Upasarga; 11 Definition(s)

Introduction

Upasarga means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Purana

[Upasarga in Purana glossaries]

Upasarga (उपसर्ग).—Accidents to yoga are the results of satva, rājasa and tāmasa guṇas.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 12. 5-6.
(Source): Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

[Upasarga in Natyashastra glossaries]

Upasarga (उपसर्ग) refers to “prepositions” (in Sanskrit grammar) and forms part of the “verbal representation” (vācika), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 15. Vācika itself represents one of the four categories of representation (abhinaya).

(Source): Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Upasarga (उपसर्ग, “preposition”).—Those that upasṛjanti (“modify”) by their own special significance the meaning of the verbal roots included in the basic words are for that very reason called upasarga (“preposition”) in the ‘science of grammar’ (saṃṣkāra-śāstra).

(Source): archive.org: Natya Shastra
Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

[Upasarga in Vyakarana glossaries]

Upasarga (उपसर्ग).—Prefixes which are added before the verbs.

(Source): Shodhganga: Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇasāra: a critical study

Upasarga (उपसर्ग).—Preposition, prefix. The word उसपर्ग (usaparga) originally meant only 'a prefixed word': cf. सोपसर्गेषु नामसु (sopasargeṣu nāmasu) R. Pr. XVI. 38. The word became technically applied by ancient Sanskrit Gratmmarians to the words प्र, परा, अप, सम् (pra, parā, apa, sam) etc. which are always used along with a verb or a verbal derivative or a noun showing a verbal activity; cf. उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे (upasargāḥ kriyāyoge) P. I. 4.59. 'These prefixes are necessariiy compounded with the following word unless the latter is a verbal form; cf. कुगतिप्रादयः (kugatiprādayaḥ) P.II. 2.18. Although they are not compounded with a verbal form, these prepositions are used in juxtaposition with it; sometimes they are found detached from the verbal form even with the intervention of one word or more. The prefixes are instrumental in changing the meaning of the root. Some scholars like Śākaṭāyana hold the view that separated from the roots, prefixes do not express any specific sense as ordinary words express, while scholars like Gārgya hold the view that prefixes do express a sense e. g. प्र (pra) means beginning or प्रारम्भ (prārambha); cf. न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः । नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयोगद्योतका भवन्ति । उच्चावचाः पदार्था भवन्तीति गार्ग्यः । तद्य एषु पदार्थः प्राहुरिमं तं नामाख्यातयोरर्थविकरणम् (na nirbaddhā upasargā arthānnirāhuriti śākaṭāyanaḥ | nāmākhyātayostu karmopasaṃyogadyotakā bhavanti | uccāvacāḥ padārthā bhavantīti gārgyaḥ | tadya eṣu padārthaḥ prāhurimaṃ taṃ nāmākhyātayorarthavikaraṇam) Nir. I. 8. It is doubtful, however, which view Pāṇini himself held. In his Ātmanepada topic, he has mentioned some specific roots 11 as possessing some specific senses when preceded by some specific prefixes (see P. I. 3.20, 24, 25, 40, 4l, 46, 52, 56, etc.), which implies possibly that roots themselves possess various senses, while prefixes are simply instrumental in indicating or showing them. On the other hand, in the topic of the Karmapravacanīyas,the same words प्र, परा (pra, parā) etc. which, however, are not termed Upasargas for the time being, although they are called Nipātas, are actually assigned some specific senses by Pāṇini. The Vārttikakāra has defined उपसर्ग (upasarga) as क्रियाविशेषक उपसर्गः (kriyāviśeṣaka upasargaḥ) P. I. 3.I. Vārt 7, leaving it doubtful whether the उपसर्ग (upasarga) or prefix possesses an independent sense which modifies the sense of the root, or without possessing any independent sense, it shows only the modified sense of the root which also is possessed by the root. Bhartṛhari, Kaiyaṭa and their followers including Nāgeśa have emphatically given the view that not only prefixes but Nipātas, which include प्र, परा (pra, parā) and others as Upasargas as well as Karmapravacanīyas, do not denote any sense, but they indicate it; they are in fact द्योतक (dyotaka) and not वाचक (vācaka). For details see Nir. I. 3, Vākyapadīya II. 190, Mahābhāṣya on I. 3.1. Vārt. 7 and Pradīpa and Uddyota thereon. The Ṛk Prātiśākhya has discussed the question in XII. 6-9 where, as explained by the commentator, it is stated that prefixes express a sense along with roots or nouns to which they are attached. It is not clear whether they convey the sense by denotation or indication, the words वाचक (vācaka) in stanza 6 and विशेषकृत् (viśeṣakṛt) in stanza 8 being in favour of the former and the latter views respectively; cf उपसर्गा विंशतिरर्थवाचकाः सहेतराभ्यामितरे निपाताः (upasargā viṃśatirarthavācakāḥ sahetarābhyāmitare nipātāḥ); क्रियावाचकभाख्यातमुपसर्गो विशेषकृत्, सत्त्वाभि-धायकं नाम निपातः पादपूरणः (kriyāvācakabhākhyātamupasargo viśeṣakṛt, sattvābhi-dhāyakaṃ nāma nipātaḥ pādapūraṇaḥ) R. Pr. XII. st. 6 and 8. For the list of upasargas see R. Pr. XII. 6, T. Pr. I. 15, V. Pr. VI.24, and S. K. on P. I.4.60.

