Drona, aka: Droṇā, Droṇa; 14 Definition(s)


Drona means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Droṇa (द्रोण) is the Sanskrit name for a weight unit corresponding to ‘10.24 kilograms’ used in Āyurvedic literature, according to the Ṣoḍaśāṅgahṛdayam. A single Droṇa unit corresponds to 4 Āḍhaka units (a single Āḍhaka unit equals 2.56 kilograms). You need 4 Droṇa units to make a single Droṇī unit (1 Droṇī equals 40.96 kilograms).

Below follows a table of the different weight units in relation to one another and their corresponding values in brackets:

  • Guñjā (Raktikā) = 1 seed of Guñjā
  • 8 Raktikā = 1 Māṣa (1 gram)
  • 10 Māṣa = 1 Karṣa (10 grams)
  • 2 Karṣa = 1 Śukti (20 grams)
  • 2 Śukti = 1 Pala (40 grams)
  • 2 Pala = 1 Prasṛta (80 grams)
  • 2 Prasṛta = 1 Kuḍava (Añjali) (160 grams)
  • 2 Kuḍava = 1 Śarāva (320 grams)
  • 2 Śarāva = 1 Prastha (640 grams)
  • 4 Prastha = 1 Āḍhaka (Pātra) (2.56 kilograms)
  • 4 Āḍhaka = 1 Droṇa (10.24 kilograms)
  • 4 Droṇa = 1 Droṇī (40.96 kilograms)
  • 100 Pala = 1 Tulā (4 kilograms).
Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany
Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Droṇa (द्रोण, “bucket”) is a Sanskrit technical term translating in english to “bucket”, referring to ‘a measure of capacity’. It is used through vāstu-śāstra literature.

Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra
Vastushastra book cover
context information

Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Droṇa (द्रोण) is another name for Hemaparvata, one of the seven major mountains in Kuśadvīpa, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 87. Kuśadvīpa is one of the seven islands (dvīpa), ruled over by Vapuṣmān, one of the ten sons of Priyavrata, son of Svāyambhuva Manu, who was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being.

The Varāhapurāṇa is categorised as a Mahāpurāṇa, and was originally composed of 24,000 metrical verses, possibly originating from before the 10th century. It is composed of two parts and Sūta is the main narrator.

Source: Wisdom Library: Varāha-purāṇa

1) Droṇa (द्रोण).—The teacher in archery of the Pāṇḍavas and the Kauravas. Birth. Droṇa was the son of Bharadvāja who had his hermitage erected on the bank of the Ganges. Once Bharadvāja went to bathe in the river. When he got into the river he saw the celestial maid Ghṛtācī. The celestial maid ran away as soon as she saw the hermit. But her cloth was caught in grass and slipped off her body. When the hermit saw the complete form of her body which was bright and beautiful, he had seminal discharge. The discharged semen was kept in a Droṇa (trough). A child was born from that and he was named Droṇa, who was brought up in the hermitage. (Mahābhārata Ādi Parva, Chapter 13). (See full article at Story of Droṇa from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)

2) Droṇa (द्रोण).—A bird. A son born to the hermit Mandapāla of Jaritā, a bird. (See under Khāṇḍavadāha, Para 8).

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia

1a) Droṇa (द्रोण).—Married Kṛpī, and was the father of Aśvatthāma.1 Taught Dhanurveda to the Pāṇḍavas but served Duryodhana's army, succeeding Bhīṣma as commander, and after a five days' battle was killed by Dhṛṣṭadyumna;2 met by Kṛtavarman, Kṛṣṇa and Rāma.3 Informed by Uddhava of Rāma's visit to Hastināpura; invited for the Rājasuya of Yudhiṣṭhira.4 Went to Syamantapañcaka for solar eclipse and met there Kṛṣṇa and the Vṛṣṇis.5 Ācārya of the Pāṇḍavas and the Kurus.6 Baladeva's respect for.7

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa I. 7. 27; IX. 21. 36. Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 19. 68; V. 35. 5, 27.
  • 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa I. 15. 15-16; X. 78 [(95 (V) 16], 29-36.
  • 3) Ib. X. 52. [56 (V) 4], 12; 57. 2.
  • 4) Ib. X. 68. 17 and 28; 74. 10.
  • 5) Ib. X. 82. 24; 84. 57, 69 [1].
  • 6) Matsya-purāṇa 103. 5.
  • 7) Viṣṇu-purāṇa V. 35. 36; 38. 16, 47, 64.

