Tattvartha Sutra (with commentary)

by Vijay K. Jain | 2018 | 130,587 words | ISBN-10: 8193272625 | ISBN-13: 9788193272626

This page describes the divisions of time (kala-vibhaga) which is verse 4.14 of the English translation of the Tattvartha Sutra which represents the essentials of Jainism and Jain dharma and deals with the basics on Karma, Cosmology, Ethics, Celestial beings and Liberation. The Tattvarthasutra is authorative among both Digambara and Shvetambara. This is verse 14 of the chapter The Celestial Beings and includes an extensive commentary.

Verse 4.14 - The divisions of time (kāla-vibhāga)

Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation of Tattvartha sūtra 4.14:

तत्कृतः कालविभागः ॥ ४.१४ ॥

tatkṛtaḥ kālavibhāgaḥ || 4.14 ||

The divisions of time are caused by those luminary deva (jyotiṣī deva). (14)

Hindi Anvayarth:

अन्वयार्थ: घड़ी, घंटा, दिवस, रात इत्यादि व्यवहारकाल का जो विभाग है, वह गतिशील ज्योतिषी देवों के द्वारा किया जाता है।

Anvayartha: ghadi, ghamta, divasa, rata ityadi vyavaharakala ka jo vibhaga hai, vaha gatishila jyotishi devom ke dvara kiya jata hai |

Explanation in English from Ācārya Pūjyapāda’s Sarvārthasiddhi:

That conventional time is related to the motion of the luminary deva is mentioned in the next sūtra.

The word ‘tad’ is intended to indicate the luminary deva (jyotiṣī deva), in motion. Time cannot be measured either by mere motion (gati) or by mere brilliance (jyoti), for time will then be non-perceptible and unchangeable. That is why the sūtra refers to luminary deva (jyotiṣī deva), in motion. Time is of two kinds, conventional time (vyavahāra kāla) and real time (mukhya kāla). Conventional time consists of ‘samaya’, ‘āvali’, etc., which are divisions of time as established by the Stellar deva in motion. Conventional time is determined by particular activity and the means of ascertaining what has not been ascertained. Real time is different and it is explained later on.

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