Vinaya Pitaka (1): The Analysis of Monks’ Rules (Bhikkhu-vibhanga)

by I. B. Horner | 2014 | 345,334 words | ISBN-13: 9781921842160

The English translation of the Bhikkhu-vibhanga: the first part of the Suttavibhanga, which itself is the first book of the Pali Vinaya Pitaka, one of the three major ‘baskets’ of Therevada canonical literature. It is a collection of rules for Buddhist monks. The English translation of the Vinaya-pitaka (first part, bhikkhu-vibhanga) contains many...

Monks’ Expiation (Pācittiya) 2

Bu-Pc.2.1.1 BD.2.171 … at Sāvatthī in the Jeta Grove in Anāthapiṇḍika’s monastery. Now at that time, the group of six monks, quarrelling with well behaved monks, insulted the well behaved monks; they jeered at them, they scoffed at them about birth and name and clan and work and craft and disease and distinguishing mark and passion[1] and attainment[2] and low mode of address.[3] Those who were modest monks looked down upon, criticised, spread it about, saying:

“How can this group of six monks, quarrelling with well behaved monks, Vin.4.5 insult the well behaved monks? How can they jeer at them, scoff at them about birth … low mode of address?” Then these monks told this matter to the lord. He said:

“Is it true, as is said, that you, monks, quarrelling with well behaved monks, insulted the well behaved monks, jeered at them … about low mode of address?”

“It is true, lord,” they said.

The enlightened one, the lord, rebuked them, saying: “How can you, foolish men, quarrelling with well behaved monks, insult the well behaved monks, jeer BD.2.172 at them, scoff at them about … low mode of address? It is not, foolish men, for pleasing those who are not (yet) pleased …” And having rebuked them and given dhamma-talk, he addressed the monks, saying:


Bu-Pc.2.1.2 “Formerly, monks, at Takkasilā,[4] Nandivisāla was the name of an ox belonging to a certain brahmin. Then, monks, Nandivisāla, the ox, spoke thus to the brahmin: ‘Brahmin, you go, bet a thousand[5] with the great merchant,[6] saying: “My ox will draw a hundred carts tied together.”’ Then, monks, that brahmin made a bet of a thousand with the great merchant, saying: ‘My ox will draw a hundred carts tied together.’ Then, monks, that brahmin having tied together a hundred carts, having yoked Nandivisāla, the ox, spoke thus: ‘Go, hornless one,[7] let the hornless one pull them along.’[8] Then, monks, Nandivisāla, the ox, stood just where he was. Then, monks, that brahmin, having suffered the loss[9] of a thousand, was overcome by grief.[10] Then, monks, Nandivisāla, the ox, spoke thus to the brahmin: ‘Why are you, brahmin, overcome by grief?’

‘Because I, good sir,[11] suffered the loss of a thousand through you.’

‘But why do you, brahmin, bring me, who am not hornless, into disgrace with words of deceit?[12] Brahmin, you go, bet two thousand with the great merchant, saying: “My ox will draw a hundred carts tied together,” but do not bring me, who am not hornless, into disgrace with words of deceit.’

Then, monks, that brahmin bet two thousand with the great merchant, saying: ‘My ox will draw a hundred carts tied together.’ Then, monks, that brahmin having BD.2.173 tied together a hundred carts, having yoked Nandivisala, the ox, spoke thus: ‘Go, good creature,[13] let the good creature pull them along.’ Then, monks, Nandivisala, the ox, drew the hundred carts tied together.

Speak only words of kindness,[14]
never words unkind.
For him who spoke him fair, he moved
A heavy load, and brought him wealth, for love. Vin.4.6

At that time, monks, jeering and scoffing were not liked by me, so however could jeering and scoffing become liked now? It is not, monks, for pleasing those who are not (yet) pleased … And thus, monks, this rule of training should be set forth:

In insulting speech[15] there is an offence of expiation.”


Bu-Pc.2.2.1 Insulting speech means: he insults in ten ways: about birth and name and clan and work and craft and disease find distinguishing mark and passion and attainment and mode of address.