1b) Mountain in Bhāratavarṣa, touching the sea;1 entered the waters for fear of Indra.2

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 19. 16; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 18. 76.
  • 2) Matsya-purāṇa 121. 73.

1c) A Vasu born as Nanda; his wife was Abhimatī, and sons were Harṣa, Śoka, Bhaya and others.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa VI. 6. 11; X. 8. 48-50.

1d) Mountain a hill of Śālmalidvīpa (Kuśadvīpa, Matsya-purāṇa) noted for great medicinal plants, viśalyakaraṇī and mṛtasanjīvini, capable of bringing back the dead to life.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 19. 38-39; Vāyu-purāṇa 49. 35; Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 4. 26; Matsya-purāṇa 122. 56.

1e) One of the seven Pralaya clouds.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 2. 8.

1f) A measure of grain.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 83. 12; 84. 2.
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Itihasa (narrative history)

Droṇa (द्रोण) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. II.31.8, VI.68.2, VI.83.7) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Droṇa) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places
context information

Itihasa (इतिहास, itihāsa) refers to ‘epic history’ and represents a branch of Sanskrit literature which popularly includes 1) the eighteen major Puranas, 2) the Mahabharata and 3) the Ramayana. It is a branch of Vedic Hinduism categorised as smriti literature (‘that which is remembered’) as opposed to shruti literature (‘that which is transmitted verbally’).

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Droṇa (द्रोण) denotes in the Rigveda a ‘wooden trough’, and more specifically it designates in the plural vessels used for holding Soma. The great wooden reservoir for Soma is called a Droṇa-kalaśa. The altar was sometimes made in the form of a Droṇa.

Source: archive.org: Vedic index of Names and Subjects

In the epic Mahābhārata, Drona was the royal guru to Kauravas and Pandavas. He was a master of advanced military arts, including the Devāstras. Arjuna was his favorite student. Droṇa's love for Arjuna was second only to his love for his son Aśhvatthāma. He was considered to be a partial incarnation of Bṛhaspati.

Droṇācārya had been the preceptor of most kings involved in the Kurukṣetra, on both sides. Droṇācārya strongly condemned the sending into exile of Pāṇḍavas by the wicked prince Duryodhana and his brothers and for their abusive treatment of the Pāṇḍavas, beside usurping their kingdom. But being a servant of Hastināpura, Droṇācārya was duty-bound to fight for the Kauravas, and thus against his favorite Pāṇḍavas.

Dronacharya was one of the most powerful and destructive warriors in the Kurukshetra War. He was an invincible warrior, whom no person on earth could defeat. He single-handedly slayed hundreds of thousands of Pandava soldiers, with his powerful armory of weapons and incredible skill. After the fall of Bhīṣma, he became the Chief Commander of the Kuru Army for 5 days of the war.

