Parihara, Parihāra, Parīhāra: 24 definitions

Introduction:

Parihara means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Buddhism, Pali, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Jainism, Prakrit, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Parihar.

In Hinduism

Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

1) Parihāra (परिहार).—Removal of a difficulty, cf. अन्यथा कृत्वा चोदितमन्यथा कृत्वा परिहारंः (anyathā kṛtvā coditamanyathā kṛtvā parihāraṃḥ) M. Bh. on P. IV. 1.7. Vart. 3:

2) Parihāra.—Repetition in the Padapatha, Kramapatha etc. e. g अकरित्यकः (akarityakaḥ). In this sense the word is found in the neuter gender ; cf. रेफपरिहाराणि (rephaparihārāṇi) A. Pr. III. 1.1.

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Parihara in Purana glossary
Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

Parihara (परिहर).—A King of the country of Kālañjara situated near Citrakūṭa. Parihara who was an Atharvaparāyaṇa (devoted to the Atharvaveda) ruled the country for twelve years and during his reign he gave a strong opposition to the spread of Buddhism. (Pratisarga Parva, Bhaviṣya Purāṇa).

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Parihāra (परिहार):—[parihāraḥ] Correcting the defects pointed out in respect of a previous statement

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (philosophy)

Parihāra (परिहार) refers to “not considering (the particulars)”, according to the Utpaladeva’s Vivṛti on Īśvarapratyabhijñākārikā 1.5.8-9.—Accordingly, “[...] [—Objection from the Sautrāntika:] But just as [you] have said that [in the case of the inference of the sense organs,] the generality ‘causality’ has already been experienced through the experience of [particular causes] such as a seed, without considering the particulars (viśeṣa-parihāra) that are the visual organ and so on, in the same way, [you must admit that] externality too has already been experienced as a generality from the experience of [various objects that are] external to the body, the house or the village, etc. [...]”.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

Parihāra (परिहार, “expulsion”) represents one of the seven types of prāyaścitta (‘expiation’). Prāyaścitta means ‘purification’ of from the flaws or transmigressions.

Parihāra is a Sanskrit technical term defined in the Tattvārthasūtra (ancient authorative Jain scripture) from the 2nd century, which contains aphorisms dealing with philosophy and the nature of reality.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 9: Influx of karmas

Parihāra (परिहार).—What is meant by expulsion-expiation (parihāra-prāyaścitta)? To observe expulsion from the order /congregation for a week / fortnight /month etc for flaws committed is called expulsion-expiation.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Parihāra.—(IE 8-5; EI 6; SITI), same as maryādā-parihāra; exemptions from taxes and obligations granted to the donees of rent-free land; privileges of the donee of rent-free holdings; for many such privileges, see Appendix I. Cf. certain privileges in respect of a number of taxes and obligations enumerated in Tamil records as follows: vaṭṭi-nāḻi (payment of one nāḻi per vaṭṭi), pudā-nāḻi (or pidā^º, cess on each door or tax for the main- tenance of sluices), maṇṟupādu (fine imposed by a court of law), ūrāṭci (tax for running the village administration), taragu (tax on brokers), kūlam (tax on grains), īḻam-puṭi (tax on toddy- drawers), nāḍu-kāval (tax for the policing of a district), ūḍupokku (meaning uncertain), uppu-kocceygai (tax for the manufacture of salt), nall-ā (tax for maintaining specimen cows), nallerudu (tax for maintaining specimen buffaloes), nerv-āypuvum (meaning un- certain) and others. See Ep. Ind., Vol. XVIII, p. 124. (IA 17), a ring. Note: parihāra is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Parihara in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

parihāra : (m.) care; attention; protection; avoidance; dignity; keeping away.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Parihāra, (fr. pari+hṛ, cp. pariharati) 1. attention, care (esp.—°), in cpds. like gabbha° care of the fœtus DhA. I, 4; dāraka° care of the infant J. II, 20; kumāra° looking after the prince J. I, 148, II. 48; DhA. I, 346; dup° hard to protect J. I, 437; Vism. 95 (Majjhimo d. hard to study?) — 2. honour, privilege, dignity Vin. I, 71; J. IV, 306 (gārava°).—3. surrounding (lit.), circuit of land J. IV, 461.—4. surrounding (fig.), attack; in cpd. visama° being attacked by adversities A. II, 87; Nd2 304Ic; Miln. 112, 135.—5. avoidance, keeping away from J. I, 186.