Birth means: there are two kinds of birth: low birth and high birth. Low birth means: birth as (a member of) a despised class,[16] birth as a bamboo-plaiter,[17] birth as a hunter,[18] birth as a cartwright,[19] birth as a refuse- BD.2.174 scavenger[20]—this means low birth. High birth means: birth as a noble, birth as a brahmin—this means high birth.

Name means: there are two (kinds of) name: low name and high name. Low name means: Avakaṇṇaka,[21] Javakaṇṇaka, Dhaniṭṭhaka, Saviṭṭhaka, Kulavaḍḍhaka, or what is disdained,[22] disregarded,[23] scorned,[24] treated with contempt,[25] despised[26] in these districts—this means low name. High name means: connected with the enlightened one,[27] connected with dhamma, connected with the Order, or what is not disdained, not disregarded, not scorned, not treated with contempt, what is esteemed in these districts—this means high name.

Clan[28] means: there are two (kinds of) clan: low clan BD.2.175 and high clan. Low clan means: a Kosiya clan,[29] a Bharadvāja clan,[30] or what is disdained, disregarded, scorned, treated with contempt, despised in these districts—this means low clan. High clan means: a Gotama[31] clan, a Moggallāna clan, a Kaccāyana clan,[32] a Vāsiṭṭha clan,[33] or what is not disdained … what is esteemed in these districts—this means high clan.

Work means: there are two (kinds of) work: low work and high work. Low work means: work of a store-room (keeper),[34] work of a flower-scavenger,[35] or what is disdained … despised in these districts—this means low work. High work means: agriculture,[36] trade,[37] cattle-keeping,[38] or what is not disdained … what is esteemed in these districts[39]—this means high work.

BD.2.176 Craft[40] means: there are two (kinds of) craft: low craft and high Vin.4.7 craft. Low craft means: the craft of the basket-maker,[41] the potter’s craft, the weaver’s craft, the leather-worker’s[42] craft, the barber’s craft, or what is disdained … despised in these districts—this means low craft. High craft means: reckoning on the fingers,[43] calculation,[44] BD.2.177 writing,[45] what is not disdained … what is esteemed in these districts—this means high craft.

All diseases are low, except that diabetes[46] is a high (kind of) disease.

Distinguishing mark[47] means: there are two (kinds of) distinguishing mark: low distinguishing mark and high distinguishing mark. Low distinguishing mark means: (being) very tall, very short, very dark, very fair—this means low distinguishing mark. High distinguishing mark means: not (being) very tall, very short, very dark, very fair—this means high distinguishing mark.

All passions[48] are low.

All attainments[49] are low, except that stream-attainment and higher attainment[50] are high.

Mode of address[51] means: there are two modes of BD.2.178 address: low mode of address and high mode of address. Low mode of address means: he says, “You are a camel, you are a ram, you are an ox, you are an ass, you are an animal, you are (destined) for a state of woe,[52] a good bourn is not for you, but a bad bourn is to be expected for you,” or by adding ya or bha (to the end of his name),[53] or by calling him male and female[54]—this means low mode of address. High mode of address means: he says, “You are learned, you are experienced, you are wise, you are clever, you are a speaker of dhamma,[55] a bad bourn is not for you, but a good bourn is to be expected for you”—this means high mode of address.


Bu-Pc.2.2.2 If one who is ordained, desiring to jeer at, desiring to scoff at, desiring to shame[56] one who is ordained speaks of a low thing—(a member of) a despised class, a bamboo-plaiter, a hunter, a cartwright, a refuse-scavenger, with low words and says: “You are (a member of a) despised class, you are a bamboo-plaiter, you are a hunter, you are a cartwright, you are a refuse-scavenger,” for each sentence there is an offence of expiation.

If one who is ordained, desiring to jeer at … desiring to shame one who is ordained speaks of a high thing—a noble, a brahmin, with low words and says: “You are (a member of) a despised class … you are a refuse-scavenger,” for each sentence there is an offence of expiation.

If one who is ordained, desiring to jeer at … desiring to shame one who is ordained speaks of a low thing—(a member of) a despised class … a refuse-scavenger, with high words and says: “You are a noble, you are BD.2.179 a brahmin,” for each sentence there is an offence of expiation.

