Mahabharata (English)

by Kisari Mohan Ganguli | 2,566,952 words | ISBN-10: 8121505933

The English translation of the Mahabharata is a large text describing ancient India. It is authored by Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa and contains the records of ancient humans. Also, it documents the fate of the Kauravas and the Pandavas family. Another part of the large contents, deal with many philosophical dialogues such as the goals of life. Book...

Section XLVIII

Vaisampayana said—"O king, impressed with the great Rajasuya sacrifice of king Yudhishthira, Sakuni, the son of Suvala, having learnt before the intentions of Duryodhana, while accompanying him in the way from the assembly house, and desirous of saying what was agreeable to him, approached Dhritarashtra endued with great wisdom, and finding the monarch deprived of his eye seated (in his throne), told him these words,—

'Know, O great king, O bull of the Bharata race, that Duryodhana, having lost colour, has become pale and emaciated and depressed and a prey to anxiety. Why dost you not, after due enquiry, ascertain the grief that is in the heart of your eldest son, the grief that is caused by the foe?'

"Dhritarashtra said,—

'Duryodhana, what is the reason of your great affliction. O son of the Kuru race?

If it is fit for me to hear it, then tell me the reason. This Sakuni here says that you have lost colour, become pale and emaciated, and a prey to anxiety. I do not know what can be the reason of the sorrow. This vast wealth of mine is at your control.

Your brothers and all our relations never do anything that is disagreeable to you. You wearest the best apparel and eatest the best food that is prepared with meat. The best of horse carries you.

What it is, therefore, that has made you pale and emaciated? Costly beds, beautiful damsels, mansions decked with excellent furniture, and sport of the delightful kind, without doubt these all wait but at your command, as in the case of the gods themselves Therefore, O proud one, why dost you grieve, O son, as if you were destitute.'

"Duryodhana said,—

'I eat and dress myself like a wretch and pass my time all the while a prey to fierce jealousy. He indeed is a man, who incapable of bearing the pride of the foe, lives having vanquished that foe with the desire of liberating his own subjects from the tyranny of the foe.

Contentment, as also pride, O Bharata, are destructive of prosperity; and those other two qualities also, viz., compassion and fear. One who acts under the influence of these, never obtaines anything high.

Having beheld Yudhishthira’s prosperity, whatever I enjoy brings me no gratification. The prosperity of Kunti’s son that is possessed of such splendour makes me pale. Knowing the affluence of the foe and my own destitution, even though that affluence is not before me, I yet see it before me.

Therefore, have I lost colour and become melancholy, pale and emaciated.

Yudhishthira supports eighty-eight thousand Snataka Brahmanas leading domestic lives, giving unto each of them thirty slave-girls. Beside this, thousand other Brahmanas daily eat at his palace the best of food on golden plates.

The king of Kambhoja sent unto him (as tribute) innumerable skins, black, darkish, and red, of the deer Kadali, as also numberless blankets of excellent textures. And hundreds and thousands and thousands of she-elephants and thirty thousand she-camels wander within the palace, for the kings of the earth brought them all as tribute to the capital of the Pandavas.

And, O lord of earth, the kings also brought unto this foremost of sacrifices heaps upon heaps of jewels and gems for the son of Kunti. Never before did I see or hear of such enormous wealth as was brought unto the sacrifice of the intelligent sons of Pandu.

And, O king, beholding that enormous collection of wealth belonging to the foe, I can not enjoy peace of mind. Hundreds of Brahmanas supported by the grants that Yudhishthira has given them and possessing wealth of kine, waited at the palace gate with three thousands of millions of tribute but were prevented by the keepers from entering the mansion.

Bringing with them clarified butter in handsome Kamandalus made of gold, they did not obtain admission into the palace, and Ocean himself brought unto him in vessels of white copper the nectar that is generated within his waters and which is much superior to that which flowers and annual plants produce for Sakra. And Vasudeva (at the conclusion of the sacrifice) having brought an excellent conch bathed the Sun of Pritha with sea water brought in thousand jars of gold, all well adorned with numerous gems.

Beholding all this I became feverish with jealousy. Those jars had been taken to the Eastern and the Southern oceans. And they had also been taken on the shoulders of men to the Western ocean, O bull among men.

And, O father, although none but birds only can go to the Northern region Arjuna, having gone thither, exacted as tribute a vast quantity of wealth. There is another wonderful incident also which I will relate to you.

O listen to me. When a hundred thousand Brahmanas were fed, it had been arranged that to notify this act every day conches would be blown in a chorus.

But, O Bharata, I continually heard conches blown there almost repeatedly. And hearing those notes my hair stood on end. And, O great king, that palatial compound, filled with innumerable monarchs that came there as spectators, looked exceedingly handsome like the cloudless firmament with stars.

And, O king of men, the monarchs came into that sacrifice of the wise son of Pandu bringing with them every kind of wealth. And the kings that came there became like Vaisyas the distributors of food unto the Brahmanas that were fed.

