ill, we are not to be turned away,” kept to the best sleeping places. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow you, monks, to give a suitable sleeping place to one who is ill.


Now at that time the group of six monks reserved lodgings BD.5.232 on (some slight) pretext.[21] They told this matter to the Lord He said: “Monks, a lodging should not be reserved on (some slight) pretext. Whoever should (so) reserve it, there is an offence of wrong-doing.


Kd.16.11.1 Now at that time the group of seventeen monks[22] were repairing[23] a large dwelling-place in the neighbourhood, thinking: ‘We will spend the rains here.’ The group of six monks saw the group of seventeen monks as they were repairing the dwelling-place, and seeing them, they spoke thus:

“Your reverences, the group of seventeen monks are repairing a dwelling-place. Come, we will turn them away.”

Some spoke thus: “Wait, your reverences, until they have repaired it; when it is repaired, we will turn them away.” Then the group of six monks spoke thus to the group of seventeen monks: “Go away, your reverences, the dwelling-place was obtained[24] by us.”

“Your reverences, should not this have been explained before, and we would have repaired another?”

“Your reverences, does not a dwelling-place belong to the Order?”

“Yes, your reverences, a dwelling-place belongs to the Order.”

“Go away, your reverences, the dwelling-place was obtained by us.”

“Your reverences, the dwelling-place is big; you stay, and we too will stay.”

“Go away, your reverences, the dwelling-place was obtained by us,” and angry, displeased, having taken them by the throat, they threw them out. These being thrown out, wept. Monks spoke thus:

“Why do you, your reverences, weep?”

“Your reverences, this group of six monks, angry, displeased, threw us out of a dwelling-place belonging to the Order.” Those who were modest monks looked down upon, criticised, spread it about, saying: “How can this group of BD.5.233 six monks, angry, displeased, throw out monks from a dwelling-place belonging to an Order?” Then these monks told this matter to the Lord. He said:

“Is it true, as is said, monks, that the group of six monks, angry, displeased, threw out monks from a dwelling-place belonging to an Order?”

“It is true, Lord.”[25] Having rebuked them, having given reasoned talk, he addressed the monks, saying:

Monks, a monk should not be thrown out of a dwelling-place belonging to an Order by one who is angry, displeased. Whoever (such) should throw him out should be dealt with according to the rule.[26] I allow you, monks, to assign[27] lodgings.

Agreement for an assigner of lodgings

Kd.16.11.2 Then it occurred to the monks: “Now by whom should lodgings be assigned?”

They told this matter to the Lord. Vin.2.167 He said: “I allow you, monks, to agree upon a monk endowed with five qualities as assigner of lodgings:[28] one who would not follow a wrong course[29] through desire, one who would not follow a wrong course through hatred, one who would not follow a wrong course through stupidity, one who would not follow a wrong course through fear, and one who would know what is taken and what is not taken. And thus, monks, should he be agreed upon: First, a monk should be asked. Having asked him, the Order should be informed by an experienced, competent monk, saying: ‘Honoured sirs, let the Order listen to me. If it seems right to the Order, the Order should agree upon the monk So-and-so as assigner of lodgings. This is the motion. Honoured sirs, let the Order listen to me. The Order is agreeing upon the monk So-and-so as assigner of lodgings. If the agreement upon the monk So-and-so as assigner of lodgings is pleasing to the venerable ones, they should be silent; he to whom it is not pleasing should speak. The monk So-and-so is agreed upon by the Order as assigner BD.5.234 of lodgings. It is pleasing to the Order, therefore it is silent. Thus do I understand this’.”

Kd.16.11.3 Then it occurred to the monks who were the assigners of lodgings: “Now, how should the lodgings be assigned?” They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow you, monks, first to count the monks; having counted the monks, to count the sleeping places;[30] having counted the sleeping places, to assign according to the accommodation for sleeping places.[31] Assigning according to the accommodation for sleeping places (some) sleeping places were left over.[32]I allow you, monks, to assign according to the accommodation in dwelling-places.” Assigning according to the accommodation in dwelling-places (some) dwelling-places were left over. “I allow you, monks, to assign according to the accommodation in cells.[33] Assigning according to the accommodation in cells (some) cells were left over. “I allow you, monks, to give an additional share[34] also.

When an additional share had been occupied another monk arrived. “It need not be given (to him if the occupier) is not willing.”[35]


Now at that time monks assigned lodgings to one who was standing outside a boundary. They told this matter to the Lord. He said; “Monks, a lodging should not be assigned to one standing outside a boundary. Whoever should (so) assign it, there is an offence of wrong-doing.