If one who is ordained, desiring to jeer at … desiring to shame one who is ordained speaks of a high thing—a noble, a brahmin, with high words Vin.4.8 and says: “You are a noble, you are a brahmin,” for each sentence there is an offence of expiation.

If one who is ordained, desiring to jeer at … desiring to shame one who is ordained speaks of a low thing—an Avakaṇṇaka, a Javakaṇṇaka, a Dhaniṭṭhaka, a Saviṭṭhaka, a Kulavaḍḍhaka, with low words, for each sentence there is an offence of expiation.

If one who is ordained, desiring … to shame one who is ordained speaks of a high thing—a Buddharakkhita, a Dhammarakkhita, a Saṅgharakkhita[57] with low words and says: “You are an Avakaṇṇaka … you are a Kulavaḍḍhaka,” for each sentence there is an offence of expiation.

If one who is ordained, desiring … to shame one who is ordained speaks of a low thing with high words … speaks of a high thing with high words … for each sentence there is an offence of expiation.

If one is ordained, desiring … to shame … speaks of a low thing—a Kosiya, a Bhāradvāja with low words … speaks of a high thing—a Gotama, a Moggallāna, a Kaccāyana, a Vāsiṭṭha with low words … speaks of a low thing with high words … speaks of a high thing with high words … there is an offence of expiation.

If one who is ordained, desiring … to shame … speaks of a low thing—a store-room keeper, a flower-scavenger with low words … speaks of a high thing—a cultivator,[58] a trader,[59] a cattle-keeper[60] with low words BD.2.180 … speaks of a low thing with high words … speaks of a high thing with high words … there is an offence of expiation.

If one who is ordained, desiring … to shame … speaks of a low thing—a basket-maker, a potter, a weaver, a leather-worker, a barber with low words … if he speaks of a high thing—a reckoner,[61] an arithmetician,[62] a scribe[63] with low words … speaks of a low thing with high words … speaks of a high thing with high words … there is an offence of expiation.

If one who is ordained, desiring … to shame … speaks of a low thing—one afflicted with leprosy, with boils, with eczema, with consumption, with epilepsy[64] with low words … if he speaks of a high thing—one afflicted with diabetes with low words … if he speaks of a low thing with high words … if he speaks of a high thing with high words … there is an offence of expiation.

If one who is ordained, desiring … to shame … speaks of a low thing—(being) very tall, very short, very dark, very fair, with low words—speaks of a high thing—not (being) very tall, not very short, Vin.4.9 not very dark, not very fair with low words … speaks of a low thing with high words … speaks of a high thing with high words … of expiation.

If one who is ordained, desiring … to shame … speaks of a low thing … of one obsessed[65] by passion, of one obsessed by hatred, of one obsessed BD.2.181 by confusion with low words … speaks of a high thing—of one without passion, of one without hatred, of one without confusion with low words … speaks of a low thing with high words … speaks of a high thing with high words … of expiation.

If one who is ordained, desiring … to shame … speaks of a low thing with low words—of being guilty of an offence of defeat,[66] of being guilty of an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order, of being guilty of a grave offence, of being guilty of an offence of expiation, of being guilty of an offence which ought to be confessed, of being guilty of an offence of wrong-doing, of being guilty of an offence of wrong speech … speaks of a high thing—a stream-attainer with low words … speaks of a low thing with high words … speaks of a high thing with high words … there is an offence of expiation.

If one who is ordained, desiring … to shame … speaks of a low thing—a camel, a ram, an ox, an ass, an animal, one (destined) for a state of woe, and says, “You are a camel … you are (destined) for a state of woe, a good bourn is not for you but a bad bourn is to be expected for you,” for each sentence there is an offence of expiation.

If one who is ordained, desiring … to shame … speaks of a high thing—a learned person, an experienced, wise, clever person, one who is a speaker of dhamma with low words, and says, “You are a camel … but a bad bourn is to be expected for you,” for each sentence there is an offence of expiation.

