Trayastrimsha, Trayastriṃśa, Trāyastriṃśa, Trayastrimsa, Trayas-trimsha: 11 definitions



Trayastrimsha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Jainism, Prakrit, Hinduism, Sanskrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Trayastriṃśa and Trāyastriṃśa can be transliterated into English as Trayastrimsa or Trayastrimsha, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

[«previous (T) next»] — Trayastrimsha in Mahayana glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Trāyastriṃśa (त्रायस्त्रिंश) is part of the six groups of Gods inhabiting the Kāmadhātu (the first of the three worlds), according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter 32-34. The six classes of gods of the desire realm (kāmadhātu), attached to the five desirable objects, will fall into the hells (niraya) and be subjected to all the sufferings.

The Trāyastriṃśa gods represents one of the seven destination of rebirths in kāmadhātu, according to chapter XLIX, “[...] another, of pure generosity and morality, honors his father and mother, reveres them (bhadanta) and passionately seeks supremacy (śreṣṭha): he is reborn among the Trāyastriṃśa gods”.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

[«previous (T) next»] — Trayastrimsha in Buddhism glossary
Source: Google Books: Faith & philosophy of Buddhism

They are lower devas of the Kamadhatu who live on dissimilar parts of the mountain at the centre of the world, Sumeru. The Trayastrimsa devas, who live on the peak of Sumeru and are something like the Olympian Gods. Their ruler is Sakra.

Source: WikiPedia: Buddhism

The Trāyastriṃśa (Pāli: Tāvatiṃsa;) heaven is an important world of the devas in Buddhist cosmology. The word trāyastriṃśa is an adjective formed from the numeral trayastriṃśat, "33" and can be translated in English as "belonging to the thirty-three [devas]". It is primarily the name of the second heaven in Buddhist cosmology, and secondarily used of the devas who dwell there.

The Trāyastriṃśa heaven is the second of the heavens of the Kāmadhātu, and the highest of the heavens that maintains a physical connection with the rest of the world. Trāyastriṃśa is located on the peak of Sumeru, the central mountain of the world, at a height of 80,000 yojanas (a height sometimes equated to about 40,000 feet); the total area of the heaven is 80,000 yojanas square. This heaven is therefore comparable to the Greek Olympus in some respects.

According to Vasubandhu, inhabitants of Trāyastriṃśa are each half a krośa tall (about 1500 feet) and live for 1000 years, of which each day is equivalent to 100 years of our world: that is, for a total of 36 million of our years.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

[«previous (T) next»] — Trayastrimsha in Jainism glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

Trāyastriṃśa (त्रायस्त्रिंश) or Trāyastriṃśaka.—One of the ten sub-types of gods (devas), according to Jain cosmology. The occupation of the trāyastriṃśas is to act as ministers or chaplains.

Source: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Trāyastriṃśa (त्रायस्त्रिंश) refers to a group of deities living in the Īśāna heaven, as mentioned in chapter 1.1 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.

Accordingly, as the door-keeper of the Śrīprabha palace said to the previous incarnation of Ṛṣabha:

“Today, O Lord, we are fortunate, having you as our lord. Show favor to us, humble, with your nectar-like glance. O Master, this is the Īśāna-heaven, granting anything wished for, with great and imperishable glory, always the abode of happiness. In that heaven you now adorn the palace Śrīprabha which was gained by your merit. [...] These are the Trāyastriṃśas, O Master, the abode of priest- and ministership. They await your commands. Instruct them at the proper time. [...]”.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 4: The celestial beings (deva)

Trāyastriṃśa (त्रायस्त्रिंश, “minister”) refers to one of the ten grades (ranks) of celestial beings (deva), according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 4.4. These celestial beings (devas, gods) are of four orders /classes” and each class of celestial beings has ten grades (e.g., Trāyastriṃśa).

Who are called ministers (trāyastriṃśa)? The ministers are the elders like parents, teachers or preceptors. They are 33 in number. The ministers (trāyastriṃśa) and the custodians (lokapāla) do not exist in the peripatetic (vyantara) and stellar (jyotiṣī) celestial beings classes.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous (T) next»] — Trayastrimsha in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Trayastriṃśa (त्रयस्त्रिंश).—a. thirty-third.

Trayastriṃśa is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms trayas and triṃśa (त्रिंश).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Trayastriṃśa (त्रयस्त्रिंश).—(compare prec.) = trāy°, q.v., in lists of Buddhist classes of gods: Mahāvastu iii.223.9 (prose, no v.l.); Divyāvadāna 68.12 (prose); 138.19; 367.10; 568.24; Avadāna-śataka 1.5.1 (prose); Suvarṇabhāsottamasūtra 86.9 (prose).

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Trāyastriṃśa (त्रायस्त्रिंश).—(compare Pali tāvatiṃsa, prec., and trayas- tri°), adj. with deva (q.v.) or subst., name of a class of Buddhist gods: Mahāvastu i.31.16 ff.; 40.15; 212.15 = ii.16.4; i.229.15; 262.1; 333.5; ii.163.11; 314.5; °śa- (v.l. °śe) bhavane Mahāvastu iii.302.8; °śe devanikāye iii.302.15; °śāḥ Mahāvyutpatti 3079; Dhar- mas 127. In other texts than Lalitavistara, Mahāvastu, the form trayas° seems more usual, while in Lalitavistara trāya-t° seems regular.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Trayastriṃśa (त्रयस्त्रिंश).—[feminine] ri the thirty-third.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Trayastriṃśa (त्रयस्त्रिंश):—[=trayas-triṃśa] [from trayas > traya] mf(ī)n. the 33rd, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa] ([dual number] ‘the 32nd and 33rd’, [iv, xi])

2) [v.s. ...] (chs. of [Mahābhārata] and, [Rāmāyaṇa])

3) [v.s. ...] + 33 [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa xiii, 5, 4, 12 f.]

4) [v.s. ...] consisting of 33 parts (stoma, sometimes to be supplied), [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā; Atharva-veda; Taittirīya-brāhmaṇa; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Tāṇḍya-brāhmaṇa; Maitrī-upaniṣad]

5) [v.s. ...] numbering 33 (the gods), [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā xx; Atharva-veda; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Śāṅkhāyana-śrauta-sūtra iv]

6) [v.s. ...] celebrated with the śa Stoma, [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra; Śāṅkhāyana-śrauta-sūtra]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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