Tattvartha Sutra (with commentary)

by Vijay K. Jain | 2018 | 130,587 words | ISBN-10: 8193272625 | ISBN-13: 9788193272626

This page describes ten grades of celestial beings which is verse 4.4 of the English translation of the Tattvartha Sutra which represents the essentials of Jainism and Jain dharma and deals with the basics on Karma, Cosmology, Ethics, Celestial beings and Liberation. The Tattvarthasutra is authorative among both Digambara and Shvetambara. This is verse 4 of the chapter The Celestial Beings and includes an extensive commentary.

Verse 4.4 - Ten grades of celestial beings

Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation of Tattvartha sūtra 4.4:

इन्द्रसामानिकत्रायस्त्रिंशपारिषदात्मरक्षलोकपालानीक प्रकीर्णकाभियोग्यकिल्विषिकाश्चैकशः ॥ ४.४ ॥

indrasāmānikatrāyastriṃśapāriṣadātmarakṣalokapālānīka prakīrṇakābhiyogyakilviṣikāścaikaśaḥ || 4.4 ||

There are ten grades in each of these classes of celestial beings, the lord (indra), the equals (sāmānika), the ministers (trāyastriṃśa), the courtiers (pāriṣada), the bodyguards (ātmarakṣa), the police (lokapāla), the army (anīka), the citizens (prakīrṇaka), the servants (ābhiyogya) and the menials (kilviṣika). (4)

Hindi Anvayarth:

अन्वयार्थ: ऊपर कहे हुए चार प्रकार के देवों में हर एक के दश भेद हैं:-1. इन्द्र, 2. सामानिक, 3. त्रायस्त्रिंश, 4. पारिषद्, 5. आत्मरक्ष, 6. लोकपाल, 7. अनीक, 8. प्रकीर्णक, 9. आभियोग्य और 10. किल्विषिक।

Anvayartha: upara kahe hue cara prakara ke devom mem hara eka ke dasha bheda haim:-1. indra, 2. samanika, 3. trayastrimsha, 4. parishad, 5. atmaraksha, 6. lokapala, 7. anika, 8. prakirnaka, 9. abhiyogya aura 10. kilvishika |

Explanation in English from Ācārya Pūjyapāda’s Sarvārthasiddhi:

This sūtra is intended to convey the detailed particulars.

The indra are those who are powerful, being endowed with extraordinary occult powers, not possessed by the others. Those who are equal to the indra in respect of duration of life, energy, attendants, enjoyment, etc., but not with regard to authority and splendour, are the sāmānika. They are great ones like fathers, teachers or preceptors. The trāyastriṃśa are like advisors or priests. They are thirty-three, and hence called ‘trāyastriṃśa’. The pāriṣada are like friends and companions in the court. The ātmarakṣa are like bodyguards. The lokapāla are like the police who protect people and property. The anīka constitute the army of seven divisions, such as infantry. The prakīrṇaka are like the citizens, such as townsfolk and peasants. The ābhiyogya are like servants engaged in serving others in several ways. The kilviṣika are of the lowest rank; those who possess demerit.

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