If one who is ordained, desiring … to shame … speaks of a low thing—a camel … one (destined) for a state of woe with high words, and says, “You are learned, you are experienced, you are wise, you are clever, you are a speaker of dhamma, a bad bourn is not for you but a good bourn is to be expected for you,” for each sentence there is an offence of expiation.

If one who is ordained, desiring … to shame … BD.2.182 speaks of a high thing—a learned person … and says, “… but a good bourn is to be expected for you,” for each sentence there is an offence of expiation.


Bu-Pc.2.2.3 If one who is ordained, desiring … to shame one who is ordained, speaks thus, saying: “There are here some (members of) despised classes, bamboo-plaiters, hunters, cartwrights, refuse-scavengers,” for each sentence there is an offence of wrong-doing.

If one who is ordained, desiring … to shame … speaks thus, saying: “There are here some nobles and brahmins,” for each sentence there is an offence of wrong-doing.

If one who is ordained, desiring … to shame … Vin.4.10 speaks thus, saying: “There are here some Avakaṇṇakas, Javakaṇṇakas, Dhaniṭṭhakas, Saviṭṭhakas, Kulavaḍḍhakas … Buddharakkhitas, Dhammarakkhitas, SaṅgharakkhitasKosiyas, Bhāradvājas … Gotamas, Moggallānas, Kaccānas, Vāsiṭṭhas … store-room (keepers),[67] flower-scavengers … cultivators, traders, cattle-keepers … basket-makers, potters, weavers, leather-workers, barbers … reckoners, arithmeticians, scribes … those afflicted by leprosy, by boils, by eczema, by consumption, by epilepsy … those afflicted by diabetes … (those who are) very tall, very short, very dark, very fair … (those who are) not very tall, not very short, not very dark, not very fair … (those who are) obsessed by passion, obsessed by hatred, obsessed by confusion … (those who are) without passion, without hatred, without confusion … (those who are) guilty of an offence involving defeat … guilty of an offence of wrong speech … (those who are) stream-attainers … camels, rams, oxen, asses, animals, (those destined) for a state of woe, a good bourn is not for these, but a bad bourn is to be expected for these … learned, experienced, wise, clever people, speakers of dhamma, a bad bourn is not for these, but a good bourn is to be expected for these,” for each sentence there is an offence of wrong-doing.


Bu-Pc.2.2.4 BD.2.183 If one who is ordained, desiring … to shame one who has been ordained, speaks thus, saying: “What now if these are (members of) a despised class, bamboo-plaiters, hunters, cartwrights, refuse-scavengers?” … saying: “What now if these are learned, experienced, wise, clever people, speakers of dhamma?”, for each sentence there is an offence of wrong-doing.


Bu-Pc.2.2.5 If one who is ordained, desiring … to shame one who has been ordained, speaks thus, saying: “We are not (members of) a despised class, bamboo-plaiters, hunters, cartwrights, refuse-scavengers” … saying, “We are not learned, experienced, wise, clever people, speakers of dhamma, a bad bourn is not for us, but a good bourn is to be expected for us,” for each sentence there is an offence of wrong-doing.


Bu-Pc.2.2.6 If one who is ordained, desiring … to shame one who is not ordained,[68] speaks of a low thing with low words, of a high thing with low words, of a low thing with high words, of a high thing with high words, of a learned person, of an experienced, wise, clever person, of a speaker of dhamma, saying: “You are learned, you are experienced, you are wise, you are clever, you are a speaker of dhamma, a bad bourn is not for you but a good bourn is to be expected for you,” for each sentence there is an offence of wrong-doing.

If one who is ordained, desiring … to shame one who is not ordained, speaks thus: “There are here some members of low castes …, we are not learned people, experienced, wise, clever people, not speakers of dhamma, Vin.4.11 a bad bourn is not for us, but a good bourn is to be expected for us,” for each sentence there is an offence of wrong-doing.


Bu-Pc.2.2.7 If one who is ordained, not desiring to jeer at, not desiring to scoff at, not desiring to shame one who is BD.2.184 ordained, (but having) a fondness for joking, speaks of a low thing—of a (member of a) despised class, a bamboo-plaiter, a hunter, a cartwright, a refuse-scavenger with low words, and says: “You are (a member of) a despised class … you are a refuse-scavenger,” for each sentence there is an offence of wrong speech.

