Kayotsarga, Kāyotsarga, Kaya-utsarga: 13 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Kayotsarga means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (śilpa)

Kayotsarga (कयोत्सर्ग) or Kayotsargasthānaka refers to the “erect posture”, and represents one of the two types of Sthānaka (standing poses), according to Ganapati Sthapati in his text Ciṟpa Cennūl, as defined according to texts dealing with śilpa (arts and crafs), known as śilpaśāstras.—In kayotsarga posture, the feet are placed together with the body erect and the arms hanging close to the body. The Gomateśvar image in the Jain tradition is a good example for this stance. The Hindu deities are not often found in this stance.

The kayotsarga posture (the feet are placed together, with the body held erect, the gaze direct, the arms hanging close to the body, fingers placed gracefully, and palms held close to the thigh) that is seen in iconography is not found in Bharatanatyam with a separate term but the same action is sometimes depicted while portraying the Gomateśvara icon.

Shilpashastra book cover
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Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

[«previous next»] — Kayotsarga in Jainism glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

Kāyotsarga (कायोत्सर्ग) or Kāyotsargapratimā represents the sixth of eleven pratimā (stages) laid down for Jain laymen. Kāyotsarga-pratimā refers to “abstaining from food after sunset” according to J. L. Jaini in his “outlines of Jainism” (pp. 67-70). It is also known as Rātribhuktatyāga-pratimā.

These pratimās (e.g., kāyotsarga) form a series of duties and performances, the standard and duration of which rises periodically and which finally culminates in an attitude resembling monkhood. Thus the pratimās rise by degrees and every stage includes all the virtues practised in those preceeding it. The conception of eleven pratimās appears to be the best way of exhibiting the rules of conduct prescribved for the Jaina laymen.

Source: archive.org: The Jaina Iconography

Kāyotsarga (कायोत्सर्ग) or Kāyotsargāsana refers to one of the various āsanas (postures) commonly depcited in Jain iconography.—It is well-known that the Indian Yogīs practise the various Āsanas to gain some control of the body, proceeding as they do, towards the Rāja-yoga or higher mental culture.—Cf. Jinamudrā.—The position, so called, when the ascetic stands in Kāyotsarga keeping the feet at four fingers breadth between the toes and lesser width between the heels. Kāyotsarga literally means “letting loose the body”.

Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Kāyotsarga (कायोत्सर्ग) or Kāyotsargāsana refers to “indifference to the body by one standing or sitting, with the arms hanging down”, according to chapter 1.1 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism. Accordingly, “[...] [Dhana] saw Munis there, some engaged in meditation, some absorbed in silence, some engaged in kāyotsarga; some were reading aloud the scriptures, some were teaching, some sweeping the ground, some paying homage to their gurus, some discoursing on dharma, some expounding texts, some giving their approval (of the exposition), and some reciting the tattvas (supreme principles)”.—(cf. Yogaśāstra 4.133).

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 3: The Lower and middle worlds

Kāyotsarga (कायोत्सर्ग) or Kāyotsargariddhi refers to the “powers to walk over flames of fire” and, classified under ākāśagāmini-ṛddhi (sky-faring powers), represents sub-type of extraordinary activity (kriyā-ṛddhi), which itself is a subclass of the eight ṛddhis (extraordinary powers). These powers can be obtained by the Ārya (civilized people) in order to produce worldly miracles. The Āryas represent one of the two classes of human beings according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 3.46, the other being Mleccha (barbarians).

What is meant by extraordinary power to move in the sky while meditating in relaxation posture (kāyotsarga-riddhi)? It is the extraordinary power by which its owner moves in the space even though he is meditating in a relaxed standing posture.

Source: OpenEdition books: Vividhatīrthakalpaḥ

Kāyotsarga (कायोत्सर्ग) refers to “abandonment of the body” (i.e., a position of meditation), and represents a Jaina technical term mentioned in the mentioned in the Vividhatīrthakalpa by Jinaprabhasūri (13th century A.D.): an ancient text devoted to various Jaina holy places (tīrthas).—Note: in kāyotsaraga, the monk is seated with his legs crossed and his arms falling to the sides of the body (Glasenapp 1925 p. 372).

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Kāy-otsarga.—(EI 3), a kind of obeisance. Cf. Prākrit kā-ussagga (HA), a posture of meditation in which one stands erect with arms hanging and the soles of feet kept four inches apart. Cf. kāusaggiyā. Note: kāy-otsarga is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous next»] — Kayotsarga in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Kāyotsarga (कायोत्सर्ग).—a kind of religious austerity in Jainas.

Derivable forms: kāyotsargaḥ (कायोत्सर्गः).

Kāyotsarga is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms kāya and utsarga (उत्सर्ग).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kāyotsarga (कायोत्सर्ग):—[from kāya] m. a kind of religious austerity, [Jaina literature]

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Kāyotsarga (कायोत्सर्ग) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Kāusagga, Kāussagga.

[Sanskrit to German]

Kayotsarga in German

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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Kannada-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Kayotsarga in Kannada glossary
Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Kāyōtsarga (ಕಾಯೋತ್ಸರ್ಗ):—[noun] (Jain.) a standing erect with hands hanging down freely, and not moving, as in meditation.

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Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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