Upashama, Upasama, Upaśama: 15 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Upashama means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Buddhism, Pali, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Upaśama can be transliterated into English as Upasama or Upashama, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: archive.org: Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita (first 5 chapters)

Upaśama (उपशम) refers to “assuagement”, as mentioned in verse 4.33-34 of the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā (Sūtrasthāna) by Vāgbhaṭa.—Accordingly, “[...] avoidance of offences against wisdom, assuagement of the senses [viz., indriya-upaśama], awareness, knowledge of region, season, and constitution, (and) imitation of the conduct of sages: this method (has been) taught in brief for the non-arising of endogenous and accidental diseases and for the alleviation of (those which have) arisen”.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Jaina Yoga

Upaśama (उपशम, “tranquility”) refers to an aspect of samyaktva (right belief) classified under the guṇa, while its synonym śama falls under the liṅga heading, according to various Jain authors (e.g., Cāmuṇḍarāya, Amitagati and Vasunandin). Hemacandra, in his 12th century Yogaśāstra verse 2.15 takes upaśama or śama to imply the stilling of the kaṣāyas.

Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Upaśama (उपशम) refers to the “subsidence (of karma)”, according to chapter 1.1 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.

Accordingly,

“[...] Vajranābha instantly became completely acquainted with the ocean of scriptures, just as if the twelve aṅgas visible to the eye had become combined in one living body. Bāhu and the others were learned in eleven aṅgas. For the wealth of merit is varied in accordance with the variation in destruction (kṣaya) and subsidence (upaśama) of karma”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Upashama in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

upasama : (m.) calmness; appeasement.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Upasama, (Sk. upaśama, upa + śam) calm, quiet, appeasement, allaying, assuagement, tranquillizing Vin I 10 = S. IV, 331 = V. 421 (in frequent phrase upasamāya abhiññāya sambodhāya nibbānāya saṃvattati; see nibbāna III, 7); D. I, 50; III, 130 sq. , 136 sq. , 229 (as one of the 4 objects of adhiṭṭhāna, viz. paññā° sacca° cāga° upasama°); M. I, 67; III, 246; S. I, 30, 34 (sīlena), 46 citta-v-ûpasama), 48, 55; II, 223, 277; III, 86 (saṅkhārānaṃ ... v-ūpasamo) D. II, 157; S. I, 158 (see vūpasama and saṅkhāra); (ariyaṃ maggaṃ dukkh°-gāminaṃ); IV, 62, 331; V, 65 (avūpasama), 179, 234 (°gāmin), 378 sq.; A. I, 3 (avūpasama), 30, 42; II, 14 (vitakk°); III, 325 sq.; V, 216, 238 sq.; Sn. 257, 724, 735, 737; It. 18 (dukkh°) 83; Dh. 205; Nd1 351; J. I, 97; Ps. I, 95; Miln. 170, 248; Vism. 197 (°ânussati); Sdhp. 587. Cp. vi° (vū°). (Page 147)

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

upaśama (उपशम).—m S upaśānti f S Assuagement, mitigation, abatement (as of anger, pain, fever): tranquillity or calmness after excitement. Ex. māyēśīṃ hōya upaśānti || kēvaḷa urē jñapti || Let but māyā (Illusion) subside or cease, there will remain Pure knowledge or truth.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

upaśama (उपशम).—m upaśānti f Assuagement, mitigation, abatement.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Upaśama (उपशम).—

1) Becoming quiet, assuagement, pacification; कुतोऽस्या उपशमः (kuto'syā upaśamaḥ) Ve.3; मन्युर्दुःसह एष यात्युपशमं नो सान्त्ववादैः स्फुटम् (manyurduḥsaha eṣa yātyupaśamaṃ no sāntvavādaiḥ sphuṭam) Amaru.6; cessation, stopping, extinction.

2) Relaxation, intermission.

3) Tranquility, calmness, patience; उपशमशीलाः परमर्षयः (upaśamaśīlāḥ paramarṣayaḥ) Bhāg.5.4.27. उपशमायनेषु स्वतनयेषु (upaśamāyaneṣu svatanayeṣu) Bhāg.5.1.29. ज्ञानस्योपशमः (jñānasyopaśamaḥ) Bh.2.82.

4) Control or restraint of the senses.

5) (in Astrono.) Name of the twentieth Muhūrta.

Derivable forms: upaśamaḥ (उपशमः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Upaśama (उपशम).—m.

(-maḥ) 1. Tranquillity, calmness, patience. 2. Intermission, cessation. E. upa much, śam to be tranquil, ap aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Upaśama (उपशम).—[upa-śam + a], m. 1. Ceasing, Mahābhārata 1, 758. 2. Calmness, [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 2, 80.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Upaśama (उपशम).—[masculine] coming to rest, cessation, tranquillity.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Upaśama (उपशम):—[=upa-śama] [from upa-śam] m. the becoming quiet, assuagement, alleviation, stopping, cessation, relaxation, intermission, [Māṇḍūkya-upaniṣad, 12 mantra; Prabodha-candrodaya; Pañcatantra] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] tranquillity of mind, calmness, patience, [Mahābhārata iii; Bhartṛhari; Śāntiśataka]

3) [v.s. ...] (in [astronomy]) Name of the twentieth Muhūrta.

[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch

Upaśama (उपशम):—(von śam mit upa) m. das zur-Ruhe-Gelangen, Nachlassen, Aufhören: prapañcopaśama [Māṇḍūkyopaniṣad 7.] na hi me manyuradyāpyupaśamaṃ gacchati [Mahābhārata 1, 785.] [Amaruśataka 5.] rogopaśama [Suśruta 1, 1, 11. 20, 2. 21, 2. 4. 2, 1, 8.] dāhopaśama [Pañcatantra 255, 2.] parītāpopa [Śihlana’s Śāntiśataka 1] in der Unterschr. bhayopa [Hitopadeśa 57, 11.] vṛṣṭerupaśamaḥ [80, 21.] Ruhe: jagatyupaśamaṃ (lies: me) jāte naṣṭayajñotsavakriye [Mahābhārata 3, 8753.] tathāyamapi kṛtakartavyaḥ saṃprati paramāmupaśamaniṣṭhāṃ prāptaḥ [Prabodhacandrodaja 5, 15.] Ruhe des Gemüths [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 304.] (vibhūṣaṇam) jñānasyopaśamaḥ [Bhartṛhari 2, 80.]

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Upaśama (उपशम):—, prapañcopaśama [WEBER, Rāmatāpanīya Upaniṣad 338. 343.] karmaṇaḥ [SARVADARŚANAS. 34, 10.] śrutaṃ kiṃ tadvā syādupaśamaphalaṃ yanna bhavati Ruhe des Gemüthes [Spr. 2845. 4821.] [Oxforder Handschriften 354,a,33.] kṣaya m. bei den Jaina das zu-Nichte-Werden des Thätigkeitsdranges in Folge des zur-Ruhe-Kommens [SARVADARŚANAS. 34, 5. Z. 5] ist mit der ed. Bomb. upaśamaṃ yāte zu lesen.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Sanskrit-Wörterbuch in kürzerer Fassung

Upaśama (उपशम):—m.

1) das zur Ruhe Gelangen , Nachlassen , Aufhören , Erlöschen.

2) Ruhe , — des Gemüths [Mahābhārata 3,102,17.] —

3) Bez. des 20ten Muhūrta [Indische studien von Weber 10,296.]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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