If one who is ordained, desiring not … to shame one who is ordained, (but having) a fondness for joking, speaks of a high thing—a noble, a brahmin with low words, and says: “You are (a member of) a despised class … you are a refuse-scavenger” … speaks of a low thing with high words … speaks of a high thing with high words—of a noble, a brahmin, and says: “You are a noble, you are a brahmin,” for each sentence there is an offence of wrong speech.

If one who is ordained, not desiring … to shame one who is ordained, (but having) a fondness for joking, speaks of a low thing with low words … speaks of a high thing with low words … speaks of a low thing with high words … speaks of a high thing with high words—of a learned person …” … but a good bourn is to be expected for you,” for each sentence there is an offence of wrong speech.

If one who is ordained, not desiring … to shame one who is ordained, (but having) a fondness for joking, speaks thus: “There are here some (members of a) despised class … we are not learned people, experienced, wise, clever people, we are not speakers of dhamma, a bad bourn is not for us, but a good bourn is to be expected for us,” for each sentence there is an offence of wrong speech.


Bu-Pc.2.2.8 If one who is ordained, not desiring … to shame one who is not ordained, (but having) a fondness for joking, speaks of a low thing with low words … of a high thing with low words … of a low thing with high words … of a high thing with high words—of a learned person … “… but a good bourn is to be expected for you,” for each sentence there is an offence of wrong speech.

BD.2.185 If one who is ordained, not desiring … to shame one who is not ordained, (but having) a fondness for joking, speaks thus: “There are here some (members of a) despised class … we are not learned people, experienced, wise, clever people, we are not speakers of dhamma, a bad bourn is not for us, but a good bourn is to be expected for us,” for each sentence there is an offence of wrong speech.


Bu-Pc.2.2.9 There is no offence if he is aiming at (explaining) the goal, if he is aiming at (explaining) dhamma, if he is aiming at (explaining) the teaching,[69] if he is mad, if he is the first wrong-doer.

The Second

Footnotes and references:

1.

kilesa.

2.

āpatti.

3.

akkosa. Critical Pali Dictionary gives “abuse, scolding, reviling,” and Pali-English Dictionary “shouting at, abuse, insult, reproach, reviling.” But from the distinction drawn by the Old Commentary, below, BD.2.177, between hīna and ukkaṭṭha akkosa, these words must mean the ways in which you accost or address a person, either with insult or with respect. That the word akkosa came to mean “cursing” is evident from the compound akkosavatthu, (the ten) ways of cursing, referred to at Ja.1.191, which is founded on this Vinaya story. These ways are also referred to at Vin-a.625; Snp-a.364, Snp-a.467; and Dhp-a.1.212 = Snp-a.342, where ten curses are enumerated. These vary somewhat from those given below in the Old Commentary.

4.

Modern Taxila. Story given again, with slight variations, at Ja.1.191.

5.

“Pieces,” probably kahāpaṇas to be understood.

6.

seṭṭhi, see above, BD.2.42, n.4.

7.

kūṭa, not horned, therefore harmless. Jātaka Translation has “rascal.” Such maimed beasts had not a good reputation for work, Vism.268, Vism.269. Kūṭa also means false, deceitful.

8.

vahassu.

9.

parājita, with instrumental

10.

pajjhāyi.

11.

bho.

12.

kūṭavāda, or “words about being hornless.”

13.

bhadra.

14.

manāpa. Ja.1.193 reads manuñña throughout. This seems to be a later word, see Pali-English Dictionary references.

15.

omasavāde.

16.

caṇḍāla. These five kinds of birth occur again at e.g. MN.ii.152, MN.ii.183, MN.iii.169, SN.i.93, AN.i.107, AN.ii.85, Pp.51.

17.