(Source): Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Upasarga (उपसर्ग, “prefixes”) represents one of the four classes of words according to Pāṇini (7th century BCE) in his works Aṣṭādhyāyī dealing with vyākaraṇa (grammar): the science of analysis of sentences and words. Upasargas are words such as pra-, pari-, which are used in the beginning of some other word, a verb or a verbal derivative or a noun, to make a new word that means some activity.

(Source): Knowledge Traditions & Practices of India: Language and Grammar (vyakarana)
context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Nirukta (Sanskrit etymology)

[Upasarga in Nirukta glossaries]

Upasarga (उपसर्ग, “prefixes”) represents one of the four classes of words according to Pāṇini (7th century BCE) and Yāska (9th century BCE) in his works dealing with Nirukta (etymology): the science of study of the meaning of words used in texts. Yāska classifies all words into four classes: nāma (nouns and pronouns), ākhyāta (verbs), upasarga (prefixes) and nipāta (indeclinables).

(Source): Knowledge Traditions & Practices of India: Language and Grammar (nirukta)
context information

Nirukta (निरुक्त) or “etymology” refers to the linguistic analysis of the Sanskrit language. This branch studies the interpretation of common and ancient words and explains them in their proper context. Nirukta is one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

[Upasarga in Jainism glossaries]

Upasarga (उपसर्ग) refers to a type of “attack” frequently associated with the parīṣahas, but arise from quite different sources. In the Uvāsagadasāo 119, they are said to arise from gods, men, and animals. In the Sthānāṅgasūtra one’s own body is added to the sources, and each source has four subdivisions, making 16 kinds of attacks. Sthānāṅga 777, com., p. 523. See Hoernle, Uvāsagadasāo Appendix III, p. 47.

(Source): archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra Vol-i
General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

[Upasarga in Marathi glossaries]

upasarga (उपसर्ग).—m (S) A particle prefixed to roots &c., as pra, parā, upa, abhi, anu, an inseparable preposition. 3 Laxly. Troubling, worrying, oppressing; annoyance, molestation, harassment. 2 A portent; a prodigy boding evil.

(Source): DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

upasarga (उपसर्ग).—m A particle prefixed to roots, &c. Annoyance, molestation, harass- ment. A portent. Bye-product.

(Source): DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

[Upasarga in Sanskrit glossaries]

Upasarga (उपसर्ग).—See under उपसृ, -सृज्, -सृप् (upasṛ, -sṛj, -sṛp).

See also (synonyms): upasara, upasarpaṇa.

--- OR ---

Upasarga (उपसर्ग).—

1) Sickness, disease, change occasioned by a disease; also a disease superinduced on another; क्षीणं हन्युश्चोपसर्गाः प्रभूताः (kṣīṇaṃ hanyuścopasargāḥ prabhūtāḥ) Suśr.

2) Misfortune, trouble, calamity, injury, harm; प्रशमिताशेषोपसर्गाः प्रजाः (praśamitāśeṣopasargāḥ prajāḥ) Ratn.1.1; सोपसर्गं वो नक्षत्रम् (sopasargaṃ vo nakṣatram) M.4. sorrow; आपेदे उपसर्गस्तं तमः सूर्यमिवासुरम् (āpede upasargastaṃ tamaḥ sūryamivāsuram) Rām.2.63.2.

3) Portent, natural phenomenon foreboding evil.

4) An eclipse.

5) An indication or symptom of death.

6) Addition.

7) Possession by an evil spirit.