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

parihāra (परिहार).—m (S) Removing, averting, remedying, clearing away (of difficulties, troubles, accusations). Also pariharaṇa n S Ex. dujēyā dōṣācēṃ pari- haraṇa hi āḍa paḍalēṃ ||.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

parihāra (परिहार).—m Removing, remedying.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Parihāra (परिहार) or Parīhāra (परीहार).—1 Leaving, quitting, giving up, abandoning.

2) Removing, taking away; as in विरोध- परिहार (virodha- parihāra); तेषां गुप्तिपरीहारैः कच्चित्ते भरणं कृतम् (teṣāṃ guptiparīhāraiḥ kaccitte bharaṇaṃ kṛtam) Rām.2.1.48.

3) Shunning, avoiding.

4) Refuting, repelling.

5) Omitting to mention, omission, leaving out.

6) Resrve, concealment.

7) A tract of common land round a village or town; धनुःशतं परीहारो ग्रामस्य स्यात् समन्ततः (dhanuḥśataṃ parīhāro grāmasya syāt samantataḥ) Manusmṛti 8. 237.

8) A special grant, immunity, privilege, exemption from taxes; प्रदद्यात् परिहारांश्च (pradadyāt parihārāṃśca) Manusmṛti 7.21; अनुग्रहपरि- हारौ चैभ्यः कोशवृद्धिकरौ दद्यात् (anugrahapari- hārau caibhyaḥ kośavṛddhikarau dadyāt) Kau. A.2.1.19. Hence °लेखः (lekhaḥ) a writ of remission as a favour; तथा परीहारनिसृष्टिलेखौ (tathā parīhāranisṛṣṭilekhau) Kau. A.2.1.28; cf. जाते विशेषेषु परेषु चैव, ग्रामेषु देशेषु च तेषु तेषु । अनुग्रहो यो नृपतेर्निदेशात्, तज्ज्ञः परीहार इति व्यवस्येत् (jāte viśeṣeṣu pareṣu caiva, grāmeṣu deśeṣu ca teṣu teṣu | anugraho yo nṛpaternideśāt, tajjñaḥ parīhāra iti vyavasyet) || Kau. A.2.1.28.

9) Contempt, disrespect

1) An objection.

11) Seizing, keeping back.

12) Bounty.

13) (In gram.) The repetition of a word before and after इति (iti); cf. परिग्रह (parigraha).

14) (In dram.) Atoning for any improper action.

Derivable forms: parihāraḥ (परिहारः), parīhāraḥ (परीहारः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Parihāra (परिहार).—(m.; = Pali id.; to pariharati, 1), watchful care, guard, ward, act or process of guarding: teṣāṃ bhavanto ardhaparihārā (em.) Mahāvastu iii.63.8, of these (disciples) you (two) have half the guardianship ([bahuvrīhi]; are half-guardians); parihāradharmaṃ na mārgayati Śikṣāsamuccaya 152.6, he seeks not to follow the law of watchful care (of religious practices; wrongly Bendall and Rouse); saparihārā śikṣā Śikṣāsamuccaya 178.13, full of watchful care (here B. and R. correctly).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Parihāra (परिहार).—m.

(-raḥ) 1. Disrespect. 2. Seizing, surrounding, 3. Bounty, largess. 4. Any thing or person objectionable. 5. Leaving. 6. Removing. 7. Repelling. 8. Omission. 9. The common land round a village or town. E. pari, hṛ to take away, aff. ghañ .

Parihāra can also be spelled as Parīhāra (परीहार).

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Parīhāra (परीहार).—m.

(-raḥ) 1. Disrespect. 2. An open space for the pasturage of cattle near a village or town. 3. Remedying or atoning for any improper action. E. pari disrespect, hṛ to convey, aff. ghañ.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Parihāra (परिहार).—parīhāra, i. e. pari-hṛ + a, m. 1. Avoiding, Mahābhārata 12, 848. 2. Escaping, [Harivaṃśa, (ed. Calc.)] 577. 3. Abandoning, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] 32, 15. 4. Removing. 5. Reserve, Mahābhārata 13, 5116. 6. Concealment, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] 39, 9 (ed. Will.). 7. Leaving out. 8. Largess, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 7, 201. 9. A space round a town or village left for pasture, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 237.

Parihāra can also be spelled as Parīhāra (परीहार).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Parihara (परिहर).—[masculine] reserve, concealment.

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Parihāra (परिहार).—[masculine] leading round, avoiding, escaping, forsaking, leaving out, passing over, reserve, concealment; exemption, immunity, privilege ([jurisprudence]).