Or basket-weaver, veṇa. Vin-a.738 says veṇajātī ti tacchakajāti veṇukārajāti (with variant reading veḷu°), birth as a veṇa means birth as a carpenter, birth as a bamboo-worker. At Ja.5.306, veṇī is explained by tacchikā, a female carpenter. SN-a.i.162 = AN-a.2.175 paraphrase vena by vilīvakāra, a worker in bamboo, basket-maker. The Questions of King Milinda 2.211 (Sacred Books of the East) has “savages,” and see loc. cit., n.2.

18.

nesāda. Vin-a.738 = SN-a.i.162 = AN-a.2.175 = Pu-a.227 explain by migaluddaka, a hunter or trapper. The Questions of King Milinda, 2.211 has “wild men of the woods,” with note that Sinhalese simply says “Weddahs, the well-known, interesting wild men of Ceylon.”

19.

rathakāra, or carriage builder, chariot maker. Vin-a.738 = SN-a.i.162 = AN-a.2.175 = Pu-a.227 = Ja.4.174 explain by cammakāra, usually a leather-worker. Cammakāra occurs below, BD.2.176, among the low crafts, while rathakāra is among the low kinds of birth; but there seems to be no correspondence between the kinds of low birth and the kinds of low craft, such as would enable one to say that a man of such-and-such a birth follows such-and-such a trade or craft. See Dialogues of the Buddha 1.100, Dialogues of the Buddha 1.102, which distinguishes those who are low by birth and those who follow low occupations, and which draws the inference that there “was no hard-and-fast line, determined by birth, for those who gained their living by these trades.” Mil.331, in a long list of people, gives both rathakāra and cammakāra, as though these represented two different types of occupation. I therefore think that at all events at some time these two words had two distinct meanings.

20.

pukkusa. Vin-a.738 = SN-a.i.162 = AN-a.2.175 paraphrase as pupphacchaḍḍaka, literally a scavenger of flowers, see below, BD.2.175. On Pukkusa as a proper name see Dialogues of the Buddha 2.141, n., and Dictionary of Pali Proper Names Sometimes, as at AN.i.162, AN.iii.214, we get caṇḍāla-pukkusa. For note on the insertion of the three other kinds of birth (veṇakāra, nesāda, rathakāra) between caṇḍāla and pukkusa see Dialogues of the Buddha 1.100. Here also the hereditary nature of these, as occupations, is discussed. It is clear that none of the five is included under sūdra, the lowest of the four vaṇṇa (colour, caste) or kula (family), from which the caste-system probably derived.

21.

These five are, according to Vin-a.738, the names of slaves. Kulavaḍḍhaka look as though they were of caste on one side only, kula + aḍḍhaka, thus not of good family; or that they were low caste people trying to become higher caste people, kula + vaḍḍhaka.

22.

oññāta.

23.

avaññāta.

24.

hīlita.

25.

paribhūta.

26.

acittikata.

27.

buddha- dhamma- saṅgha-patisaṃyutta, not Buddharakkhita, etc., as at BD.2.179 below and Vin.3.169.

28.

gotta.

29.

A brahmin clan; see Dictionary of Pali Proper Names

30.

Another brahmin clan; see Dictionary of Pali Proper Names

31.

Cf. DN.ii.3. These four clan or family names occur at Vin.3.169.

32.

See Dictionary of Pali Proper Names

33.

See Dictionary of Pali Proper Names

34.

koṭṭhakakamma. Vin-a.739 paraphrases as tacchakakamma, carpenter’s work. At Ja.5.306 veṇī, female bamboo-worker, is explained by tacchikā. Koṭṭhaka is usually the store-room itself.

35.

pupphacchaḍḍakakamma, the work of the person whose duty it was to remove dead flowers which had been offered at shrines but not removed by the devotees themselves. It was a low hereditary trade to which, e.g., Sunīta belonged, see Psalms of the Bretheren, p.271 and verse 620, where he says that he was born in a low family (nīca kula).

36.

kasi. This and the two following occur at MN.i.85, Mil.178. Kasikamma translated at Further Dialogues of the Buddha 1.60 “being an estate-agent.”

37.

vāṇijjā, translated at Further Dialogues of the Buddha 1.60 “purveyor,” and explained at MN-a.2.56 as trade on water and trade on land.

