Hitopadesha [sanskrit]

8,857 words

The Sanskrit edition of the Hitopadesha referencing the English translation and grammatical analysis. Written by Narayana in the 8th century, the Hitopadesha represents a collection of short stories involving human and animal characters, instructing the reader on basic ancient Indian moral values and ethical conduct. Alternative titles: हितोपदेशः, Hitopadeśa, Hitopadesa.

विना वर्तनम् एवैते न त्यजन्ति ममान्तिकम् ।
तन् मे प्राण-व्ययेनापि जीवयैतान् ममाश्रितान् ॥ ४६ ॥

vinā vartanam evaite na tyajanti mamāntikam |
tan me prāṇa-vyayenāpi jīvayaitān mamāśritān || 46 ||

The English translation of Hitopadesha Verse 1.46 is contained in the book The Hitopadesa of Sri Narayana Pandita by Satya Narayana dasa. This book is not available online so in order to read the full text and translation you should buy the book:

Buy now! English translation by Satya Narayana dasa (1997)

Glossary of Sanskrit terms

Note: This extracts Sanskrit terms and links to English definitions from the glossary, based on an experimental segmentation of verse (1.46). Some terms could be superfluous while some might not be mentioned. Click on the word to show English definitions.

Vina, Vartana, Eva, Tyajat, Tyajanti, Mama, Tika, Tan, Tat, Tad, Asmad, Prana, Vyaya, Api, Jiva, Eta, Esha, Ashrita,

Analysis of Sanskrit grammar

Note: this is an experimental feature and only shows the first possible analysis of the Sanskrit text (Hitopadesha Verse 1.46). If the system was successful in segmenting the sentence, you will see of which words it is made up of, generally consisting of Nouns, Pronouns, Verbs, Participles and Indeclinables. Click on the link to show all possible derivations of the word.

  • Line 1: “vinā vartanam evaite na tyajanti mamāntikam
  • vinā* -
  • vina (noun, masculine)
    [nominative plural], [vocative plural]
    vinā (noun, feminine)
    [nominative plural], [vocative plural], [accusative plural]
  • vartanam -
  • vartana (noun, masculine)
    [adverb], [accusative single]
    vartana (noun, neuter)
    [adverb], [nominative single], [accusative single]
    vartanā (noun, feminine)
  • evai -
  • eva (indeclinable particle)
    [indeclinable particle]
    eva (noun, masculine)
    [compound], [vocative single]
    eva (noun, neuter)
    [compound], [vocative single]
    evā (noun, feminine)
    [nominative single]
  • aite -
  • na -
  • na (indeclinable particle)
    [indeclinable particle]
    na (noun, masculine)
    [compound], [vocative single]
    na (noun, neuter)
    [compound], [vocative single]
  • tyajanti -
  • tyaj -> tyajat (participle, neuter)
    [nominative plural from √tyaj class 1 verb], [vocative plural from √tyaj class 1 verb], [accusative plural from √tyaj class 1 verb]
    tyaj -> tyajantī (participle, feminine)
    [vocative single from √tyaj class 1 verb]
    tyaj (verb class 1)
    [present active third plural]
  • mamān -
  • mamā (noun, feminine)
    [accusative single]
  • tikam -
  • tika (noun, masculine)
    [adverb], [accusative single]
  • Line 2: “tan me prāṇa-vyayenāpi jīvayaitān mamāśritān
  • tan -
  • tan (noun, masculine)
    [vocative single]
    tat (indeclinable correlative)
    [indeclinable correlative]
    tad (noun, neuter)
    [compound], [nominative single], [accusative single]
  • me -
  • ma (noun, masculine)
    [locative single]
    ma (noun, neuter)
    [nominative dual], [vocative dual], [accusative dual], [locative single]
    (noun, feminine)
    [nominative dual], [vocative single], [vocative dual], [accusative dual]
    asmad (pronoun, none)
    [dative single], [genitive single]
  • prāṇa -
  • prāṇa (noun, masculine)
    [compound], [vocative single]
    prāṇa (noun, neuter)
    [compound], [vocative single]
  • vyayenā -
  • vyaya (noun, masculine)
    [instrumental single]
    vyaya (noun, neuter)
    [instrumental single]
  • api -
  • api (indeclinable preposition)
    [indeclinable preposition]
    ap (noun, neuter)
    [locative single]
  • jīvayai -
  • jīvā (noun, feminine)
    [instrumental single]
  • etān -
  • eta (noun, masculine)
    [accusative plural], [adverb], [ablative single]
    eṣa (noun, masculine)
    [accusative plural]
    eta (noun, neuter)
    [adverb], [ablative single]
  • mamā -
  • mamā (noun, feminine)
    [nominative single]
    asmad (pronoun, none)
    [genitive single]
    (verb class 2)
    [perfect active second plural]
    (verb class 3)
    [perfect active second plural]
    (verb class 4)
    [perfect active second plural]
    (verb class 1)
    [perfect active second plural]
  • aśritān -
  • aśrita (noun, masculine)
    [accusative plural]

Other editions:

Also see the following editions of the Sanskrit text or (alternative) English translations of the Hitopadesha Verse 1.46

Cover of edition (2015)

The Hitopadesa of Narayana
by M. R. Kale (2015)

Edited with A Sanskrit Commentary "Marma-Prakasika" and Notes in English; 9788120806023; Published by Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Pvt. Ltd.

Buy now!
Cover of Gujarati edition

Hitopadesa (in Gujarati)
by Dr. Narayan M. Kansara (2007)

[હિતોપદેશ]—[ડો. નારાયણ એમ. કંસારા] Sanskrit Text With Gujarati Translation; Published by Saraswati Pustak Bhandar, Ahmedabad

Buy now!

Preview of verse 1.46 in Gujarati sript:
વિના વર્તનમ્ એવૈતે ન ત્યજન્તિ મમાન્તિકમ્ ।
તન્ મે પ્રાણ-વ્યયેનાપિ જીવયૈતાન્ મમાશ્રિતાન્ ॥ ૪૬ ॥

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