And O king, the prosperity that I beheld of Yudhishthira was such that neither the chief himself of the celestials, nor Yama or Varuna, nor the lord of the Guhyakas owns the same. And beholding that great prosperity of the son of Pandu, my heart burns and I cannot enjoy peace.

"Hearing these words of Duryodhana, Sakuni replied,—

'Hear how you mayest obtain this unrivalled prosperity that you behold in the son of Pandu, O you that hast truth for your prowess.

O Bharata, I am an adept at dice, superior to all in the world. I can ascertain the success or otherwise of every throw, and when to stake and when not. I have special knowledge of the game. The Son of Kunti also is fond of dice playing though he possesses little skill in it.

Summoned to play or battle, he is sure to come forward, and I will defeat him repeatedly at every throw by practising deception. I promise to win all that wealth of his, and you, O Duryodhana, shalt then enjoy the same.'"

Vaisampayana continued,—"King Duryodhana, thus addressed by Sakuni, without allowing a moment to elapse, said unto Dhritarashtra,—

'This, Sakuni, an adept at dice, is ready to win at dice, O king, the wealth of the sons of Pandu. It behoves you to grant him permission to do so.'

"Dhritarashtra replied,—

'I always follow the counsels of Kshatta, my minister possessed of great wisdom. Having consulted with him, I will inform you what my judgment is in respect of this affair. Endued with great foresight, he will, keeping morality before his eyes, tell us what is good and what is proper for both parties, and what should be done in this matter.'

"Duryodhana said,—

'If you consultest with Kshatta he will make you desist. And if you desist, O king, I will certainly kill myself. And when I am dead, O king, you will become happy with Vidura. You will then enjoy the whole earth; what need hast you with me?'"

Vaisampayana continued,—"Dhritarashtra, hearing these words of affliction uttered by Duryodhana from mixed feeling, himself ready to what Duryodhana had dictated, commanded his servant, saying,—

'Let artificers be employed to erect without delay a delightful and handsome and spacious palace with an hundred doors and a thousand columns. And having brought carpenters and joiners, set you jewels and precious stones all over the walls. And making it handsome and easy of access, report to me when everything is complete.

And, O monarch, king Dhritarashtra having made this resolution for the pacification of Duryodhana, sent messengers unto Vidura for summoning him. For without taking counsel with Vidura never did the monarch form any resolution.

But as regards the matter at hand, the king although he knew the evils of gambling, was yet attracted towards it. The intelligent Vidura, however, as soon as he heard of it, knew that the arrival of Kali was at hand. And seeing that the way to destruction was about to open, he quickly came to Dhritarashtra.

And Vidura approaching his illustrious eldest brother and bowing down unto his feet, said these words:

'O exalted king, I do not approve of this resolution that you have formed. It behave you, O king, to act in such a way that no dispute may arise between your children on account of this gambling match.'

Dhritarashtra replied,—

'O Kshatta, if the gods be merciful unto us, assuredly no dispute will ever arise amongst my sons. Therefore, auspicious or otherwise, beneficial or otherwise, let this friendly challenge at dice proceed. Even this without doubt is what fate has ordained for us.

And, O son of the Bharata race, when I am near, and Drona and Bhishma and you too, nothing evil that even Fate might have ordained is likely to happen.

Therefore, go you on a car yoking thereto horses endued with the speed of the wind, so that you mayest reach Khandavaprastha even today and bring you Yudhishthira with you.

And, O Vidura, I tell that even this is my resolution. Tell me nothing. I regard Fate as supreme which brings all this.'

Hearing these words of Dhritarashtra and concluding that his race was doomed, Vidura in great sorrow went unto Bhishma with great wisdom."


This concludes Section XLVIII of Book 2 (Sabha Parva) of the Mahabharata, of which an English translation is presented on this page. This book is famous as one of the Itihasa, similair in content to the eighteen Puranas. Book 2 is one of the eighteen books comprising roughly 100,000 Sanskrit metrical verses.

FAQ (frequently asked questions):

Which keywords occur in Section XLVIII of Book 2 of the Mahabharata?

The most relevant definitions are: Duryodhana, Dhritarashtra, Vidura, Yudhishthira, Pandu, Sakuni; since these occur the most in Book 2, Section XLVIII. There are a total of 30 unique keywords found in this section mentioned 82 times.

What is the name of the Parva containing Section XLVIII of Book 2?

Section XLVIII is part of the Sisupala-badha Parva which itself is a sub-section of Book 2 (Sabha Parva). The Sisupala-badha Parva contains a total of 42 sections while Book 2 contains a total of 7 such Parvas.

Can I buy a print edition of Section XLVIII as contained in Book 2?

Yes! The print edition of the Mahabharata contains the English translation of Section XLVIII of Book 2 and can be bought on the main page. The author is Kisari Mohan Ganguli and the latest edition (including Section XLVIII) is from 2012.

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