Now at that time monks, having occupied lodgings, reserved them for all time. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Monks, having occupied a lodging, it should not be reserved for all time. Whoever should reserve it (thus), there is an offence of wrong-doing. I allow you, monks, to reserve BD.5.235 it for the three months of the rains but not to reserve it for the dry season.[36]

Kd.16.11.4 Then it occurred to the monks: “Now, how many (times for) the assignment of lodgings are there?” They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Monks, there are these three (times for) the assignment of lodgings: the earlier,[37] the later,[38] the intervening.[39] The earlier on which they are to be assigned is the day following the full moon of Āsāḷha; the later on which they are to be assigned is the month following the full moon of Āsāḷha; the intervening on which they are to be assigned is the day following the Invitation, with reference to the next rains-residence. These, monks, are the three (times for) the assignment of lodgings.”

The Second Portion for Repeating. Vin.2.168

Footnotes and references:

1.

For the incident related here, cf. Ja.no.37.

2.

Cf. a similar passage at Vin.4.16.

3.

aggodakaṃ, explained by dakkhiṇodaka at Vin-a.1221 = MN-a.i.145. Cf. MN.i.28, MN.ii.204.

4.

With this and the next two items compare a similar list at Vin.3.159.

5.

With this list to the end, cf. Vin.4.24.

6.

This episode forms the Tittirajātaka, Ja.no.37.

8.

This sentence is quoted at DN-a.i.178.

9.

See Kd.12.1.2.

10.

See Kd.13.15.

11.

Cf. AN.ii.34, Iti p.87f.

12.

As in Kd.16.6.1.

13.

List as at Kd.5.10.4. See BD.4.256 for notes

14.

Definition of āsandi at Thag-a.i.137 is that it is a long-legged four-cornered chair upon which it is possible to sit but not to lie.

15.

Made an offence of wrong-doing at Kd.5.10.5 to use any of these things.

17.

tūlonaddha. Cf. onaddhamañca onaddhapīṭha at Kd.16.2.7, and Vin.2.270. Cf. also Vin.1.194.

19.

As at Kd.16.1.5 above and Ja.i.93.

20.

I.e. in the procession for alms. Text reads here and at Vin.4.234 anantavika which Vinaya Texts iii.198, n.4 says “is a misprint” for ānantarika. Cf. Vin.1.321.

21.

lesakappa. Vin-a.1222 says for a small thing, nothing more than a headache.

22.

As at Bu-Pc.17. Translated at BD.2.250–BD.2.251, q.v. for notes.

23.

paṭisaṃkharoti, restore, repair, mend.

24.

pāpuṇāti.

25.

Cūḷavagga and Pācittiya versions proceed differently from here.

27.

gāhetuṃ.

28.

Senāsanagāhāpaka; cf. pattagāhāpaka and see BD.2.122, n.1. To the end of Kd.16.11.2 is the same as the passage at Vin.3.246–7 (BD.2.122) dealing with the assigner of bowls.

30.

Vin-a.1223 calls these the places for couches.

31.

seyyaggena. Vin-a.1223 explains by seyyaparicchedena, by the space, range, and speaks of each monk having a place for a couch. Cf. bhikkhaggena, at Kd.12.1.1, apparently meaning the number of monks.

32.

ussādiyiṃsu. Cf. Vin.4.99 and BD.2.364, n.1.

33.

pariveṇa. As pointed out at Vinaya Texts iii.203, n.1 a “cell” here appears to be a unit larger than a dwelling-place. But I do not think that this is necessarily the case. Probably not more than one monk slept in a cell, but a dwelling-place might have been used by two at least. Vin-a.1223 in explaining anubhāga, says that if there are too few monks (for the available space) two or three cells should be given to each monk.

34.

anubhāga.

35.

na akāmā as at Kd.8.24.4.

36.

Cf. Kd.16.17.2, below.

37.

See Kd.3.2.2. These two dates are the same as the earlier and the later periods for entering on the rains-residence.

38.

See Kd.3.2.2. These two dates are the same as the earlier and the later periods for entering on the rains-residence.

39.

The “intervening,” antarāmuttaka, does not refer to a date between these earlier and later times, but to the time between the rains-residence of one year and the next. Lodgings would become vacant at the end of the rains (see above Kd.16.11.3) and then assignment for the next rains could take place. It seems that the first two are compulsory, the third optional, see Vin-a.1223.