38.

Gorakkhā, translated at Further Dialogues of the Buddha 1.60 “herd-manager.” MN-a.2.56 explains it as “minding cows for self or others, there is work and livelihood by bartering (vikkaya, or selling) the five products of the cow,” while MN-a.3.435 = Snp-a.466 explains it by khettarakkha kasikamma, minding the fields, agriculture, and says that go is a name for paṭhavī, the earth. I see, however, no reason for adopting this interpretation here. These three types of work are mentioned at Pv.1.5.

39.

These examples of despised and esteemed work are not monks’ but lay-people’s work. This looks like a fragment of original Sakya “left in” from a time when the Founder had the lay-people in mind as well as monks and nuns.

40.

sippa, craft or occupation. Eight are mentioned at MN.i.85; another list is at Ud.31Ud.32. At DN.i.51 all the crafts, except the leather-worker’s, termed “low” by Vinaya above, are enumerated under ordinary (puthu) crafts. Here also are included those who follow the crafts of “calculation” and “counting on the fingers” (gaṇaka, muddika, see below, notes 4 and 5), termed “high crafts” above.

41.

naḷakāra, worker in reeds or rushes.

42.

cammakāra, see above, BD.2.173, n.7.

43.

muddā. Occurs, e.g., at DN.i.11 (with ganaṇā, among the wrong means of livelihood); MN.i.85 (with ganaṇā, among the sippāni); Ud.31 (with ganaṇā and, Ud.32, lekhā), Mil.3, Mil.59 (with ganaṇā and lekhā as sippāni), Mil.78, Mil.79 (with ganaṇā), Mil.178 (with lekhā). The exact meaning of muddā is uncertain. It has been translated at Dialogues of the Buddha 1.21 “counting on the fingers”; Further Dialogues of the Buddha 1.60 “clerk of the signet”; Minor Anthologies 2. (Sacred Books of the Buddhists viii.) 38 “craft of signs manual”; The Questions of King Milinda 1.6 “conveyancing.” Vin-a.739 = DN-a.95 explain by hatthamuddaganaṇā, which seems doubtful since in the texts referred to above muddā and ganaṇā are two separate things. The explanation given at MN-a.2.56 is the more probable: aṅguli-pabbesu saññaṃ ṭhapetvā hatthamuddā, establishing recognition at the finger-joints, there is muddā (reckoning, computing) by (using) the hands. See on muddā, Dialogues of the Buddha 1.21, n.4, and where it is explained as “arithmetic, using the joints or knuckles of the fingers as an aid to memory.” Mil.79 says that memory arises from muddā, as when “he knows from his training in lipi (? writing) that this syllable is to follow that syllable.” On muddā, see also Minor Anthologies 2.38, n.2, as a method of private bargaining in which the dealer and the merchant clasp each other’s hands, the merchant then making various recognised signs: “holding the joints of the dealer’s fingers, a certain number of fingers, or tapping on his palm.” See also The Questions of King Milinda 1.91, n.1. Cf. Mudrā as hand-gesture.

44.

ganaṇā. Word occurs, e.g., at DN.i.11, MN.i.85, Ud.31, Vin.1.77 = Vin.4.128, Mil.59, Mil.78; see previous note. According to Critical Pali Dictionary ganaṇā means “the counting (of numbers) in unbroken series,” in contradistinction to the last, as noticed by Rhys Davids, Dialogues of the Buddha 1.22, n.1. Vin-a.739 = DN-a.1.95 = MN-a.2.56 = Ud-a.205 explain by acchiddaka (variant readings acchinnaka-, acchindaka-) ganaṇā. At Vin.1.77 = Vin.4.128 both ganaṇā and lekhā are considered unsuitable occupations for the boy Upāli to study. At DN.i.11 and Ud.31Ud.32 muddā and ganaṇā are followed by saṅkhānā, reckoning, with lekhā coming next to this. See Sacred Books of the Buddhists 8.38 and notes, and The Questions of King Milinda 1.91, n.2.

