Grishma, Grīṣma: 20 definitions


Grishma means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Grīṣma can be transliterated into English as Grisma or Grishma, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

Alternative spellings of this word include Grishm.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Grīṣma (ग्रीष्म, “summer”):—One of the six season of the year, comprising the months Jyeṣṭha and Āṣāḍha.—This season takes place dusing visarga, when the sun is dominant, and draws out the nutrient essence of the living beings. In these months, Vāyu-doṣa is accumulated. A skilled physician should moniter these conditions during the treatment of a patient.

Source: Sushruta samhita, Volume II

Grishma is the Hindu season corresponding to summer. Summer is marked by two months known as Shuchi and Shukra (Jaistha and Ashadha).

The said plants and vegetables, in their turn, lose their sap, moisture and nutritive element in summer, and become dry and extremely light. In the same manner water becomes drought-making [produces a state of parchedness in the organism—Ruksha] in its virtue, and considerably loses its natural coolness and nutritive properties. The sun’s rays dry up the natural moisture of the human system, and accordingly water and vegetables largely partaken of in summer, give rise to an accumulation of wind in the system owing to their lightness, dryness, or expansive and drought-making properties.

Subsequently wind thus accumulated in the summer, is agitated by the rains and cold winds in the forepart of the rainy season (Pravrit) when the ground is flooded with water and thus gives rise to diseases which are incidental to a deranged state of the bodily wind.

Diseases which owe their origin to a deranged state of bile, phlegm and wind, are respectively ameliorated in Hemanta, summer, and autumn by natural causes, [such as the variations of atmospheric or earthly temperature, rainfall, etc.].

The sun’s rays become stronger and more intense in summer. Unhealthy winds blow from the south-east. The earth is heated ; the rivers run narrow and shallow in their beds ; the quarters of the sky glare with a blazing light, the birds Chakravákas with their mates roam about in quest of cool ponds and reservoirs of water ; herds of deer are tormented and overwhelmed with thirst ; trees, plants and creepers are scorched by the intense heat, and withered leaves drop off from the trees which alone serve to make the identification of their parents possible.

Source: Ancient Science of Life: Yogaśataka of Pandita Vararuci

Grīṣma (ग्रीष्म) refers to the “summer season”, whose pitta-provocative symptoms are dealt with in the 10th century Yogaśataka written by Pandita Vararuci.—The Yogaśataka of Pandita Vararuci is an example of this category. This book attracts reader by its very easy language and formulations which can be easily prepared and have small number of herbs. It describes only those formulations which are the most common and can be used in majority conditions of diseases (viz., in Grīṣma).

The 101st stanza is related with provocation of Doṣas in particular seasons. Seasons for provocation of Vāta are Hemanta (Jan-Feb), Varṣa (Rainy season) and Śiśira (Dec-Jan). Season for provocation of Pitta is Grīṣma (summer) and Śarad (Oct-Nov) while for provocation of Kapha is Vasanta (Feb-Mar).

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Natya Shastra

Grīṣma (ग्रीष्म).—The summer (grīṣma) is to be indicated through the representation of the heat of the earth, fans, wiping off sweat and feeling the hot wind.

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Arcana-dipika - 3rd Edition

Grīṣma (ग्रीष्म) refers to the “summer” season and represents the months Vaiśākha to Āṣāḍha (mid May to mid July) and is one of the six “seasons” (ṛtu).—According to the Vedic calendar, there are six different seasons, which correspond to the twelve months of the year.

Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Grīṣma (ग्रीष्म) refers to the months June and July, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 3), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “If in Śiśira (February, March) the sun be of copper colour or red black, if, in Vasanta (April, May), blue crimson, if, in Grīṣma (June, July), slightly white and of gold color, if, in Varṣā (August, September), white, if, in Śarada (October, November), of the colour of the centre of the lotus, if, in Hemanta (December, January), of blood color, mankind will be happy. If, in Varṣā (August, September), the rays of the sun be soft, mankind will be happy even though the sun should be of any of the colors mentioned above”.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Grīṣma.—(EI 24; CII 4), one of the three seasons constituting the ancient Indian official year; the four months from Caitra ba-di 1 to Āṣāḍha su-di 15. Note: grīṣma is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

grīṣma (ग्रीष्म).—m (S) grīṣmartu m S The hot season; comprehending two months, about June-July.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

grīṣma (ग्रीष्म).—m The hot season.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Grīṣma (ग्रीष्म).—a. [grasate rasān; gras-manin Uṇādi-sūtra 1.147] Hot, warm.

-ṣmaḥ 1 The summer, the hot season, corresponding to the months of Jyeṣṭha and Āṣāḍha; ग्रीष्म- समयमधिकृत्य गीयताम् (grīṣma- samayamadhikṛtya gīyatām) Ś.1; R.16.54; Bv.1.35.

2) Heat, warmth.

-ṣmī The नवमल्लिका (navamallikā) plant.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Grīṣma (ग्रीष्म).—mfn.

(-ṣmaḥ-ṣmā-ṣmaṃ) Hot, warm. m.

(-ṣmaḥ) 1. The hot season, comprehending two months, about June July. 2. Heat, warmth. f. (-ṣmī) Jasmin. E. gras to take, &c. manin Unadi affix, and the deriv. irr. grasate rasān .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Grīṣma (ग्रीष्म).—m. The hot season, comprehending about June and July, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 3, 261.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Grīṣma (ग्रीष्म).—[masculine] summer.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Grīṣma (ग्रीष्म):—m. (√gras, [Uṇādi-sūtra]) the summer, hot season (the months Śuci and Śukra, [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā xiv, 6; Suśruta]; or Jyeṣṭha and Āṣāḍha, from the middle of May to the middle of July), [Ṛg-veda x, 90, 6; Atharva-veda] etc.

2) summer heat, heat, [Pañcatantra]

3) Name of a man [gana] aśvādi

4) Grīṣmā (ग्रीष्मा):—[from grīṣma] f. Symplocos racemosa, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

5) Grīṣma (ग्रीष्म):—cf. [Hibernian or Irish] gris, ‘fire’; griosgaim, ‘I fry, boil’; griosach, ‘burning embers.’

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Grīṣma (ग्रीष्म):—(ṣmaḥ) 1. m. The hot season; heat. (ṣmī) f. Jasmin. a. Hot.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Grīṣma (ग्रीष्म) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Gihya, Ghi, Ghiṃsu.

[Sanskrit to German]

Grishma in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Grishma in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Grīṣma (ग्रीष्म) [Also spelled grishm]:—(nm) the summer; —[kāla] summer season; ~[kālīna] pertaining to or of the summer season, summer.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Grīṣma (ಗ್ರೀಷ್ಮ):—

1) [noun] second of the six seasons (consisting of Jyēṣṭha and Āṣāḍha, the third and fourth months of the year); the summer season.

2) [noun] much hotness; great warmth.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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