Droṇa implies that he was not gestated in a womb, but outside the human body in a droṇa (vessel or a basket). Droṇācārya spent his youth in poverty, but studied religion and military arts such as archery, in which he gained expertise, together with the then prince of Pañcāla, Drupada. Drupada and Droṇācārya became close friends. Droṇācārya married Kṛipi, the sister of Kṛipa, the royal teacher of the princes of Hastinapura. Like Droṇa himself, Kṛipī and her brother had not been gestated in a womb, but outside the human body (see Kṛipī page). Kṛpi and Droṇa had a son, Aśvatthāma.[3]

etymology: Drona (Sanskrit: द्रोण, droṇa) or Dronacharya (Sanskrit: द्रोणाचार्य, droṇācārya)

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

A protagonist in several key episodes in the first half of the Mahābhārata. A great brahmin warrior (the son of the ṛṣi Bharadvāja), Droṇa is the teacher of both the Kauravas and the Pāṇḍavas, including his great favourite, Arjuna. In the war, Droṇa fights on the Kaurava side, and succeeds Bhīṣma as the commander of their army. By his own account he can only be defeated if tricked. This comes about when he is told by Yudhiṣṭhira that ‘Aśvatthāman’, his son, is dead, although this ‘Aśvatthāman’ is in fact an elephant. Believing Yudhiṣṭhira, a renowned man of truth, Droṇa allows himself to die in a yogic pose, and is subsequently beheaded by Drupada's son, Dhṛṣṭadyumna, in revenge for Droṇa's killing of his father. The real Aśvatthāman swears to destroy both the Pāñcālas and the Pāṇḍavas for these adharmic acts.

Source: Oxford Reference: A Dictionary of Hinduism

In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Droṇā (द्रोणा) is one of the four daughters of Siṃhahana: an ancient king of the solar clan (āditagotra or sūryavaṃśa) according to the Mūlasarvāstivādin Vinaya mentioned in a footnote in the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter VI). The Mūlasarvāstivādin Vinaya attributes four sons and four daughters to Siṃhahana: Śuddhodana, Śuklodana, Droṇodana, Amṛtodana, Śuddhā, Śuklā, Droṇā, Amṛtā.

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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India history and geogprahy

Droṇa.—(IE 8-6; Chamba), a grain measure; often regarded as equal to four āḍhakas; between one maund fourteen seers and two maunds, according to Bengali authors. (IE 8-1; EI 24, 29, 30), name of a land measure derived from that of a measure of capacity; shortened form of droṇavāpa. Note: droṇa is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

drōṇa (द्रोण).—m (S) pop. drōṇā m A vessel made of leaves tacked together, to hold ghee and other liquid substances; a butterboat. 2 Any vessel (of wood, stone &c.) in the shape of a boat,--as a bathingtub, a baling-vessel, a watering-trough, a scuttle. hātācā or hātāpāyācē drōṇa hōṇēṃ To draw up or contract--hand, arm, limbs.

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

drōṇa (द्रोण).—m A vessel made of leaves to hold ghee, &c.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Droṇa (द्रोण).—[cf. Un. 3. 1.]

1) A lake 4 poles long.

2) A cloud (or a particular kind of cloud) abounding in water (from which rain streams forth as from a bucket). कोऽयमेवंविधे काले कालपाशस्थिते मयि । अनावृष्टिहते शस्ये द्रोणमेघ इवोदितः (ko'yamevaṃvidhe kāle kālapāśasthite mayi | anāvṛṣṭihate śasye droṇamegha ivoditaḥ) || Mk.1.26.

3) A raven or a carrion crow.

4) A scorpion.

5) A tree (in general).

6) A tree bearing (white) flowers.

7) Name of the preceptor of the Kauravas and Pāṇḍavas. [Droṇa was the son of the sage Bharadvāja, and was so called because the seed, which fell at the sight of a nymph called Ghṛtāchī, was preserved by the sage in a droṇa. Though a Brāhmaṇa by birth, he was well-versed in the science of arms which he learnt from Paraśurāma. He afterwards taught the Kauravas and the Pāṇḍavas the science of arms and archery. When, however, the great war commenced, he attached himself to the side of the Kauravas, and after Bhīṣma had been mortally wounded-'lodged in the cage of darts'he assumed the command of the Kaurava forces and maintained the struggle for four successive days, achieving wonderful exploits and killing thousands of warriors on the Pāṇḍava side. On the fifteenth day of the battle the fight continued even during the night, and it was on the morning of the 16th that Bhīma, at the suggestion of Kṛṣṇa, said within Droṇa's hearing that Aśvatthāman was slain (the fact being that an elephant named Aśvatthaman had fallen on the field). Being at a loss to understand how that could be, he appealed to Yudhiṣṭhira, 'the truthful', who also, at the advice of Kṛṣṇa, gave an evasive reply--uttered loudly the word Aśvatthāman and added 'Gaja or elephant' in a very low tone; sec Ve.3.9. Sorely grieved at the death of his only son, the kind-hearted old father fell in a swoon, and Dhṛṣṭadyumna, his avowed enemy, took advantage of this circumstance, and cut off his head.]