45.

lekhā. Word occurs at Ud.32, Mil.59, Mil.178; see above, BD.2.176, n.4. Also at Vin.1.77 = Vin.4.128 (see previous note). At Vin.3.76 we find: “He praises by means of writing (lekhāya) means: if he cuts a writing there is a dukkaṭa offence for each syllable (akkharakkharāya),” while at Vin.4.305 there is no offence for a nun to learn what is written. Vin-a.739 explains by akkharatekhā, writing, tracing, scratching or engraving syllables, as on a piece of metal, wood, a leaf or clay; see Vin-a.452. Some such process was probably known in India before writing as we understand it. Ud-a.205 says that the craft of writing (lekhā-sippa) is “the craft of writing (likhana) syllables in various ways, or the knowledge of writing (likhā).” See BD.1.131, n.1. These sippāni, like the kammāni above, BD.2.175, were not intended to be followed by monks, and the distinction between “high” and “low” is probably mainly for the laity, although it gives the monks a guide as to the social standing of the laity.

46.

madhumeha. Pali-English Dictionary suggests diabetes, and it is so translated at GS.5.75.

47.

liṅga, or characteristic. Cf. Vin.3.169.

48.

kilesa.

49.

At Vin.2.93 sota- and sam-āpatti are called āpattis not subject to legal question. See Vinaya Texts iii.44, n. The play on the words āpatti, sot-āpatti, sam-āpatti cannot well be reproduced in English if we regard āpatti in its more secondary sense of “fault, transgression, offence,” as seems to be the usual meaning in Vinaya, and as the translators of DN.iii.212, AN.i.84, AN.i.94, Ds.1329 take it. When āpatti is combined with sota- and sam- it has the more primary meaning of acquiring, obtaining, entering into a relationship with. On āpatti as an offence, see Buddhist Psychological Ethics, 2nd edition, p.321.

50.

sam-āpatti. For note on the samāpattis see Buddhist Psychological Ethics, 2nd edition, p.321, n.

51.

See above, BD.2.171, n.3.

52.

nerayika.

53.

yakārena vā bhakārena vā—i.e., as a diminutive and therefore as a disparaging ending.

54.

kāṭakoṭacikā.

55.

Inclusion here is characteristic of the respect in which the dhamma-kaṭhika was held.

56.

maṅkuṃ kattukāmo. Cf. SN.v.74, Dhp.249, Vin.2.118, and Hardy, A.v., p.v.

57.

Cf. BD.1.292, and above, BD.2.174, which reads buddha- dhamma- saṅgha-paṭisaṃyutta.

58.

kassaka, or husbandman, ploughman; not as above, BD.2.175, agriculture or ploughing, kasi.

59.

vāṇija; not vāṇijjā, trading, trade, as above, BD.2.175.

60.

Presumably this, in the accusative gorakkhaṃ, is in the nominative gorakkha here, and not gorakkhā as above, BD.2.175.

61.

muddika, so translated at Dialogues of the Buddha 1.68. At DN.i.51 muddika is included under ordinary (puthu) crafts. Word occurs at SN.iv.376, translated KS.iv.267 “ready-reckoner.” SN-a.iii.113 defines as one who is good at computing by reckoning on the fingers. Above, BD.2.176, we had muddā.

62.

gaṇaka, or computer, accountant; also an ordinary craft at DN.i.51. Word also occurs at SN.iv.376, translated KS.iv.267 “accountant.” SN-a.iii.113 says it means one who is good at computing in unbroken series. Above, BD.2.176, we had gaṇanā.

63.

lekhaka, clerk or scribe, not mentioned at DN.i.51. But see Mil.42.

64.

These are all included in list of diseases at Vin.2.271, AN.v.110, Mnd.17, Mnd.47, Cnd.304.

65.

pariyuṭṭhita.

66.

Cf. Vin.3.164.

67.

koṭṭhakā; cf. above, BD.2.175, where we had koṭṭhakakamma.

68.

Kankhā-vitaraṇi, BD.2.83, says that here it is meant that nuns also are “not ordained.”

69.

= Vin.3.130 (BD.1.218) = Vin.4.277. Vin-a.740 “praising the goal.”

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