Virodhabhasa, Virodhābhāsa, Virodha-abhasa: 3 definitions

Introduction

Virodhabhasa means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

[«previous (V) next»] — Virodhabhasa in Natyashastra glossary
Source: Shodhganga: Mankhaka a sanskrit literary genius (natya)

Virodhābhāsa (विरोधाभास, “contradiction”) refers to a type of Alaṃkāra (figure of speech).—When there is an apparent incongruity between a genus and any of the four beginning with genus (jāti, guṇa, kriyā and dravya), between a quality and any of the three beginning with quality, between an action and another action or substance, or between two substances, there is Virodha, which has thus, ten varieties.

Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyavilasa of Ciranjiva Bhattacarya (natyashastra)

Virodhābhāsa (विरोधाभास) refers to one of the 93 alaṃkāras (“figures of speech”) mentioned by Cirañjīva Bhaṭṭācārya (fl. 17th century) in his Kāvyavilāsa and is listed as one of the 89 arthālaṃkāras (figure of speech determined by the sense, as opposed to sound).—Cirañjīva and Jayadeva (the author of Candrāloka) has treated the figures virodha and virodhābhāsa separately. Cirañjīva defines virodhābhāsa as—“śleṣādibhirvirodhaścedvirodhābhāsa ucyate”. This definition reminds us of the definition of virodhābhāsa given by Jayadeva in his Candrāloka (C.L.V/75)—“śleṣādibhūrvirodhaścedvirodhābhāsatā matā”.

When there is no actual contradiction, but the contradiction appear by the use of Paronomasia, it is the figure virodhābhāsa.When at least two meanings are conveyed by the same word it is called śleṣa. In this figure virodhābhāsa, contradiction appears first by the use of śleṣa. But ultimately this contradiction disappears. If the contradiction lasts up to the end, it will not be the figure virodhābhāsa.

Example of the virodhābhāsa-alaṃkāra:—

śivo’pi na śivāprabhuḥ sa madano’pi no manmathaḥ kalānidhitayā sphurannapi sadā na doṣākaraḥ |
bhavannapi patiḥ śriyo na ca janārdanatvaṃ gata stadadbhutoguṇattaro hṛdayabhūpatirbhāsate ||

“Though the king is the lord Śiva, yet he is not the husband of Śivā. Though he is cupid yet he is not the tormentor of mine. Though he is blazing as the repository of kalās, yet he is not the moon being the lord of fortune he is not Viśṇu. So the king shines with those marvellous qualities of heart”.

Notes: In this verse contradiction appears first due to śleṣa. If we go through the actual meaning of the verse hidden by the use of śleṣa, the contradiction will disappear. The God Śiva is surely the lord of Pārvati, this king being Śiva is not the lord of Śivāor Pārvati. Here is the contradiction, which appears in the first reading. But this contradiction is apparent. The word Śiva by śleṣa means the god Śiva and also one who is of beneficial nature. So the king is Śiva, i.e of beneficial nature and at the same time Śivāprabhu i.e. he is not in capable of doing good to others. There are persons who are of good nature but they are not capable of doing good to others. But this king is of good nature and at the same time capable of doing good to others. So there is no contradiction in this verse. The other statements regarding the king made in this verse may be explained in this manner. So it is an example of virodhābhāsa.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit-English dictionary

[«previous (V) next»] — Virodhabhasa in Sanskrit glossary
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Virodhābhāsa (विरोधाभास).—m.

(-saḥ) A rhetorical inconsistency which is apparent and can be explained away; it consists in describing things as existing together though in the nature of things they ought not so to exist. E. virodhaḥ ivā bhāsate ā + bhās-ac .

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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