Tattvartha Sutra (with commentary)

by Vijay K. Jain | 2018 | 130,587 words | ISBN-10: 8193272625 | ISBN-13: 9788193272626

This page describes attainment of right faith which is verse 1.3 of the English translation of the Tattvartha Sutra which represents the essentials of Jainism and Jain dharma and deals with the basics on Karma, Cosmology, Ethics, Celestial beings and Liberation. The Tattvarthasutra is authorative among both Digambara and Shvetambara. This is verse 3 of the chapter Right Faith and Knowledge and includes an extensive commentary.

Verse 1.3 - Attainment of right faith

Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation of Tattvartha sūtra 1.3:

तन्निसर्गादधिगमाद्वा ॥ १.३ ॥

tannisargādadhigamādvā || 1.3 ||

That–samyagdarśana–is attained by intuition–svabhāva, or by acquisition of knowledge–adhigama. (3)

Hindi Anvayarth:

अन्वयार्थ: [तत्] वह सम्यग्दर्शन [निसर्गात्] स्वभाव से [वा] / अथवा [अधिगमात्] दूसरे के उपदेशादि से उत्पन्न होता है।

Anvayartha: [tat] vaha samyagdarshana [nisargat] svabhava se [va] / athava [adhigamat] dusare ke upadeshadi se utpanna hota hai |

Explanation in English from Ācārya Pūjyapāda’s Sarvārthasiddhi:

How does the right faith that concerns substances–souls and non-souls–arise?

The word ‘nisarga’ means own-nature (svabhāva) and ‘adhigama’ means cognizance (avabodha). Both are causes. Of what? Of activity. Which activity? Origination. Origination of what? Right faith (samyagdarśana). Thus, the sūtra expounds that right faith (samyagdarśana) originates from own-nature–svabhāva, and cognizance of the objects of knowledge–adhigama.

Now the question arises whether right faith (samyagdarśana) entails the knowledge of the substances. If yes, then right faith (samyagdarśana) must originate only after the cognizance of the objects of knowledge–adhigama. If not, then how can one have faith without first acquiring the knowledge of the substance? There is no anomaly in this. In both cases of origination of right faith (samyagdarśana), the internal cause is the subsidence (upaśama), destruction (kṣaya), or subsidence-cum-destruction (kṣayopaśama) of faith-deluding (darśanamohanīya) karmas. When this internal cause is present, right faith (samyagdarśana) originates without teaching by others; this is the first type of right faith–originating from own-nature–nisargaja samyagdarśana. And the second type of right faith originates on acquisition of knowledge of substances, souls and non-souls, on teaching by others; this is adhigamaja samyagdarśana. This is the difference between the two types of right faith (samyag-darśana). Thus, the first type of right faith (samyagdarśana) originates without teaching by others and the second type on teaching by others.

 

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