-ṇaḥ, -ṇam A measure of capacity, either the same as an Āḍhaka or equal to 4 Āḍhakas or 1/16 of a Khāri, or 32 or 64 shers; द्रोणस्तु खार्याः खलु षोडशांशः (droṇastu khāryāḥ khalu ṣoḍaśāṃśaḥ) Lilā (Mar. adamaṇa).

-ṇam 1 A wooden vessel or cup, bucket; ततोऽस्य रेतश्चस्कन्द तदृषिर्द्रोण आदधे (tato'sya retaścaskanda tadṛṣirdroṇa ādadhe) Mb.1.13. 37.

2) A tub.

Derivable forms: droṇaḥ (द्रोणः).

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Relevant definitions

Search found 413 related definition(s) that might help you understand this better. Below you will find the 15 most relevant articles:

Droṇācārya (द्रोणाचार्य).—see द्रोण (droṇa) above. Derivable forms: droṇācāryaḥ (द्रोणाचार्यः)....
Droṇamukha (द्रोणमुख).—the capital of 4 villages; चतुःशतग्राम्या द्रोणमुखम् (catuḥśatagrāmyā dr...
Droṇakāka (द्रोणकाक).—a raven. Derivable forms: droṇakākaḥ (द्रोणकाकः).Droṇakāka is a Sanskrit ...
Droṇaghā (द्रोणघा).—a cow yielding a droṇa of milk; सर्वा द्रोणदुघा गावो रामे राज्यं प्रशासति (...
Droṇakṣīrā (द्रोणक्षीरा).—a cow yielding a droṇa of milk; सर्वा द्रोणदुघा गावो रामे राज्यं प्रश...
Droṇadugdhā (द्रोणदुग्धा).—a cow yielding a droṇa of milk; सर्वा द्रोणदुघा गावो रामे राज्यं प्र...
Droṇavṛṣṭi (द्रोणवृष्टि).—rain streaming forth from the द्रोण (droṇa) (cloud); अनावृष्टिहते सस्...
Droṇadughā (द्रोणदुघा).—a cow yielding a droṇa of milk; सर्वा द्रोणदुघा गावो रामे राज्यं प्रशास...
Droṇamegha (द्रोणमेघ).—see द्रोण (droṇa) (2) above. Derivable forms: droṇameghaḥ (द्रोणमेघः).Dr...
Droṇakalaśa (द्रोणकलश).—A kind of sacrificial vessel. Derivable forms: droṇakalaśaḥ (द्रोणकलशः)...
Droṇakākākala (द्रोणकाकाकल).—a raven. Derivable forms: droṇakākākalaḥ (द्रोणकाकाकलः).Droṇakākāk...
Droṇagandhikā (द्रोणगन्धिका).—a kind of plant (rāsanā). Droṇagandhikā is a Sanskrit compound co...
Kumāradroṇa refers to a form of tax used during the rule of the Śilāhāra dynasty (r. 765-1215 A...
Droṇācala (द्रोणाचल) is the name a locality mentioned in Rājaśekhara’s 10th-century Kāvyamīmāṃs...
Droṇaparva (द्रोणपर्व).—An important Parva (section) in the Mahābhārata.

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