8) A preposition prefixed to roots; निपाताश्चादयो ज्ञेयाः प्रादयस्तूपसर्गकाः । द्योतकत्वात् क्रियायोगे लोकादवगता इमे ॥ उपसर्गास्तु विज्ञेयाः क्रियायोगेन विंशतिः । विवेचयन्ति ते ह्यर्थं नामाख्यातविभक्तिषु ॥ बृहद्देवता (nipātāścādayo jñeyāḥ prādayastūpasargakāḥ | dyotakatvāt kriyāyoge lokādavagatā ime || upasargāstu vijñeyāḥ kriyāyogena viṃśatiḥ | vivecayanti te hyarthaṃ nāmākhyātavibhaktiṣu || bṛhaddevatā); आख्यातमुपगृह्यार्थविशेषमिमे तस्यैव सृजन्तीत्युपसर्गाः (ākhyātamupagṛhyārthaviśeṣamime tasyaiva sṛjantītyupasargāḥ) | Durga under Nirukta 1.3. उपेत्य नामाख्यातयोरर्थस्य विशेषं सृजन्त्युत्पादयन्ती- त्युपसर्गाः (upetya nāmākhyātayorarthasya viśeṣaṃ sṛjantyutpādayantī- tyupasargāḥ) | Skanda. The नाट्यशास्त्र (nāṭyaśāstra) defines उपसर्ग (upasarga) thus: प्रातिपदिकार्थयुक्तं धात्वर्थमुपसृजन्ति ये स्वार्थैः । उपसर्गा उपदिष्टास्तस्मात् संस्कारशास्त्रेऽस्मिन् (prātipadikārthayuktaṃ dhātvarthamupasṛjanti ye svārthaiḥ | upasargā upadiṣṭāstasmāt saṃskāraśāstre'smin) || A poetaster has framed the following समस्यापूरण (samasyāpūraṇa) stanza with the rule उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे (upasargāḥ kriyāyoge) (Pāṇini I.4.59); उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे पाणिनेरपि संमयम् । निष्क्रियोऽपि तवारातिः सोपसर्गः सदा कथम् (upasargāḥ kriyāyoge pāṇinerapi saṃmayam | niṣkriyo'pi tavārātiḥ sopasargaḥ sadā katham) || Upasargas are 2 in number:- प्र, परा, अप, सम्, अनु, अव, निस् (pra, parā, apa, sam, anu, ava, nis) or निर्, दुस् (nir, dus) or दुर्, वि, आ (dur, vi, ā) (), नि, अधि, अपि, अति, सु, उत्, अभि, प्रति, परि, उप (ni, adhi, api, ati, su, ut, abhi, prati, pari, upa); or 22 if निस्-निर् (nis-nir) and दुस्-दुर् (dus-dur) be taken as separate words. There are two theories as to the character of these prepositions. According to one theory roots have various meanings in themselves (anekārthā hi dhātavaḥ); when prepositions are prefixed to them they simply bring to light those meanings already existent but hidden in them, but they do not express them, being meaningless themselves; cf. Śi.1.15:सन्तमेव चिरमप्रकृतत्वादप्रकाशितमदिद्युतदङ्गे । विभ्रमं मधुमदः प्रमदानां धातुलीनमुपसर्ग इवार्थम् (santameva ciramaprakṛtatvādaprakāśitamadidyutadaṅge | vibhramaṃ madhumadaḥ pramadānāṃ dhātulīnamupasarga ivārtham) || According to the other theory prepositions express their own independent meanings; they modify, intensify, and sometimes entirely alter, the senses of roots; cf. Sk.:- उपसर्गेण धात्वर्थो बलादन्यत्र नीयते । प्रहाराहारसंहारविहारपरिहारवत् (upasargeṇa dhātvartho balādanyatra nīyate | prahārāhārasaṃhāravihāraparihāravat) || cf. also धात्वर्थं बाधते कश्चित्कश्चित्तमनुवर्तते । तमेव विशिनष्टयन्य उपसर्गगतिस्त्रिधा (dhātvarthaṃ bādhate kaścitkaścittamanuvartate | tameva viśinaṣṭayanya upasargagatistridhā) || (The latter theory appears to be more correct. For a fuller exposition see Nirukta).

9) An obstacle; ते समाधावुपसर्गा व्युत्थाने सिद्धयः । योगसूत्र (te samādhāvupasargā vyutthāne siddhayaḥ | yogasūtra)s 3.39.

Derivable forms: upasargaḥ (उपसर्गः).

(Source): DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Relevant definitions

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