Chandogya Upanishad (Madhva commentary)

by Srisa Chandra Vasu | 1909 | 169,805 words | ISBN-13: 9789332869165

The English translation of the Chandogya Upanishad including the commentary of Madhva called the Bhasya. This text describes in seven sections the importance of speech, the importance of knowledge and the journey towards salvation.. It is one of the largest Upanishads and is associated with the Sama Veda. The Mundaka Upanishad is variously spelled...

Second Adhyaya, Fifth Khanda (2 mantras)

Mantra 2.5.1.

1. Let one meditate on the five-fold Harmonious in the seasons. The Lord dwelling in Spring as Pradyumna, in the Summer as Vāsudeva, in the Rains as Nārāyaṇa, in the Autumn as Aniruddha, in the Winter as Saṅkarṣaṇa—106.

Mantra 2.5.2.

2. For him the seasons become propitious, and he is Protected by the Lord of seasons, who knowing this thus, meditates in the seasons on the live-fold Harmonious.—107.

Madhva’s commentary called the Bhāṣya:

All waters have their origin in the seasons and are dependent upon seasons. Therefore the Lord must be worshipped in the seasons. The Śruti teaches this next in this Khaṇḍ. But the seasons are six, while the divine forms are five only. How is it possible then to meditate on the six-fold seasons as an aspect of the five-fold Lord. from six to five by taking the Hemanta and Śiśira seasons as one, thus reducing the numbers from six to five. The Lord is called Ṛtu because He is righteousness or because He is Omniscient or because He gives to the seasons their different qualities. Moreover, the various names given in Sanskrit to seasons are primarily names of the Lord. Thus Vasanta means He who gives joy to the Devas in whom He dwells. It is a compound of two words “Vasa” meaning Jīva, literally “that in which the Lord dwells”; and “ta” shortened form of the verb √tan, ‘to extend’; ‘to give joy’. “Vasa” plus “ta” is equal to “Vasanta”, a nasal being added in the middle. The word Grīṣma is a compound of “Gri” plus “ra”, “ra” means ‘to give’ and “gri” means ‘water’, the giver of water or it is derived from the root gri ‘to drink or swallow’; becauswe the Lord swallos up the oceans and dries up all waters and so is called Grīṣma. He is called Varṣā because He showers or rains (Varṣaṇa) all blessings on his devotees. He is called Śarat because He hives (rāti) prosperity (śam) to his devotees. He is called Hemanta because He causes cold (hima). Thus all these season names are primarily the names of the Lord.

We get the five-foldness of seasons by taking Hemanta (autumn) and Śiśīra as one. The Lord has the names of the seasons either because He pervades the seasons, or because He is righteousness and therefore He is called Ṛtu; or because He gives to seasons their seasonableness or because He is all-knowing. One who meditates on the five-fold Viṣṇu in this manner, for him that Lord gives salvation and all other desires; for Janārdana resides in the seasons. His worshipper who is always devoted to Him, is always protected by Him. The Supreme Person is called Vasanta, because He causes happiness to the Jīva in which He dwells. He is called Grīṣma because He swallows up the waters, He is called Varṣā, because He rains all auspicious things. He is called Śarat because He gives happiness. He is called Hemanta because he causes cold.

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