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Parīhāra (परीहार).—[masculine] avoiding, reserve.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Parihara (परिहर):—[=pari-hara] a raṇa etc. See pari-hṛ.

2) Parihāra (परिहार):—[=pari-hāra] a etc. See pari-√hṛ.

3) Parihara (परिहर):—[=pari-hara] [from pari-hṛ] b m. [varia lectio] for hāra, reserve, concealment, [Śakuntalā (Pi.) i, 24/25.]

4) Parihāra (परिहार):—[=pari-hāra] [from pari-hṛ] b m. (pari-) leading round, [Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra]

5) [v.s. ...] delivering or handing over, [Nyāyamālā-vistara [Scholiast or Commentator]]

6) [v.s. ...] shunning, avoiding, excluding, abandoning, giving up, resigning, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa] etc. etc.

7) [v.s. ...] seizing, surrounding, [Horace H. Wilson]

8) [v.s. ...] concealment, reserve, [Mahābhārata; Śakuntalā]

9) [v.s. ...] leaving out, omission, [Sāhitya-darpaṇa]

10) [v.s. ...] taking away, removing, ([especially]) removing by arguments, confutation, [Śaṃkarācārya]

11) [v.s. ...] caution, [Caraka]

12) [v.s. ...] contempt disrespect, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

13) [v.s. ...] objection, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

14) [v.s. ...] any objectionable thing or person, [Horace H. Wilson]

15) [v.s. ...] (in gram.) the repetition of a word (before and after iti cf. pari-graha), [Atharvaveda-prātiśākhya]

16) [v.s. ...] (in [dramatic language]) remedying or atoning for any improper action, [Sāhitya-darpaṇa]

17) [v.s. ...] an extraordinary grant, exemption from taxes, immunity, [Manu-smṛti; Rāmāyaṇa; Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa; Rājataraṅgiṇī]

18) [v.s. ...] = -sthāna (below), [Manu-smṛti viii, 237]

19) [v.s. ...] bounty, largess, [Horace H. Wilson] (cf. parī-h)

20) [v.s. ...] a ring, [Inscriptions]

21) Parīhāra (परीहार):—[=parī-hāra] [from parī] m. avoiding, shunning, caution, [Suśruta]

22) [v.s. ...] disrespect, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

23) [v.s. ...] (in gram. and [dramatic language]) = pari-h.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Parihāra (परिहार):—[pari-hāra] (raḥ) 1. m. Disrespect; seizing; bounty; objectionable thing.

2) Parīhāra (परीहार):—[parī-hāra] (raḥ) 1. m. Disrespect.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Parihāra (परिहार) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Parihāra.

[Sanskrit to German]

Parihara in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Parihara in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Parihāra (परिहार) [Also spelled parihar]:—(nm) avoidance; abstaining, refraining (from); forestalling; rectifying (a flaw, error).

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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

1) Parihara (परिहर) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Paridhṛ.

2) Parihara (परिहर) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Parihṛ.

3) Parihāra (परिहार) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Parihāra.

4) Parihāra (परिहार) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Parihāra.

5) Parihāra (परिहार) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Parihārin.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Parihara (ಪರಿಹರ):—[noun] a removing or being removed or eliminated; a removal or elimination (of an evil, danger, etc.).

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Parihāra (ಪರಿಹಾರ):—

1) [noun] a removing or being removed or eliminated; a removal or elimination (of an evil, danger, etc.).

2) [noun] a moving to a distant place.

3) [noun] the act or an instance of abandoning, leaving (for ever); abandonment.

4) [noun] anything given as an equivalent or to make amends for a loss, damage, unemployment, retrenchment, etc.; recompense, compensation.

5) [noun] the act, method or process of solving a problem; solution.

6) [noun] the answer to a problem; solution.

7) [noun] an explanation, clarification, etc.; solution.

8) [noun] the act of undergoing a self imposed punishment, self-denial, etc. to expiate for a wrong doing.

9) [noun] an exemption from paying tax or the sum exempted from being paid.

10) [noun] any drug or other substance used in treating disease, healing or relieving pain; a medicine.

11) [noun] (jain.) a suspending or being suspended from the religious order, society, as a punishment for wrong doing.

12) [noun] ಪರಿಹಾರ ಮಾಡು [parihara madu] parihāra māḍu = ಪರಿಹರಿಸು [pariharisu]; ಪರಿಹಾರವಾಗು [pariharavagu] parihāravāgu (a difficult situation, distress, danger) to be removed, prevented from happening or eliminated.

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Parīhāra (ಪರೀಹಾರ):—[noun] an exemption from paying tax or the sum exempted from being paid.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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