Tattvartha Sutra (with commentary)

by Vijay K. Jain | 2018 | 130,587 words | ISBN-10: 8193272625 | ISBN-13: 9788193272626

This page describes distinctive characteristics of the soul (jiva) which is verse 2.1 of the English translation of the Tattvartha Sutra which represents the essentials of Jainism and Jain dharma and deals with the basics on Karma, Cosmology, Ethics, Celestial beings and Liberation. The Tattvarthasutra is authorative among both Digambara and Shvetambara. This is verse 1 of the chapter Category of the Living and includes an extensive commentary.

Verse 2.1 - Distinctive characteristics of the soul (jīva)

Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation of Tattvartha sūtra 2.1:

औपशमिकक्षायिकौ भावौ मिश्रश्च जीवस्य स्वतत्त्वमौदयिकपारिणामिकौ च ॥ २.१ ॥

aupaśamikakṣāyikau bhāvau miśraśca jīvasya svatattvamaudayikapāriṇāmikau ca || 2.1 ||

The distinctive characteristics (svatattva) of the soul (jīva) are the dispositions or thought-activities–bhāva–arising from subsidence–upaśama, destruction–kṣaya, destruction-cum-subsidence–kṣayopaśama–of karmas, the fruition–udaya–of karmas, and its inherent nature or capacity–pariṇāma. (1)

Hindi Anvayarth:

अन्वयार्थ: [जीवस्य] जीव के [औपशमिकक्षायिकौ] औपशमिक और क्षायिक [भावौ] भाव [च मिश्रः] और मिश्र तथा [औदयिक-पारिणामिकौ च] औदयिक और पारिणामिक यह पाँच भाव [स्वतत्त्वम्] निजभाव हैं अर्थात् यह जीव के अतिरिक्त दूसरे में नहीं होते।

Anvayartha: [jivasya] jiva ke [aupashamikakshayikau] aupashamika aura kshayika [bhavau] bhava [ca mishrah] aura mishra tatha [audayika-parinamikau ca] audayika aura parinamika yaha pamca bhava [svatattvam] nijabhava haim arthat yaha jiva ke atirikta dusare mem nahim hote |

Explanation in English from Ācārya Pūjyapāda’s Sarvārthasiddhi:

What is the nature of the soul (jīva), which is the first of the objects of right faith?

Just as the mud in the water settles down when clearing nuts are put into it, so also the karmic matter does not manifest its power in the soul due to causes (i.e., the disposition of the soul). This is called subsidence (upaśama). When the same water is poured into another vessel it becomes completely free from mud. In the same way, complete removal of the karmic matter is destruction (kṣaya). The third state is a mixed state of destruction-cum-subsidence (kṣayopaśama), as in case of the water, which, owing to the presence of clearing nuts, becomes clear as well as muddy in different parts. The fruition of karmas in the presence of certain causes is fruition (udaya). The essential nature (svarūpa) of the soul, irrespective of the karmic matter, is its inherent nature or capacity–pariṇāma. That disposition (bhāva), which has subsidence as its object or cause, is subsidential (aupaśamika). Similarly with regard to destructional (kṣāyika), destruction-cum-subsidential (kṣāyopaśamika), rising (audāyika) and inherent nature (pāriṇāmika). These five dispositions (bhāva) are the distinctive (asādhāraṇa) characteristics–svatattva–of the soul.

The subject under consideration is right belief (samyagdarśana). And among the three kinds of right belief, subsidential (aupaśamika) disposition (bhāva) is attained first by the soul. So it is mentioned first. The contender of the subsidential (aupaśamika) disposition is the destructional (kṣāyika) disposition and, among the worldly souls, the right believers of this type are innumerable times more in number than those of the first type. So it is mentioned next. The mixed disposition–destruction-cum-subsidential (kṣāyopaśamika)–is mentioned next as it consists of both. Besides, the right believers of this type are innumerable times more in number than the other two types. The dispositions due to the fruition of karmas–audāyika–and the inherent nature of the soul–pāriṇāmika–are mentioned in the end as these are infinite times more than all the other types.

The subsidential (aupaśamika) and the destructional (kṣāyika) dispositions (bhāva) arise only in case of the potential (bhavya) souls; the potential (bhavya) souls are those having the inherent capacity for liberation. But the third–mixed disposition of destruction-cum-subsidential (kṣāyopaśamika)–arises in case of the non-potential (abhavya) souls too; the non-potential (abhavya) souls are those not having the inherent capacity for liberation. The last two dispositions (bhāva) arise in case of the potential (bhavya) as well as the non-potential (abhavya) souls.

The first four dispositions (bhāva) have been mentioned primarily on the basis of their instrumental causes (nimitta) and the last on the basis of the inherent capacity (yogyatā) of the soul. All worldly activities are divided on these two bases–the instrumental cause and the inherent capacity. Sometimes the instrumental cause is predominant and sometimes the inherent capacity. Giving predominance to the instrumental cause, however, does not mean that the cause is the doer (kartā) of the activity. The purpose of such classification is to exhibit clearly the definitive cause of certain activities. Although the activity takes place due to the inherent capacity (yogyatā or upādāna) of the object under consideration, still there is the presence of the hetu or sādhana–in form of logical association (anvaya) and distinction (vyatireka). The presence of such hetu or sādhana is the definitive cause (nimitta) of the activity. The first four dispositions (bhāva)–aupaśamika, kṣāyika, kṣāyopaśamika and audāyika–are, therefore, called ‘naimittika bhāva’.

Do these dispositions (bhāva) or characteristics of a single soul have subdivisions? Yes, these have subdivisions.

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